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effected was the establishment of good government We have no reason, as we remarked, for conclud. in the States of the Church, and not simply the ing that the measures recently adopted at Rome restoration of an ecclesiastical prince to the chair express anything but the deliberate conception enof St. Peter.
tertained by the pontiff of his own privileges and Acting, we are inclined to believe, as much on opportunities. There is, however, a remedy forhis own mere motive as the instance of others, tunately at hand against such excesses of power. Pope Pius has already replaced the most odious | Pope Pius, if unsupported by foreign arms, will machinery of the old Papal government, with speedily be taught, by the undismayed resolution every circumstance of abruptness and injury. As of the Roman people, to what point his dominion if for the purpose of bringing two extremes into legitimately extends; and if, on the other hand, suggestive contrast, he has superseded Mazzini's the arms of foreigners are still employed in his triumvirate by one of his own nomination, and protection, he can only govern in conformity with has apparently left these commissioners of sover-that power on whose protection he depends. The eignty in the unfettered exercise of discretionary ministry of the French republic has openly expower. They have proceeded accordingly to the pressed upon this point opinions wholly irreconenactment of every ordinance which could insult cilable with the recent ordinances of Gaeta. In the gentry, aggravate the middle class, infuriate these opinions they will be confirmed by the feelthe populace, and alienate the provincial munici- ings of the French people, and they must be well palities. Pope Pius has been the first to supply aware that, even if their predilections took another by his own conduct a proof that the Roman people direction, it would be scarcely practicable for a were really unanimous, and that with sound rea- power so circumstanced in its foreign relations as son, in desiring a change of government. France to provide for the permanent maintenance
It has hitherto been plausibly argued that the of a Pope in his own capital by force of arms. acts of the democratic triumvirate were not the If such a Guelph faction were once established, acts of the people of Rome, but the measures the old Ghibelline antagonism would not long be adopted by the restored pontiff are well calculated wanting. to assure the world that all must have stood alike All things however concur, at present, in sugin their opposition, since all are subjected to the gesting a different solution of the problem. Exsame retributive penalties. Pius IX. has not cepting the court of Naples, whose incapacity of chosen to throw himself on the good will, the service in the hour of danger has been practically good sense, the affection, or the generosity of any shown, there exists no state whose opinions or inone class of his subjects. He has kept himself terests are involved in supporting the extravagant aloof from his kingdom ; has garrisoned his cap- claims of the Pope and his cardinals. M. de ital with foreign bayonets, and has commissioned Tocqueville disavowed any such intentions on the a triumvirate, whose very names are symbolical part of his own government, and the French solof misgovernment and tyranny, to dispose of the diery, whose demeanor, under existing circumliberties and fortunes of his people, while he dis- stances, partakes of a certain independence of exports himself in the pleasures of a congratulatory pression, have evinced a decided leaning toward
the cause of the citizens among whom they are It has been sometimes said that the effective now quartered. Austria has not been backward reformation of the Papal government must necessa- in a similar declaration of sentiment, and there rily be tantamount to a revolution, and that such remains no power to which the Pope could turn a measure is absolutely incompatible with the for support in his unbecoming and ill-considered temporal power of the head of the church. We hostility to the claims of his people. To such a will not touch upon that assertion at present fur- pitch have his three commissioners carried their ther than to say that it is certainly not for the in- measures of resentful reaction that a fresh outterest of Pope Pins and his consistories to give a break of popular violence was daily anticipated ; practical proof of its correctness. If it can in- and although no such insurrection could be sucdeed, be decided that the good government of the cessful against the present garrison of the city, Roman states is essentially inconsistent with the yet it was by no means certain how far the coöptemporal supremacy of the pontiff, the conclusion eration of this garrison might be counted on, now is not likely to be that the pontiff inust therefore that the merits of the case had been placed clearly be supported by the opinions of Europe in gov- before them. It would, however, be far more in erning ill. Surely it might be conceived that a the interests both of Rome and Europe that Pius Pope, and especially such a Pope as Pius IX. had IX. should be distinctly taught his duties by those once professed himself, could be reconducted to his who have won the right to such remonstrance, capital without indulging in the puerile or vindic- than that Central Italy should again be consigned tive freaks of a Spanish Bourbon ! Yet, if we to the caprices of a democratic faction, under look dispassionately at the decrees which have worse conditions than before. issued from the conclave at Gaeta, we shall be driven to conclude that no restored sovereign ever
DISMEMBERMENT OF HUNGARY. warranted the proverb regarding such characters more completely than this once popular and benev- The English press is unanimous in crying out olent Pope.
against any dismemberment of Hungary, and the
following from the London Herald is a fair repre-week become the creature and tool of Russia, such sentation of the general voice :
considerations force themselves on the attention of
the casual observer. It is because we desire not the dismemberment of the Austrian empire, and should wish to see
From the Spectator, 8 Sept. that einpire great and powerful, that we would press on the other cabinets of Europe the necessity
EUROPEAN NEWS. of now interposing by negotiation-and of endeavoring to secure to Hungary that which is consti
DIPLOMACY preserves its secrecy, tutionally and legally her right. In uttering this now describes the congress of princes at Frankopinion, we adhere to the views which we expressed fort as one " to settle the German question.” seven or eight months ago, antecedently to the We defy any power included within “ Germany” period when the Hungarian cause was encumbered with the help of many mouthing demagogues of
“ seitle” any great section of the European the metropolitan boroughs, and of the great manu
question. The rivalry of Austria and Prussia facturing towns—dernagogues who but repeat the would forbid that, even if states beyond Germany stereotyped articles which we have seen in one were not complicated in the affair — Hungary, daily and three or four weekly journals, and which Venice, Lombardy, and many more.
They may all 'evidently proceed, with a slight variation of patch up the central authority or diet," but phrase—and possibly for some very well understood
they can 6 settle'' othing. Kossuth denounces cause—from the same workshop. That such meetings, or such arguments or articles as have been
Görgey's “shameful ingratitude," and several recently urged and written in favor of Hungary by circumstances strengthen the impression that some of our ultra radicals, and one daily and sev- Görgey surrendered on grounds of policy rather eral weekly prints here, could have in any way sub-than from absolute exhaustion : in other words, served the great cause at issue in Hungary, we Hungary abruptly broke off the war without havmore than doubt. The position of the question is ing been subdued ; she yielded her cannon, but now, however, such that diplomacy may fittingly retains her self-possession ; and her chiefs, on intervene, when the crash of arms and the more noxious babbling of ten-pounders have ceased ; and returning to their Austrian allegiance, become a we trust that Viscount Palmerston and her maj- party within Austria whom it will not be safe to esty's ministers will lose not a moment in coöperal- dispose of by any congress of princes at Frankiug with the French government, in urging on the fort. The Emperor of Russia is at Warsaw, cabinet of Vienna the long neglected truth, that by lavishing honors upon Prince Paskiewicz, the acting in a legal and constitutional spirit towards recipient of Görgey’s semi-voluntary surrender ; Hungary, that kingdom may be won back to a and the imperial letters are couched in terms of loyalty and enthusiasm such as prevailed in the candid and deep-felt gratitude,” which attest time of Maria Theresa. Nothing but such a course as this can pacify Hungary, save Austria, or secure
the previous solicitude. Venice yields unvantranquillity for any length of time in Europe. quished in spirit; on the contrary, she has learned
The moment appears opportune for peace and to know that a spirit which was thought to be reconciliation ; for though Hungary has learned her drowned in the lagunes still dwells in the Queen own strength, and Austria her own weakness, in of the Adriatic. "A congress to settle the Gerlate encounters, yet the best and most enlightened
man question" must fail for insufficiency of aumen, both in Austria and Hungary, feel that a great and enduring empire can only exist by an in- thority, of power, and of the locus standi. Its
to "the timate union of the two kingdoms—by the union of success might be mischievous even the empire of Austria with the kingdom of Hungary. princes” concerned, since it might tend to superThis being so, we trust the constitutional Emperor sede the European Congress which is so much of Austria will henceforth act and feel as though needed. he were King of Hungary, and king on the con- Certain portents make is suppose that such an dition of respecting the laws and constitution of the idea is not yet abandoned among the secret counMagyars. if the obligations which Austria has incurred to Russia could by any manner of means
cils of diplomacy. The friends of the royal classinterpose an obstacle to this great duty of the Aus- es are busy in keeping their merits before the trian emperor and his cabinet, such obligations public : “A Legitimist" describes the Comte de would become a European calamity, disturbing the Chambord, of “poble” countenance, balance of power, interfering with the volition of an exalted” mind ; an Orleanist describes the ingeneinpire, and the happiness and constitutional rights uous patriotism of Louis Philippe; a Bonapartist, of a dependency. But we trust that Russia will now see fit to withdraw her armies from Hungary, orally advertises his own qualities as a legitimist
namely, the Prince-President Louis Napoleon, and by her wise counsels prove a' disinterested friend, and not a dangerous ally. It is impossible, and conservative! All these parties speak as if however, to conceal from ourselves or others the their merits were under some critical consideradangerous precedent that has been created by this tion. There is a talk in Paris of revising the Muscovite interference, and the large margin which Constitution of 1848-—which could hardly be done such interference gives to Russia to intrigue in without some countenance from without. Austria, in Hungary, in the Danubian principalities, and even in Turkey itself. If there were a of 1850, if it be held, will be no new conspiracy
It is to be hoped, however, that the congress wise or honest government in France-or an able president-such aspects of the subject might be in of the princes to parcel out Europe among thema great degree disregarded. But with a Louis Na- selves and their adherents. Princes and diplopoleon Bonaparte president, who may within a matists are liable to a sort of judicial ignorance,
THE COMFORTABLE STATE OF EUROPE.
which makes them refuse to see much; the information presented for their use, specially winnowed
To the Editor of the “ Examiner :" from the chaff with which it is found in journals and public report, is also inperfect, and often Europe is now in that comfortable state in which spoiled by tampering ; and the training of royal all men in power, whatever their politics or their or official people often makes them at the mercy, countries, wish to see her. Everything is settled ; not only of defective information, but also of de- no commotion, no demonstration. The most specfective informability. This ignorance might lead ulative and the most ardent must alike acknowledge a congress terribly astray, if effective steps were that it is too late for interference or for intercesnot taken to ascertain the necessities and opportu- sion. The master and arbiter of Europe sees nities of the time. It is desirable to reëstablish Austria, Prussia, Sweden, Denmark, Turkey, governing power within the states of Europe; but crouching at his feet, and France become his swordin order that it may be a valid power, strong to bearer.' Forty years ago the nations had little rule and to endure, it should possess all the mod- comparatively to fear from Bonaparte. His rashCrn aids and appliances of political power, includ- ness and cupidity were the harbingers of his overing popular sanction.
throw. But Russia is guided systematically by
watchful and thoughtful, prompt and energetic, SWITZERLAND.—The fact of an intended inter- ministers. Every step of hers is considerate and vention by Russia, Austria, and Prussia, in Swit- firm, is short and sure ; she is exhausted by no zerland, is certified by an apologetic and explana- hasty strides, she is enfeebled by no idle aspiratory article in the Paris Assemblée Nationale, tions. France believes it to be her interest, and paper habitually receiving inspirations from the fancies it to be in her power, to divide the world absolutist courts. The Morning Post vouches with her ; and if two such nations, with ambition the rumor of Swiss invasion as containing more in accord, are resolved on it, what power upon truth than many late rumors, and states that earth can effectually interpose? It was the proj
some Austrian troops have absolutely marched.”' ect of Napoleon to form a western and permit an The following is the Assemblée's article :- eastern empire. He imagined the will could do
everything ; but no two natures are so distinct as Some French, Belgian, and German journals of the wilful and the wise. Never had man a quicker the Rhine, have been giving for the last few days sight than Napoleon on the field of battle, or a the incredible intelligence that the great powers shorter in the cabinet. His fully, and not our had decided amongst themselves on the partition of Switzerland, on the foundation of the several wisdom, saved us. What are we now to do? nationalities that compose it. We are in a position Russia has already crushed and subjugated the to affirm that such an absurd idea never entered the bravest, the most free, the most high-minded people thoughts of European statesmen. No doubt, the on the continent; France has thrown Italy back journals which publish it desire to deprive the Eu- into the grasp of Austria ; the Germans hammer ropean intervention in Switzerland of its real mean- out and lay down laws, for troops of royal horse ing. This meaning we will explain. A partition would be odious, and contrary to
to ride over ; England is laden with insolvable treaties; and what is required, on the contrary, is debts and unserviceable steam-boats.
Perhaps a return to the letter of these very treaties. The there may, however, be time enough left her to fundamental conventions of Switzerland recognize counteract that power which she alone has been the independence of the small as well as the large able to contend with, and lately might have coerced. cantons : now demagogues have destroyed the lib- France is neither able nor willing to stand up erty of the smaller cantons, and this state of things against that Colossus which strides from Archangel cannot be allowed to exist. By treaties, the authority of the King of Prussia over Neufchatel is to Ormuz, over the snows of the Balkan, and over recognized ; now that sovereignty must be
the sand banks of the Persian Gulf. England, by
proclaimed anew. No principle of international right timely assistance to the Hungarians, would have can authorize Switzerland to become the receptacle saved Turkey and secured Egypt. Neither the of all the refugees of Europe, in such a way as Turks nor the Hungarians can look forward with will allow the agents of permanent conspiracies to confidence to another such opportunity. An Engbe directed at will towards Germany, France, or lish fleet in the Black Sea, at the invocation of the Italy. This state of things must cease. Austria thinks it necessary, in the interest of the special Turks, would have resuscitated the Circassians safety of the Lombardo-Venetian territory, to occu- and the Polanders. Engaged with every dispospy that part of the canton of Tessin which stretch- able regiment against Hungary and Transylvania, es to the St. Gothard. This prctension may be con- the formidable monster of the north could have tested, for it is not in the treatics ; but in this Aus- made vestigia nulla retrorsum; it must have perished tria is supported by Russia. Such is the real state in the pitfall
. A long series of future wars might of the Swiss question. Nothing more is required on one or the other hand ; but we think we are in thus have been prevented. Before two years are a position to know that, in order to reach these over, we must inevitably be engaged in one most ends, the powers are decided to llow the same formidable ; one entered into, not for the interests system of firmness and resolution that they have of our commerce, not for the defence of our allies, followed in the sad affairs of Italy and Hungary. not for the maintenance of our treaties, not for
sympathy with that brave nation now trampled on,
the nation which bears the nearest affinity to us, suming it, begins at the top ; and that, by cutting in fortitude, constancy, and integrity, nor for our off this top in time, the sustenance of millions is prerogative and preëminence, but (what has never secured.
WALTER SAVAGE LANDOR. been the case these many ages) for our homes and August 31. lives. Vainly is it asserted that Russia can never hurt us, although it may indeed be conceded that At the late Peace Congress in Paris, a letter she alone could never. But if Napoleon, in the from Mr. Samuel Gurney to Mr. Joseph Sturge blindness of his fury, had not attacked her where was referred to ; it has been published, and its alone she was invulnerable, we should not at the facts are seen to have been the foundation of efpresent hour be arguing on inoral duty and politi- fective parts of one of Mr. Cobden's speeches. cal expediency. Regiments of French cavalry The position of Mr. Gurney, as head of one of would have been sounding the bugle in
the greatest banking houses in Europe, gives
every and every hamlet of our land.
weight to his opinions on subjects of finance. Virtuous men,
American and English, sigh after He thus discloses them to his friend peace in the streets of Paris !
Now they are so Permit me to call thy attention to the standing far on the road, let them proceed to Gaeta and con- armies and navies of the nations of Europe. I vert the Pope to Protestantism. There never can trust the congress will come to some strong resobe universal peace, nor even general peace long lution on the subject. The argument that one together, while threescore families stand forth on
nation must pursue the practice because another the high grounds of Europe, and command a hun- does, is fallaciou8 ; mutual agreement to the condred millions to pour out their blood and earnings, in it. I venture to throw before thee, however,
trary destroys the argument, if there be any force whereon to float enormous bulks of empty digni- some considerations on the subject, on grounds unties. Nor is it probable, nor is it reasonable, that doubtedly political, but certainly consistent with young men, educated for the army and navy, should Christian propriety. In round numbers, I presume be reduced to poverty and inactivity. No breast that not far short of 2,000,000 of the inhabitants in which there is a spark of honor would suffer of Europe, in the prime and strength of their lives, this rank injustice, nor would any prudent man, labor, and are made consumers only of the good
have been abstracted from useful and productive however mercantile and mercenary, venture to pro- gifts of the Almighty and of national wealth. pose it. The navy and army are the cotton-mills The cost of the maintenance of these armies and and spinning-jennies of aristocracy, which she will navies cannot be very much less than two hundred shut up and abandon the very day Mr. Cobden and millions of pounds sterling per annum, taking into Company shut up and abandon theirs. Enough consideration the subject in all its collateral bearwas there of folly to choose France for the school- ings , at least, it must amount to an enormous sum. room of order, equity, and peace.
Does not this view of the subject in a large degree
A Frenchman is patient under the ferule, if the stroke falls hard, tress, and sin, which at present pervade many of
expose the cause of such masses of poverty, disbut is always ready to filch and fib again, and play the districts of Europe ?' Is not such the legitiwith fire, and to kick his master the moment he mate result of so vast a waste of labor, food, and turns his back and suspends the chastisement. wealth? Moreover, I venture to give it as my Blond is as necessary to him as to a weasel. He decided judgment-judgment formed upon some may dip his whiskers in milk; but with a rapid knowledge of monetary matters—that unless the and impatient motion he shakes his head and
nations of Europe adopt an opposite system in this
respect, many of them will inevitably become throws it off again. A way he goes, under the bankrupt, and will have to bear the disgrace and impulse of his nature, and washes out his disgrace evils of such a catastrophe. I could particularize in his own element. Scarves and speeches may the financial state of many of these nations, but fly about the dinner-table, but drums and fifes are will confine myself to those of France and Engthe first things listened to in the morning. The land. Of the former I speak with great delicacy, people of France will presently have enough of seeing the generous seception she has given to the this enjoyment. Two thunder-clouds so heavy and welfare, I should rejoice to see her take possession
congress ; but, deeply interested as I am in her vast as are now impending in opposite directions of the benefits and prosperities that must arise to on the horizon, cannot turn back ; the world will her in a financial point of view, as well as in other be shaken to its foundations whether they collide respects, by adopting an opposite course to that or coalesce. Could nothing have obviated and dis- which she has bitherto done in respect of military sipated these portents ! Loudly did I denounce to establishments. I acknowledge I treinhle for her the “ Examiner," long ago, when the King of if she persists in the plan hitherto pursued. In Prussia said he would march at the head of his that it is my judgment that, unless she wholly al
respect of my own country, I more boldly assert, army to resist the Russians, the perfidy of this ters her course in these respects, bankruptcy will man, and the certainty that he was conspiring with ultimately be the result. We have spent from fifthe two emperors against the freedom of Germany. teen to twenty millions sterling per annum for warIt was easy at that time to seize and banish him; like purposes since the peace of 1815. Had that and, since he had broken his own compact between money been applied to the discharge of the national king and people, it was just.
Nations will soon
debt, by this time it would have been nearly annilearn parables. Somebody will show them a sisted in, and no reduction of our national debt take
hilated; but if our military expenditure be pervegetable by which they were long supported; place, at a period of our history certainly characwill show them that the distemper, which is con- | terized by very fair prosperity and general political
calm, how is it to be expected that the amount of were difficult, but Louis Napoleon might have done revenue will be maintained in a time of adversity, either one or the other. But alas ! neither glory which we must from time to time anticipate in our future history? Should such adversity come upon
nor economy is forthcoming. The Roman canius, I venture to predict that our revenue will not paign is not rich in laurels ; and the gendarmerie be maintained, nor the dividends paid, unless more now engaged in collecting the arrears of the foriyeificient steps be taken to prevent such a catastrophe five centimes additional taxation, are not very likely in these days of prosperity and peace.
to augment the preference of an imperial to a
republican régime. Shabbiness has characterized the treatment of France is now, in fact, in the position of a ship the Italians by France and England; the conduct with sails and rigging that have opposite directions, of France being the more flagrant, of England and aspire to lift it out of the water.
These are the more mean. Not only did France swindle the monarchic tendencies of the country's upper the Romans out of their revolution, but official classes. But the ballast in the hold is a popular men in Paris took pains to misrepresent the con- and a republican mass, never more powerful than duct of the Roman leaders. Thus, the rash Les- when motionless. It secures the steadiness and seps had described Mazzini in unfavorable terms, safety of the vessel, and to get rid of it would be not knowing the man; and M. de Falloux did not instantly to sink her. scruple to make public use of this letter, although There is nothing left therefore for Louis Napothe same writer, on a better knowledge, had cor- leon, but to act quietly the part of president for rected that portraiture. The Italian leaders, es- three years, and take his chance afterwards for pecially if we consider their difficulties, have what national gratitude may bestow. Already any shown a far higher and abler spirit in the conduct effort of his, in imitation of his great uncle, to of affairs than statesmen in more powerful coun- snatch at a crown, or at permanence of power, tries. Yet not a word of hearty acknowledginent would awaken the hostility and opposition which has been uttered by English statesmen who have at present slumber. To this conclusion, indeed, been ready enough to reëcho the disparagements the president and his friends seem to have come ; of past days. And the whig governor of Malta compelled to it by the cold and doubtful reception has introduced the innovation of refusing British which, notwithstanding the panegyrics of his jourhospitality to political refugees. The British nals, he has received in many places. public prosesses to repudiate and detest such con- It is certainly among the many singularities of duct, and, in default of more substantial testimony that inexplicable country, that a president elected to its own generous feeling, will pass abundant by such an overwhelming majority should neverthe“ resolutions" to that effect; of course the re- less be obliged to select his government and his spected public will rejoice to perceive, by the ad-chief ministers from the ranks of the very party vertisement which appears in another page of this opposed to him in the presidential election. Dujournal, that a committee has been appointed to faure, the leading man of Cavaignac's cabinet, and collect an “ Italian Refugee Fund.” By means of he who most strenuously supported Cavaignac's this fund the English public can pay its spontane- candidature, is now the leading man of Louis Naous tribute to humanity and justice.--Spectator, poleon's cabinet. It is not found possible or pru8 Sept.
dent to replace him. This alone is a striking
proof of the power and weight of the republican From the Examiner, 8 Sept.
principle, and of its forming, in fact, the indisLOUIS NAPOLEON'S POSITION.
pensable ballast of the state for the time being. Louis NAPOLEON's provincial tours have not If Louis Napoleon could have any chance of been very successful. Not that the French Presi- maintaining his power, and prolonging it beyond dent has committed any blunders. On the con- his term of three years, it would be evidently by trary, his allocations and responses have been rather his avoiding anything like a dynastic policy, or a felicitous ; even when the addresses to which he sacrifice of national interests to family ones. An replied were awkward and unwelcome. But, con- alliance with Russia, or subservience to it by royal sidered as fishing excursions to get bites for the or imperial marriage, would so instantly and so imperial crown, the president's journeys have not plainly betray this, that what the president would turned out as his friends expected. The territorial gain in courts by such an alliance, he would lose grandees are, in fact, legitimists. The commercial in the to him far more important place of the elecgrandees are Orleanists. The populace of towns toral urn. We are not therefore surprised to hear are red republican. No doubt the great mass of the rumor of the marriage denied, and that all the French population are not included in these reports of a premature revision of the constitution three categories ; and the great mass it was, being are dying away. neither the high nor the low, who elected Louis This bodes well for Switzerland, for Turkey, Napoleon. But has he kept their affections, and and even for Rome. At least it makes out plainly rendered them either more firm in his behalf, or that the policy of Louis Napoleon and his cabinet more enthusiastic? We doubt it. The argu-cannot yet be that of the tools of a new holy alliments with which to win these masses were either ance. those of glory or of economy, those that appeal Of course it is the foreign policy of the French either to the pride or the pocket. To du both cabinet that chiefly concerns us. Its domestic ad