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ment, who were teaching that as a woman brought the child, naturally led to more thought, more con in death, so a woman was to bring in life ;—that as templation, more affection, and finally more devoa woman brought in sin, so a woman was to bring tion for the mother ; that when one thinks of all in holiness ;—that as Eve brought in damnation, so the little scenes of His childhood, dwells on the Mary was to bring in salvation ; and that the effect little incidents of interest between the child Jesus of this opinion was largely to increase the rever- and the mother Mary, recollects that she had him ence and worship given to the Virgin Mary. enshrined in her womb, that she used to lead him
I said that I had read something of the kind, and by the hand, that she had listened to all his innoalso that I had seen a sort of parallel in some of cent prattle, that she had observed the opening of the fathers on the subject, but that it did not go so his mind ; and that during all those days of his far as the modern opinion. But in order not to happy childhood she, and she alone of all the misunderstand him, and to prevent any mistake as world, knew that little child whom she bore in her to his views, I asked whether I was to understand womb, and nursed at her breasts, and fondled in her him as implying, that as we regard Eve as the first arms, was her God—that when a man thinks, and sinner, so we are to regard Mary as the first Sa- habitually thinks, of all this, the natural result is viour, one as the author of sin, and the other as that his affections will be more drawn out, and his the author of the remedy.
feelings of devotion more elevated, towards Mary. He replied that such was precisely the view he And he concluded by stating that this habit of wished to express, and he added, that it was taught mind was becoming more general, and that it was by St. Alphonso de Liguori, and was a growing to it that he would attribute the great increase that opinion. (pp. 43, 44.)
late years had witnessed in the devotion to the Vir
gin Mary. (pp. 45–47.) And when Mr. Seymour remarked, that, from his observations on the devotions of the Italians, A practical illustration of this devotion was he felt that “the religion of Italy ought to be voluntarily given by one of Mr. Seymour's Jesuit called the religion of Mary rather than the religion visitors, in an account of his own conduct towards of Christ,” the answer, “ made with perfect ease a poor Protestant, to whom he was called in when and entire frankness," was
almost in the agonies of death. Mr. Seymour
thus reports his statement :That my impression was very natural ; that such was really the appearance of things; that coming He then told the circumstances with much simfrom Germany, where Christ on the cross was the plicity; that the man was dying—that he had no ordinary object of veneration, into Italy, where the relatives near him—that one of his companions had Virgin Mary was the universal object of reverence, talked much to him about sending for a priestit was no more than natural such an impression that he had never avowed anything on the subject should have been created ; that such an impression of religion or of a priest--that as he was nearer was very much the reality of the case; and that, to death, my friend as a priest was at the bedside of his own knowledge, the religion of Italy was lat- the man—that he found him so far gone as to be terly becoming less and less the religion of Christ ; speechless-that he therefore stated to him that he and that “ the devotion to the most Holy Virgin,” would kneel down and offer a prayer for him. His as he called it, was certainly on the increase. words were,“ He was speechless ; so I said I would
I was perfectly startled, not indeed at the state- kneel down and say one of my prayers for him. I ment itself, for it was too palpably true to escape the then immediately knelt down and said the · Hail observation of any one; but that a man, a minister Mary,' the “ Ave Maria.'” of Christianity, should describe such a state of I was perfectly astonished, and could not repress things with the manifest approval he exhibited. the expression of my intense astonishment that at We were shocked.
such a moment, when an immortal soul was passing He perceived this, and then proceeded to justify into eternity—when all, the awful accompaniments himself with an ingenuity and address that laid open of death were around him, he could think of offerthe system, and exhibited the worship of Mary in a ing such a sentence, for prayer it was not, as the new light, at least in a light in which I had never “ Hail Mary!" I repeated ihe words of the “Ave seen it before. He stated, that there was a great Maria,” and asked how it was possible that he had difference in the bent or habit of mind, between no word to offer—no counsel to give—no message English Protestants on one hand, and Italian Ro- of forgiveness to announce—no gospel of salvation manists on the other; that Protestants habitually to preach? how it was possible that, instead of praylet their minds dwell on Christ's teaching, on Christ ing to Christ for forgiveness, praying to the Spirit working miracles, and especially on Christ's suf- for grace, praying to God for salvation, he could fering, bleeding, dying on the cross ; so that, in a only have offered these words of worship to the Protestant mind, the great object was Christ in the Virgin Mary? I was deeply moved at what apmaturity of his manhood ; but that Romanists peared to me a frightful neglect of the eternal habitually dwelt on the childhood of Christ ; not interests of the dying man ; and did not hesitate to on the great events that were wrought in maturity express myself strongly, as to the fearful responsiand manhood, but on those interesting scenes which bility he had incurred. were connected with his childhood. He then went He seemed not to have heard me, as if he was on to say, that this habit of mind led to the great absorbed in his own thoughts, so that my words difference; that as Protestants always dwelt on the were lost on him; and he said with eagerness that suffering and dying Christ, so Christ in a Protes- he had observed, as he knelt and said the " Hail tant mind was always connected with the cross; and Mary!" that the dying man moved his lips as if that as Romanists constantly meditated rather on secretly repeating the words after hiin, for being the childhood of Christ, so Christ in a Romanist's speechless he could not repeat the words openly; mind was usually associated with his mother, the and that he said to the dying man, “ And can you Virgin Mary. He then continued to say that the repeat that prayer after me?" For he said, addressconstant dwelling of the mind in contemplation on ing himself to me, " There is nothing against which
the feelings and prejudices of Protestants are more and shame-praying that he might be brought back strong and enduring than against praying to the to repentance and holiness—when a mother thus Holy Virgin ; so,” he added, " I felt that when the prayed to the blessed Virgin for her son, she finds dying man could join me in that prayer to the Holy that sooner or later her prayer is answered—that Virgin, he must have been very far gone towards her son is brought back repentant and holy; and,
connecting this with the blessed Virgin, who was “ Very far gone, indeed," I replied.
herself a mother and able to sympathize with a “Yes,” he continued, " he seemed to repeat the mother, she recognizes it as the answer of the Virprayer after me, and feeling he must have gone gin to her prayers, and is therefore encouraged to very far towards us, I asked him further whether pray to her again. He continued to say, it was the he could not join our church in all the rest. He same way in praying to other saints. When praying showed by his manner that he could, and that he to them for any particular object, for recovery from wished to be received into our church ; so I heard sickness—for deliverance from any trouble-for the his confession and gave him absolution.”
conversion of a beloved child—or, indeed, for any At this I was on the point of asking my priestly object of prayer generally; when praying thus to friend, whose tone and manner was exultation in a saint for these, it is often found, by experience, its highest degree, how he could hear the con- that the prayer is fulfilled and the object granted, fession of a man who was speechless ? and how a and this experience induces them to pray again and speechless man could utter his confession ? but I again to the saints. (pp. 107, 108.). checked myself on recollecting that, according to He repeated what he had said before on this their canons, he was justified in exhorting the man point expressive of the greater leniency, the gentler to make confession, and then in assuming a con- compassion, and the closer sympathies of Mary ; fession to have been made in such cases, where the adding that he was borne out in such an opinion by person is too far gone to be able to speak : so I was that of the fathers, of whom many were of opinion silent.
that even Christ himself was not so willing to hear He proceeded to say, that, after having thus con- our prayers, and did not hear them so quickly when fessed and absolved the dying inan, there arose a offered simply to himself, as when they were offered doubt as to whether the man had ever been bap- through the blessed Virgin. tized; and though baptism must never be repeated, I felt this was a hideous sentiment, and could yet, as Protestants were very careless in adminis- not forbear to say so, adding that when such opintering baptism, it was felt safe to give conditional ions were circulated by the priesthood, I could no baptism to such converts. It was so customary, he longer feel surprised at the extent, the extravasaid, among the Protestant churches, to baptize with-gance, to which the devotion to Mary had gone in out properly pouring the water on the child, that Rome—that I felt the whole devotional system of there was no certainty that there was a real bap- the Church of Rome, the prayers unceasingly tism; and though they could not think of repeating offered to the Virgin, the innumerable pictures of baptism, yet they always gave conditional baptism, the Virgin, the countless images of the Virgin, the in such cases, to converts. “And in this way,” he many churches dedicated to the Virgin, the uniadded, “ I baptized the man conditionally, and then versal devotion rendered to the Virgin, the manner I had him immediately confirmed, and he received in which all the services and prayers of the church the communion, and then the extreme unction, and and people are impregnated with thoughts of the thus he received almost at once no less than five Virgin-the extent to which in conversation all sacraments !” (pp. 102-104.)
classes went in speaking of the Virgin, all had im
pressed me with the feeling that the religion of This account led to some further conversation Italy ought to be called the religion of the Virgin on the subject of prayers to the Virgin Mary and Mary, and not the religion of Jesus Christ. I added the saints. The following extracts will show its that it was impossible to justify such a state of character :
things. “If,” said I, “ I enter the church of the
Augustines, I see there an image of the Virgin I asked why, on so solemn an occasion as a death- Mary as large as life. Some are decorating her bed, when an immortal soul was about passing into with jewels as votive offerings—some are suspendthe presence of God, why did you pray to the ing pictures around her as memorials of thankfulVirgin Mary instead of praying to Jesus Christ? In ness—some are placing money in a box at her feet common with all Protestants, I would have prayed -some are prostrate in profound devotion before to Jesus Christ, or to God through Jesus Christ. her-some are devoutly kissing her feet and touch
He answered, that it was their opinion—the ing them with their foreheads—some are repeating opinion too of many of the fathers—that God hears the rosary before her, as if acceptable to her-all our prayers more quickly when they are offered through turning their backs upon the consecrated Host, the blessed Virgin, than when offered through any one turning their backs upon that which the priest is else. (pp.105, 106.)
elevating at the high altar, and which he and they I therefore asked, how he supposed those persons, believe to be Jesus Christ himself bodily and visibly whom he regarded as saints in heaven, heard the among them—turning their backs upon Christ, and prayers of men on earth, and how he could justify turning their faces to Mary, practically forsaking the practice of praying to them for this intercession, Christ for Mary, with a prostration the most proassistance, or anything else? (p. 107.)
found before her image-a prostration that was He answered, promptly, that the argument from never surpassed in the days of heathen Rome, and experience was decisive. He then paused for a can never be justified in Christian Rome.' moment, as if recollecting himself, and then went He said, in answer to all this, that for his own on to say that it was the experience of good Catho- part he would not act thus, and that it was not right lics, that when they prayed to the blessed Virgin to judge of the church by the devotion of the ignotheir prayers were answered. Many and many a time, he said, when a godly mother prayed for her My wife then interposed, and said she had witungodly son, who was wandering in the way of sin nessed all this, and was shocked at what seemed to
her to be a most fearful, idolatry; for while the arguments, (see pp. 142–151,) but our limits priest was saying mass and elevating the Host at prevent us from giving any portion of the disone end of the church, and some of the people bow
cussion. ing before it, the image of Mary stood at the other end, and some of the people were in precisely the
An interesting conversation is also recorded same way bowing before it. Some preferred what with the professor of canon law in the same colthey believed to be Christ. Some preferred what lege, with whom Mr. Seymour took the opportuthey regarded as an image of the Virgin.
nity of discussing the important question, in what He replied, with much gentleness, that he never
way, supposing the Pope to be infallible whenprayed to the Virgin of the Augustines—that it was ever he uttered a decision, or issued a bull, ex not a sightly image—that it was really an ugly im- cathedrâ,” we are “ to ascertain a decision ex age, and had never excited his devotion, and in fact he had never prayed before it ; but still he thought cathedrû from a decision non ex cathedrû ;” and it scarcely fair to speak against this devotion to we recommend to our reader's particular attention Mary as exhibited by the more ignorant, inasmuch both the solution of the question given by the proas they had learned its value by experience. Many fessor, and the way in which Mr. Seymour dealt of those, whom we had witnessed there, had no with it ; which will give him, we think, a toleradoubt offered many a prayer to her, and had found bly accurate notion of the sort of foundation which an answer. Many a mother, praying for her child, Roman Catholics have for their faith. had obtained her petition. They were poor people, subject to privations, afflictions, sicknesses, He at once (says Mr. Seymour) met the diffiand they found relief and consolation in going to the culty, and said that it was of very easy solution. blessed Virgin. (pp. 101–113.)
He stated that there were certain requisites, certain I therefore merely asked him, though with all the essentials, which were characteristic of a bull er earnestness which I felt, whether, if attending the cathedrân, and without which it could not be received bed of a dying man, he would feel himself justified as ex cathedrâ, and that these characteristics were in speaking to an inmortal soul, when about to pass very easily ascertained. He added, that these into eternity, and desiring him to fly to Mary—ihat requisites or essentials were seven in number, and in all his doubts and perplexities he was to look to that he feared to weary me by their detail, but that Mary—that in all his fears and terrors he was 10 otherwise he would be happy to enter on them. look to Mary-I asked whether, considering his
I did not fail to express, with all fitting courtesy, responsibility at such a moment, he would address my wishes that he would continue so interesting a a dying man in language that pointed only to the detail ; and I expressed the obligations I should Virgin Mary and made no mention of Jesus Christ? feel for such valuable information, especially as, I then read the following words from the Roman coming from one holding his important position at Breviary : “If the winds of temptation arise, if Rome, it could not but possess much of authority in thou run upon the rocks of tribulation, look to the my eyes, and would be sure to possess the same in star, call upon Mary. If thou art tossed upon the the eyes of others. waves of pride, of ambition, of detraction, of envy, He then proceeded to state, that there was no look to the star, call upon Mary. If anger, or av- real difficulty in ascertaining when and under what arice, or the temptations of the flesh, toss the bark circumstances the decision of the Pope was to be of thy mind, look to Mary. If disturbed with the received as infallible; that there were certain greatness of thy sins, troubled at the defilement of requisites or essentials; and that the presence or thy conscience, affrighted at the horrors of the absence of these would be an adequate test by judgment, thou beginnest to be swallowed up in the which to ascertain the point; that these requisites gulf of sadness, the abyss of despair, think upon or essentials were seven in number, and were all Mary-in dangers, in difficulties, in doubts, think very clear and very easy to be found. He then upon Mary, invoke Mary. Let her not depart from described them in detail. thy mouth, let her not depart from thy heart,” &c. I. It is necessary, in the first place, that, before I asked him solemnly, whether he would use such composing and issuing the bull, the Pope should language, even though sanctioned by his Breviary, have opened a communication with the bishops of in preparing a dying man for the presence of God the universal church—that in such a communicain the eternal world.
tion he should ask their prayers to the Almighty, He replied unhesitatingly that he would, and then that the Holy Spirit might fully and infallibly guide went on to argue that experience justified him—that him so as to make his decision the decision of inexperience proved that the prayers offered to the spiration. He added that by thus previously asking Virgin were heard and answered—that mothers, the prayers of the bishops, he would obtain the praying to her who was herself a mother, with all prayers of the universal church for divine assistance, the sympathies of a mother, were heard and an- before he proceeded to form or publish his decision. swered that such prayers for children, in sin, or in
I asked him how, seeing that there was a necesdanger, or in sickness, were heard and answered ; sity for this previous communication on the part of and it was this practical experience that proved the the Pope with the bishops, how I was to inform great encouragement to the devotion of ourselves to myself that this requisite or essential had really the Virgin Mary. (pp. 124–126.)
been borne in mind ? He merely replied that it was
very easy to be ascertained, and then proceeded to Among the other parties who sought to gain the second particular. Mr. Seymour to the communion of the Church of II. It was necessary, in the second place, that, beRome, was the professor of dogmatic theology at fore issuing the bull containing his decision, the the Collegio Romano, who undertook to prove Pope should carefully seek all possible and desirthat the Church of England is no part of the able information touching the special matter which Church of Christ, because she does not claim to subject of his decision. And that he should be
was under consideration, and which was to be the be infallible. We recommend to the reader's specially careful to possess himself of all available attention the way in which Mr. Seymour met his information from those persons who were residing in the district affected by the opinion called in putation. He smiled, and assured me there was question, and who were found faithful in that dis- not the least difficulty, and went on to the sixth trict, that so the Pope might have all the requisite particular. information for an infallible decision, from the very VI. Another characteristic, he said, was of imdistrict in which the opinion, on which the decision mense importance, indeed more absolutely essential was sought, had its origin or its existence. than any he had as yet named, viz., The matter or
I asked, in reference to this, how I was to be question upon which the decision was to be made, assured that the Pope was thus rightly and fully in- and which was, therefore, to be the subject-matter of formed—that he had sought and obtained the required the bull, must be one touching faith or morals; that information, and was thus capacitated for proceed is, it must concern the purity of faith, or the morality ing to issue the bull? He replied, as before, that of actions. And this necessity arose from the fact, there was not the least difficulty in ascertaining that faith and morality are the matters upon which this, and so passed on to the third particular. infallibility was designed to be exercised, and for
III. He said that a further requisite or essential the preservation of which this infallibility was given was, that the bull should not be formal, but should to the head of the church. be authoritative, and should claim to be authorita- I remarked that this was very reasonable, and tive; that it should be issued not merely as the that I fully acquiesced in it; but that an opinion preopinion or judgment of the Pope, in his mere per- vailed very generally in England, that the Church sonal capacity, but as the decisive and authoritative of Rome had strained “ faith” and “morality,” to judgment of one who was the head of that church, include all matters of fact, even matters of history, which was the mother and mistress of all churches, whenever they seemed to bear upon any question to whom all Christians owed subjection and alle- of "faith” or “ morality;"—that this was pracgiance, and who was the living voice of infallibil- tically illustrated in the celebrated controversy beity, and who, as such, had the power and the au- tween the Jesuits and the Jansenists, where the thority to pronounce infallibly the decision required. point at issue was the mere matter of fact whether
I remarked, that this requisite could be easily the opinions condemned by both parties were really ascertained, as it must necessarily appear on the contained in a specified book. I said that a diffiface of the bull, the only difficulty being to obtain culty might arise in prosecuting our inquiries as a true copy of the bull. He then stated the fourth to whether this essential was there. He seemed particular.
a little annoyed at this allusion, so I begged ho IV. It was again necessary that the bull should would be so kind as to proceed to the seventh parbe promulgated universally; that is, that the bull ticular. should be addressed to all the bishops of the univer- VII. This was the last of the series. He said sal church, in order that through them its decisions it was essential, in the last place, that the Pope might be delivered and made known to all the mem- should be free-perfectly free from all exterior inbers or subjects of the whole church. The Pope was fluence, so as to be under no exterior compulsion the fountain-head of all episcopal jurisdiction, so as or constraint. He stated that the bull or decision that there can be no episcopal jurisdiction but from of Pope Liberius possessed the other essentials, but the Pope; and as episcopacy is the only channel that this one was wanting. That Pope had acted through which every grace flows to the church, so under compulsion—under a fear of his life, and, it is necessary that the bull, containing the decision therefore, as he was not free, his decision could not of the Pope, be addressed to all the bishops of the be regarded as ex cathedrů. That bull thus issued universal church.
was full of error. The Pope, therefore, must be I observed, on this point, that the superscription free from external influence or constraint, in order or title of the bull would at once show whether to his decision being received as infallible. this essential was forthcoming, and I begged the On this I remarked, quietly, that it would be very reverend professor to proceed. He then passed on difficult for me, or for any one in England, to ascerto the fifth requisite.
tain, to anything like moral certainty, whether the V. He stated that another essential was, that the Pope, at the issuing of any bull, was really under bull should be universally received ; that is, should exterior influence, or whether he was perfectly be accepted by all the bishops of the whole church, free. I did not see how it was possible to have and accepted by them as an authoritative and infalli- certainty on such a point. He said, as before, that ble decision—that, after promulgation by the Pope, it there was no real difficulty in this or in any of the should be accepted and promulgated by all the bish- tests he had specified, and merely added that these ops as authoritative and infallible, or at least should several essentials or requisites were the tests by be simply accepted by them without formal promul- which any bull was to be tried. If they existed, gation, or even tacitly permitted by them without then the bull was ex cathedrâ, and was to be reopposition, which is held to be a sufficient accept-ceived as infallible; but if any of them were wantance in a legal sense.
ing, then the bull was not ex cathedrâ, and could I said that this was a point very difficult to be not be recognized otherwise than as fallible. ascertained. I knew not of anything more difficult I felt exceedingly interested in all this detail. It to ascertain with satisfaction, than whether any was the first time I had ever heard of any means given bull was received and promulgated, or sim- by which to test the existence of infallibility. ply received without promulgation, or only per
Hitherto various bulls and decrees had frequently mitted without opposition, in any given country. been cited, and often one was asserted to be infalSome are received in Spain, which are rejected in lible and authoritative, and another fallible and reFrance; and some are received in France, which jected. One Pope with his decisions were urged are rejected in England and Ireland ; and some are on one side, and another Pope with his bulls were rejected in all these, and yet are said to be accepted cited on the opposite ; and between conflicting bulls in Italy ; and the assertions made on all sides upon and opposite decisions, and one bull rescinding a this fact were so contradictory, that I knew nothing former one, and one decision reversing a preceding so difficult to be ascertained to satisfaction. It one; and amidst all this conflict and confusion, I opens out a prodigious sphere of inquiry and dis- ) had never seen or read or heard of any means, by which I could learn when a Pope was fallible and himself and me, who were well read and well versed when he was infallible. I therefore felt considerably in sacred literature ; but it was quite otherwise with interested in the details of the reverend professor men in general, and especially with humble and of canon law, and thanked him warmly for the in- illiterate or ignorant men-in fact, with the great formation he had imparted to me. I asked, however, mass of mankind. For, he argued, with a tone of several questions, anxiously avoiding the appearance great confidence, his whole face lighted up with the of unnecessary cavilling or captiousness, and put- expression of conscious triumph, the Holy Seripting them with the manner of one who rather sought tures are a volume that requires many preliminary further information. My questions referred to the inquiries before it can be received. In the first difficulty which persons like myself, resident in place, it will be necessary for the man to ascertain England, would experience before they could as- ihe authenticity of every separate book, or portion certain whether the Pope had asked for the prayers of the volume. In the next place, it will be necesof the universal church-whether he had sought sary for him to prove the divine inspiration of every and obtained the requisite information—whether part of it. In the third place, the book is written his bull was really received and promulgated univer- in dead languages, and the man must know how to sally, &c.; and I suggested that it was quite pos- understand them, or have them translated. In the sible that other persons in England, simple and un- fourth place, it is a volume that has given rise to learned men, unacquainted with such subjects, and different meanings or interpretations, and the man wholly unable to obtain information on them, might should be able to judge upon these. All these, he feel these inquiries not only difficult but absolutely argued, are preliminary inquiries, which are absoimpossible, and in any case altogether uncertain lutely necessary to be made ; and as the poor and and unsatisfactory. I suggested, also, yet further, ignorant man, the ordinary man, is incapable of that if there was difficulty in ascertaining all these making them and judging on them, so the Holy minute particulars, in reference to any bull that Scriptures can never be a fitting volume for such a might be issued at the present day, the difficulty man to appeal to in matters of religion. must be enhanced a thousand-fold, when the inqui- At this point of our conversation, where he ry concerned some bull that had been issued some seemed most confident and apparently conscious of centuries ago. It becomes not only a moral but a triumph over me, as if he thought no answer could even an absolute impossibility for ordinary men to be returned to his argument, I felt that he had given carry out the inquiry to any satisfactory result. me a prodigious advantage, of which he was wholly
He replied, that all that was necessary for any unaware. It was the very position in which I had man, in such cases, was to go to his bishop-ask the wished to place him, and I could not have led him bishop respecting the bull in question-and the into a line of argument more suited to my purpose. bishop would inform him whether it was ex cathe- I felt in my soul that the Lord had delivered him drû or otherwise. Nothing could be easier. into my hands, and could not but render my thanks
I said that though certainly nothing could be giving in secret to Him, who gave me the opportueasier than such a course, yet that I apprehended nity of dealing effectually with this matter; and I that nothing could be more unsatisfactory to an inwardly prayed that I might be cool and collected, English mind. It proposed to leave the whole and effective in my reply. I hoped most fervently question of the fallibility or infallibility of any that it might have some effect upon his mind. given decision to the word of a bishop, who was I began by stating, that while my own opinion himself fallible, and might be mistaken both as to on the point was a matter of unimportance, yet I the fact and as to the meaning of the bull. It was apprehended his method of argument would be met not usual in England—it did not suit the character in England in a very effective way, at least in such of the English mind, to refer the decision of such a way as I should be unable to answer, unless he historical facts as the Pope's freedom from influence, informed me further than he had as yet done. I the reception of his bulls, &c., to the mere opinion said that the niost ordinary and common-place men of a bishop. Men there would be very apt to think in England would say, that if they forsook the volthemselves quite as good judges as to the matter of ume of the Holy Scriptures for the volume of the fact.
papal bulls—that if they exchanged the Bible for He said that the bishop was the legitimate channel the Bullarium, they could gain no advantage for all communications from the Pope as the Head thereby; for if, as he had said, there was a necesof the Church and Vicar of Christ ; and all doubts sity for a man to ascertain the authenticity of each would at once be removed from the minds of humble book in the Holy Scriptures, before he could avail and sincere men, if they referred it to the bishop. himself of it, then it was no less true that it was
I replied that it would suggest itself to most equally necessary for a man to ascertain the much minds that such a course was merely placing all questioned authenticity of each bull in the Bullatheir faith and hope of salvation on the word of a rium ; that if, as he had alleged, the man must be bishop, a man like themselves, and admitted to be carefully informed by study on the inspiration of the fallible. And I added, that, from my knowledge of sacred volume, before receiving it as his divine the English mind and habit of thinking, men in teacher, there will exist a similar necessity for his England—men of common sense and ordinary judg- being informed by study on the disputed infallibility ment--in most things would prefer turning to the of the papal Bullarium, before receiving it as his Holy Scriptures, and judging for themselves. It infallible instructor ;—that if, as he had averred, would be a most difficult thing to alter their habit the Holy Scriptures were written in the dead lanin this particular. They would prefer comparing guages, and a man must learn to translate them the bull with the Holy Scriptures, and thus learn- before using them, the very same may be averred ing, not the opinion of the bishop, who was but a against the papal bulls, which also are all written man, but the judgment of God in his own word, for in a dead language, and a man must learn to transso they habitually regarded the Holy Scriptures. late them before appealing to them ;—that if, as he
He laughed at me for this, and said that an ap- had argued, the Holy Scriptures have been variously peal to the Scriptures was absurd and impossible. interpreted by various men, and all this variety It might all be very well comparatively for men like must be resolved by every man before he makes the