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are expressly called 'the officers of God's kingdom, Sap. vi. And therefore the school concludes, that any the least irreverence of a King, as to dispute of his judgements, and whether we ought to follow and obey him, sacrilegium dicitur, is justly extended to be called 'sacrilege.' And since all sacrilege is a violation of some thing that is holy, it is evident that the office and person of the King is sacred : sacred, and therefore cannot be violated by the hand, tongue, or heart of any man; that is, by deed, word, or thought : But 'tis God's cause, and he is violated in him. And here Kings may learn if they will, I am sure 'tis fit they should, that those men which are sacrilegious against God and his Church, are for the very neighbourhood of the sin the likeliest men to offer violence to the honour of Princes first, and their persons after.

Secondly, the cause of the Church, in what kind soever it be : be it in the cause of truth, or in the cause of unity, or in the cause of right and means, 'tis God's cause too. And it must needs be so. For Christ and his Church are head and body, Ephes. i. And, therefore, they must needs have one common cause. One cause: And you cannot corrupt the Church in her truth, or persecute her for it, or distract her from her unity, or impoverish and abuse her in her means, but God suffers in the oppression. Nay more, no man can wilfully corrupt the Church in her doctrine, but he would have a false God; nor persecute the profession of the Church, but he would have no God: nor rent the Church into sects, but he would have many Gods : nor make the Church base, but he would pluck God as low, were God as much in his power as the Church is. And, therefore, the

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Church's cause is God's cause. And as Eusebius tells us, when • by Stephen Bishop of Laodicea the state of that church was much hazarded; it, and the means of it, were mightily upheld by God himself. And Elias Cretensis goes full upon it, in the general. 'Tis God's cause, any controversy that he debates against his enemies. Now this ever holds true, in whatsoever the Church suffers for the name of God and Christ. And therefore, if either State or Church will have their cause God's, the State must look their

proceedings be just, and the Church must look their devotions and actions be pious. Else if the State be all in wormwood and injustice, if the Church savour of impunity and irreligion, if either of these threaten either body, neither can call upon God then. For sin is their own and the devil's cause, no cause of God's, who punishes sin ever, but never causes it.

Thirdly, 'Tis God's cause, which is directly against himself, when injustice that he will not, or weakness that he cannot, arise and help are most unworthily, nay blasphemously cast upon him. The very text, you see, calls it no less than blasphemy. And, as St. Basil tells us, 'twas audacter effusa, most audaciously cast into the face of God. But how, I pray? How? Why, they persecuted the Church of Christ with great extremities; and then, because God did not always and in all particulars deliver it, Deum ut infirmum traducebant, they accused God of impotency. Rabshakeh's case before Christ in the flesh: Which of the gods have delivered the nations that serve them, that the Lord should deliver Jerusalem? 2 Kings xvii. Pilate's case to Christ: Have not I power to 'crucify thee, and power to loose thee? St. John xix. Julian's case after Christ : For while

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he raged against the Christians, he turned the contumely upon God, and charged Omnipotence with weakness. So you see the cause of God what it is, and withal that it is many, and but one. Many, in the circumference of his creatures, which fill up the State and the Church; and yet but one, in the point of that indivisible centre, which is himself.

*

-Now all this while, we have almost forgotten, who 'tis that makes this

prayer.

Saint Hierom tells me, and he is not alone in the opinion, the Psalm was David's, and therefore the prayer too. As a prophet, he foresaw the danger; and, as a King, he went on directly to the highest remedy. And though Kings now are not prophets, yet 'tis a great blessing upon any kingdom to have the King a seer so far as is possible: to have him with both eyes open: his right eye open and up to heaven, for God to maintain him; and his other eye downward, but open upon his people, to take care of them, and maintain them with the same support that he hath received from God. And herein, above other nations, we are blessed this day : I say again, 'above other nations;' if we can see our blessing, and be thankful. For the King keeps his eye as steady upon God, as if he had no help below him: and yet at the same time as gracious an eye upon his people to relieve their just grievances, as if he were more ready to help them, than to receive help from them.

Let not your hearts be troubled, neither fear, St. John xiv. Here are two Kings at once at prayer for you, David and your own King. They are up, and calling upon God to arise. For shame, lag not behind God and your King. You have been, and I

go with

hope are, a valiant nation; let nothing dead your spirits, in God's and your country's service: and, if any man drop malignant poison into your ears, pour it back into his own bosom."

“ And, Sir, as you were first up, and summoned the Church to awake, and have sounded an alarm in the ears of your people; not that they should fast and pray, and serve God alone, but

you

into the House of the Lord; so go on to serve your Preserver. Your merit, and the nobleness of your heart, will glue the hearts of your people to you, And your religious care of God's cause and service will make him (I doubt not) arise, and haste to the maintenance of your cause, as of his own. Only in these, and all times of difficulty, be strong and of a good courage ; keep close to the law of the Lord. Be full of counsel, and then resolute to act it. Else, if

you shall not be firm to deliberated counsels, they which are bound to serve you, may seek and find opportunities to serve themselves upon you. This do; and God arise and be with you, as he was with Moses, Josh.i.! This do; and as St. Chrysostom speaks, Aut non habebis inimicum, aut irridebis eum : Either

you shall have no enemy, or you shall be able to scorn him the world over.'

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137

JOHN WILLIAMS,

ARCHBISHOP OF YORK, AND LORD KEEPER.*

[1582—1650.]

THIS eminent man united in his character the divine and the lawyer, and in both capacities deservedly acquired high reputation. The youngest son of Edward Williams, Esq. of Aberconway in Caernarvonshire, where he was born March 25, 1582, he was educated at the public school at Ruthin, and at sixteen years of age admitted of St. John's College, Cambridge. His natural parts were excellent, and his application still more uncommon; for he was of so singularly happy a constitution, that from his youth upward he never required more than three hours' sleep out of the twenty-four, to keep him in perfect health. After taking his successive degrees in arts, he was made Fellow of his College: yet this first piece of preferment was obtained by mandamus from James I. His manner of studying had in it something extremely particular. Esteeming variety almost as refreshing as cessation from labour,

* AUTHORITIES. Hacket's Life of Williams, Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, and Wilson's Life of James I.

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