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stone being laid by Dr. Laud, then Bishop of London, and the fourth by Mr. Jones. In reality, as he was the sole architect, so the design and execution of the work were entrusted entirely to his care; and having reduced the body of it into order and uniformity from the steeple to the western end, he added a magnificent portico,* a piece of architecture not to be parallelled in modern times. The whole was erected at the expense of Charles I., who adorned it also with statues of his royal father and himself.

While he was raising these noble monuments of his fame as an architect, he gave equal proofs of his talent with respect to the machinery employed in masques and interludes, a species of entertainments at that time extremely in vogue. Several of these representations are still extant in the works of Chapman, Davenant, Daniel, and Jonson.† The subject was chosen by the poet, who also of course composed the speeches and the songs; but the invention of the scenes, ornaments, and dresses was consigned

the celebrated Rubens. Prints from it, by Simon Gribelin, appeared in 1724. The late Lord Burlington published, in 1740, a north-west view of the palace, where this pavilion appears in it's

proper place as a part of that palace, in which there is seen a noble circular portico, originally suggested probably (as Stukeley supposes) by that of Stonehenge.

* This portico Mr. Walpole censures, as incongruous with the ancient parts remaining, and giving additional heaviness to his own bad Gothic. At Winchester likewise, by a similar error, he obtruded a screen in the Roman or Grecian taste into the middle of the cathedral. He was by no means successful, indeed, when he attempted Gothic.

+ In Jonson's masque of Judas,' the first scene exhibiting a heil, which blazed and smoked to the roof, probably furnished Milton with the first hint of his Pandæmonium ; as he is, traditionally, said to have been indebted for it to some theatrical representations invented by Inigo Jones.

to Mr. Jones. About the year 1614, occurred a quarrel between him and Jonson, which provoked the latter to ridicule his associate under the character of • Lanthern Leatherhead, a hobby-horse seller,' in his comedy of Bartholomew Fair. And the rupture seems only to have been closed with the poet's death: a few years before which, in 1635, with professional irritability he wrote a virulent and coarse satire, entitled • An Expostulation with Inigo Jones ;' • An Epigram to a Friend;' and also a third, inscribed to · Inigo, Marquis Would-be.'

These sarcasms, however, were not approved at court, as we learn from the following passage in letter from Howell to Jonson: “ I heard

you censured lately at court, that you have lighted too foul upon Sir Inigo, and that you write with a porcupine's quill dipped in too much gall. Excuse me, that I am so free with you; it is because I am yours in no common way of friendship.” But Jónson not attending properly to this hint, his friend addressed to him a second epistle* informing him, that he had lost

* In consequence of this second expostulation, Jonson suppressed his satire. It has been since printed, however, from a manuscript of the late Mr. Vertue, and is inserted in the edition of his works published in 1756, in 7 vols. 8vo. Jones, it appears, had made some attempts in the poetical way, either in the business of masques, or otherwise ; and this intrusion into the poet's province had raised the spleen of old Ben. One principal stroke of ridicule, indeed, bestowed upon Lanthern consists in the title of · Parcel-Poet.' A copy of verses from his pen is published in the Odcombian Banquet' prefixed to

Coryate's Crudities,' in 1611, 4to. beginning

« Odd is the Combe from whence this Cock did come,

That crow'd in Venice ’gainst the skinless Jews, &c.' But it is not worth reprinting.

some ground at court by it; the King, who had so great a judgement in poetry (as in all other things else!) not being pleased therewith.'

In the mean time Mr. Jones, from the encouragement which he received at court, acquired a handsome fortune. * But it was much impaired by losses sustained in consequence of his loyalty; for, as he had shared his royal master's prosperity, so he did not shrink from sharing his misfortunes. Upon the meeting of the Long Parliament in 1640, he was summoned before the House of Peers, on a complaint exhibited against him by the parishioners of St. Gregory's, for damages done to their church in repairing St. Paul's. That church being extremely old, and standing very near to the Cathedral, had been taken down by him, pursuant to the King's direction and an Order of Council, in 1639. In answer to this complaint, he pleaded the general issue; and, when the repairs of the Cathedral were completed in 1642, some part of the remaining materials were by direction of the House of Lords delivered to the complainants toward the rebuilding of the edifice in question. The prosecution, however, involved him in no inconsiderable expense; and as he was both a royalist and a Roman Catholic, in 1646 he paid 5451. for his double delinquency. Both he, and Stone the statuary and architect, as we

* His fee as Surveyor was 8s. 4d. per day, with an allowance of 46l. per ann. for house-rent, beside a clerk and incidental expenses. The Earl of Pembroke says, in some MS. Notes upon

Stonehenge restored,' that “he had 16,0001. per ann. for keeping the King's houses in repair.” This is, probably, exaggerated. Jones built the noble front of Wilton House; and, as Walpole conjectures, some disagreement took place upon that occasion between him and his noble employer.

learn from Walpole, buried their joint stock of ready money in Scotland Yard; but an order having been published to encourage the communicaters of such concealments, and four persons being privy to this transaction, it was taken up, and re-interred in Lambeth Marsh.

Upon the Restoration, Jones was continued in his post by Charles II. But it was then only an empty title, nor did he survive long enough to render it productive. Misfortunes and age put a period to his life at Somerset House, July 21, 1651; and he was buried in the church of St. Bennet's, Paul's Wharf. The monument, erected to his memory, perished in the fire of London.

Inigo Jones was not only the greatest of English architects, but the most eminent of his profession at that time in Europe. He is generally stiled “the British Vitruvius;' and Mr. Webb, who knew him well and was his heir, asserts that his abilities in all human sciences surpassed most of his age.

He had a familiar knowledge of mathematics, and particularly excelled in geometry. Neither was he unacquainted with the two learned languages, Greek and Latin: and Sir Anthony Vandyke used to observe of him, that 'in designing with his pen he was not to be equalled by any great masters of his time for the boldness, softness, sweetness, and sureness of his touches.' * Among the principal works of this great master are the following:

* A collection of them was engraved by Mr. Kent in 2 vols. folio, in 1727, and some smaller designs in 1744. Others were published by Mr. Ware, in 1743, in quarto: and a copy of Palladio's Architecture, with MSS. notes by Jones, is in the library of Worcester College, Oxford.

The Banqueting House, Whitehall: Barber's Hall, in Monkwell-street, London: The New Buildings fronting the gardens, at Somerset House: The church * and piazza of Covent Garden : Lincoln's Inn Fields. This fine square was originally laid out by the masterly hand of Inigo; and it is said, that the sides of it are the exact measure of the great pyramid of Egypt. It was intended to have been completed in an uniform stile; but there were not a sufficient number of people of taste to accomplish so vast a work. The new Quadrangle of St. John's College, Oxford : the Queen's Chapel, St. James's : Shaftesbury House, late the Lying-In Hospital in Aldersgate Street: the garden-front of Wilton House, with some other parts of that noble edifice: the Queen's House at Greenwich : the Grange in Hampshire, the seat of the Earl of Northington: Cashiobury, in Hertfordshire: Gunnersbury, near Brentford, Middlesex: Coleshill, Berks : Cobham Hall, Kent, &c. &c.

* This has, recently, been destroyed by fire.

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