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bolder spirits in their place. And he engaged their confidence, by telling them plainly he did not mean to cozen them with the perplexed terms in his commission, “ to fight for King and Parliament:' for should the King be in the opposite army, he would as soon fire his pistol upon him, as upon another


In the spring of 1643, having settled matters in the six associated counties, Essex, Hertford, Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridge, and Huntingdon, he 'advanced into Lincolnshire; where he restrained the royal garrison at Newark, gave a check to the Earl of Newcastle's troops at Horncastle, and performed various other services. The Scots having been invited into England by the parliament, it was resolved that the army under the Earl of Manchester and Cromwell (now. Lieutenant General of the Horse) should join them before York, which they were then closely investing. This junction was effected, chiefly through the activity of the latter. He most eminently signalised himself, however, at the battle of Marston Moor, fought July 3, 1644, where with his cavalry (commonly called · Iron-sides') he recovered the day from Prince Rupert, after it had been lost by Manchester, Fairfax, and Leven.* He, now, became the general theme of conversation ; but, as he was greatly envied by his brother-officers, it was not yet his time to aim at the chief command. The Earls of Essex and Manchester were his most powerful adversaries :

* In the second battle of Newbury, September 7, in the same year, he is said to have made so bold a charge upon the royal guards, that the King's person would have been in the utmost danger, if the old Earl of Cleveland' had not preserved his master's liberty at the expense of his own.

the latter, in particular, having been charged by him with cowardice, had vowed his destruction ; yet such was his hold upon the good opinion of the Commons, that after a very bold speech of his in the House, it was resolved to new-model the army, and to pass · The Self-Denying Ordinance,' by which all members of parliament were excluded from civil and military employments; and the Earls of Essex and Manchester, with several other general officers, were in consequence dismissed.

Sir Thomas Fairfax was now appointed Commander in Chief; and, by a strange evasion of their own law, Cromwell's senatorial services were dispensed with, that he might co-operate with Fairfax, under whom he was speedily appointed Lieutenant General of the army. He did not remain a single day inactive, but in his way to the main army at Gainsborough defeated the Earl of Northampton and Lord Goring, and made himself master of Blechington House. By the historians of the civil war it is observed, that though Fairfax had the chief command in title and appearance, Cromwell was in fact the acting General. The former possessed great personal valour, and was indefatigably diligent; but he wanted genius and foresight. Nothing, therefore, could be more fortunate for the parliament, than the strict friendship which bound him to Cromwell : so sensible, indeed, were the royalists of this, that they made several attempts to foment a misunderstanding between them, but in vain.

Cromwell had not long joined the main army before the decisive battle of Naseby was fought (June 14, 1645) the success of which, as previously at Marston Moor, was chiefly owing to the troops under his personal command : for the King's infantry had routed those opposed to them under Fairfax, and had taken their ordnance; when Cromwell, who had broken the enemy's left wing, flew to their assistance, and recovered the victory. It should not be omitted, that in his despatches to parliament upon this and all other successes of a similar kind, though notoriously owing to his own judgement and intrepidity, he always gave the honour of the day to his principal; which generosity still farther endeared him to the General, and to the whole army. For these services he received 25001. per ann. by a vote of parliament.

His next memorable expedition was against the Club-men, a kind of freebooters, who had formed an army independent of both parties; and, under colour of the example set them by the royalists in the west of England, thought themselves at liberty to subsist by universal rapine. Upon his appearance, the insurrection was totally quelled.

After this service, he joined Fairfax before Bristol, and by his advice a general assault was made with such fury, that Prince Rupert, dreading a second, surrendered, for which he was ordered to leave the kingdom. He then took possession successively of the strong castle at the Devizes, the city of Winchester, and several other places of inferior note; assisted Fairfax in the storming of Dartmouth, defeated Lord Hopton at Torrington, and subsequently went in pursuit of Prince Charles, who was at the head of about 5000 horse'and 1000 foot in Cornwall, but on his approach sought refuge in the isles of Scilly, Exeter surrendered soon afterward; and, the west of England being thus entirely subjected to parliament, Cromwell in December, 1646, resumed his seat, and received the thanks of the House for his signal services to his country. At the same time, the King sent no less than ten letters and messages from Ox. ford, offering · to reside with the parliament and to disband his forces, provided his followers might be at liberty to return home and remain unquestioned.' In reply to these applications he was informed, that it would be unsafe for him to return to Westminster, till he had given his consent to the propositions then under deliberation :' and to prevent his making the experiment, the House voted that if he should come, or attempt to come, within the lines of communication, the Committee of the militia of London should have power, and were thereby injoined, to apprehend such as should come with him, to prevent resort unto him, and to secure his person. By the moderate members, particularly Denzil Lord Holles and Sir Philip Stapleton, this message and vote were opposed : but, on the death of Pym and Hampden,* the interest of the Presbyterians had gradually declined; while that of the Independents, of which faction Cromwell was become chief, had by the Self-Denying Ordinance' acquired considerable strength. Though it was now perceived, however, that Cromwell aimed at the generalship, none had yet fathomed his deeper design of getting the King into his power. But from his correspondence with Fairfax, he had learnt that the royal cause was nearly ruined, and he was unwilling that Charles should enter into any treaty with a parliament containing several members, who though they opposed

* la 1643.

his mal-administration, had no evil designs against his dignity.

During these transactions in London, Fairfax was marching with a powerful army to lay siege to Oxford, which was unable to hold out against him. In this unhappy emergency, Charles fatally listened to the advice of Montreuil the French Embassador, and privately repaired to the Scottish army, then lying before Newark; a measure deeply regretted by his remaining friends. In the mean while, the dissensions between the Presbyterians and the Independents increased. The King by the advice of the Scots, who were secretly in the interest of the latter, issued orders to all his garrisons to surrender. Oxford took the lead, and the civil war being thus in a great measure terminated, Fairfax entered London in triumph. A scheme was now concerted by the Presbyterians to disband part of the army, particularly some of the Independent regiments, and to send others over to Ireland. But Cromwell having with his usual address obtained timely notice of their design, through Colonel Ireton his son-in-law, insinuated to the whole army, that 'parliament intended to turn them adrift without paying their arrears, or to consign them in Ireland to the fangs of sickness and famine. Upon which the soldiers determined to claim a share in the government, appointed from their officers a standing council to the General, and selected three or four corporals or serjeants out of each regiment as their representatives, under the title of • Agitators. These councillors and delegates, who met separately, concurred in declaring, · That they would not be disbanded till their full arrears were discharged, and till complete provision was made for

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