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no more. About the Augustan period the shape and if the death took place during the year, this of the sarcophagus was changed, and the mum- was immediately cased over, and thus a small mies were not wrapped in the human form, but of pyramid formed. If the king lived a second year, an equal thickness all down, and swathed in a another course of stone or brick was added, and coarsely painted cloth exhibiting portraits of the so on another and another, till, as in the case of deceased.
the Great Pyramid, the solid materials thus piled The cost of these embalmments varied from £4 over the chamber in the rock would suffice for the up to £250, according to the rank in life of the construction of a city. “ The pyramid continued deceased, and the luxury of the coffin and orna- to be increased every year until the death of the
There are specimens still in existence king in whose reign it was erected, fresh courses which contain above 1000 yards of linen, varying being added each year of his life. When the in texture from good calico to superfine cambric. king died, the work of enlargement ceased, and The majority, however, belong to the middle the casing was put on the pyramid. This was classes, and their cost is estimated at £60; but done by filling up the angles of the masonry with calculating them all at the cheapest-namely, smaller stones, and then placing oblong blocks one £4—this would give an annual expense for man- upon another, so as to form steps from the base to ufacture of £666,000. For our own part, how the apex; after which, beginning at the top, and ever, unless the lowest classes were mummified at working downwards, these stones were bevelled the public cost, (which is very improbable,) we do off at the corners, so as to form one uniform angle, not see how even £4 could have been paid for and give a smooth surface to the pyramid, leaving their funeral expenses ; and as Mr. Gliddon re- a perfect triangle. *** Two conclusions will marks that only a single negro mummy has been strike the observer ; first, that a pyramid, being found, although negroes were always very numer- smooth from its base to its summit, was by its ous in Egypt as domestic servants, there must, builders never meant to be reäscended ; secondly, we think, have been a portion of the population that the entrance was hermetically closed, never to allowed to moulder in the usual way. The whole be reöpened ; although its location, to judge by of the revenue arising from this process belonged classical and Arabian traditions of hieroglyphics to the priests, " who were the physicians, apoth- on the exterior, was probably indicated by a royal ecaries, mummy-makers, undertakers, scribes, and tablet, or stele, commemorative of the Pharaoh insextons, and who, besides, leased out the sepulchral terred in each sepulchre. * * * The philosophiexcavations in which the bodies were to repose.” cal deduction from all this is, that the size of the They held also the monopoly of the linen cloth used pyramid is in direct proportion to the length of for wrapping the body, the flax for which was grown the king's reign in which it was constructed, havand manufactured by themselves. The mummies ing been begun at his accession, and finished at made, however, were so strictly the property of his death. Large pyramids indicate long reigns, the purchasers, that a debtor was obliged to give and small pyramids short reigns. The sixty-nine up in pledge to his creditors the remains of his pyramids, therefore, represent some seventy or ancestors ; and if he died insolvent, his next re- eighty kingly generations, (two kings having been lations were held bound, both in honor and law, sometimes buried in the same pyramid,) the last to redeem them.
of which race died before Abraham was born. The pyramids, it is now known, were sepul- Such is the law of pyramidal construction. Of its chres for containing the mummies of the Pharaohs. importance in chronology the reader can judge.” “ As to the epoch of those of Memphis,” says In the Great Pyramid there are several chamMr. Gliddon, “ these were all built between the bers; the Great Hall, the Kings' and Queens' times of Noah and Abraham in the scale of Bib- Chamber, the Well, as it is called, &c.; and lical chronology, and those of Menes, the first there are air-passages communicating from these Pharaoh of Egypt, and the founder of the first with their external surface. The casing-stones dynasty at Memphis, and the thirteenth dynasty were eight tons in weight, but were removed by in collateral Egyptian hieroglyphical chronology. the caliphs, so that the edifice can now be asThus all the Memphite pyramids existed and cended as if by the steps of a stair. There is no were ancient 2000 years before Christ. All the danger either in the ascent or descent; although, pyramids in lower Egypt are 4000 years old ; and in 1831, Mr. James Mayes, an English traveller, taking the pyramid of Mæris, according to Lep- contrived to commit suicide by throwing himself sius' letters, built between 2151 and 2194 years from the summit. hefore Christ, as the last of this series, the remain- The private tombs scattered around the regal der will successively recede to above 5000 years pyramids are full of interest of the same kind ; ago."
being covered with paintings of the manners, cus When a king commenced his reign, a small toms, genealogies, &c., of the ancient Egyptians isolated hill of rock was fixed upon for his tomb, to such an extent, that the antiquary Lepsius and a chamber excavated in it, with a passage promises to write the court journal of the fourth communicating with the surface. Around and Memphitic dynasty, which flourished five thousand over this a course of masonry was built in a four- years ago! “ The manufacture of glass,” Mı. Bided figure, converging at the top, in general of Gliddon tells us, was known in Egypt 2000 limestone, but in four instances of sun-dried brick ; 'years previously to its reported discovery by the
extant of “
Phænicians ; and the decimal system of numera- perfect harmony with the organic laws of the unition, units, tens, hundreds, thousands, and upwards, verse, which can never be violated with impunity, was current in the days of the Pyramids, or 4000 is the ideal goal of advancing civilization. years before the Arabs of Mohammed's era. In London town has outgrown the original resources the tomb of Eimei, architect of the pyramid of of the spot, and is now dangerously and disgraceShoopho, of the fourth dynasty, is an inventory fully ill-watered. The supply is both inadequate of his wealth. There are, amongst other details, in quantity and bad in quality; the badness being “ 835 oxen, 220 cows, with their calves, 2234 of various degrees, from the insidiously unwholegoats, 760 asses, and 974 rams.” The numerals some to the loathsome and fatalin other words, are hieroglyphical ciphers; and the same decimal from slow to rapid poisoning. In order to put system is found in the quarriers' marks on all the this matter in the clearest light, let us briefly conpyramids. Indeed, it became evident that perhaps, sult the natural history of our subject. with the exception of steamboats, electrotypes, Water in its simplest state is a combination Daguerreotypes, the magnetic telegraph, chloro- of oxygen and hydrogen in definite proportions. form, printing-presses, and cotton gunpowder, the When freshly obtained by the contrivances of the arts and sciences were much the same at that chemist, it is insipid and unfit for alimentary purearly period in the Valley of the Nile as at this poses; but on exposure to the air, it quickly imtime in our own country. The drawings of the bibes an additional portion of oxygen, which it trades, as found pictured on the walls in the holds in solution, thereby acquiring a more gratetombs, show the practical sort of people the ful flavor, and a character in the highest degree Egyptians were. Corroborations of the last re- congenial to the animal economy. In this second mark are to be found in the various paintings now state, then, it constitutes the natural standard of
carpenters at work, boat-building, mu- pure potable water ; every decline from which is sicians, poulterers, veterinary surgeons, wine-press-indicated by a proportionate increase in specific ing, brick-making, weaving, ploughing, transport- gravity, evidencing the presence of extraneous ing of columns,”' &c. All these are illustrated matter. Now as water possesses great solvent by, and serve as illustrations of, that sacred lan- powers, it readily becomes impregnated with forguage which, at the end of fifty ages, speaks to eign ingredients. The pure element, distilled in us from the tombs almost as intelligibly as it did the great laboratory of nature, and stored up in the to the priests at a time which could only be known clouds and vapors of the higher regions of the air, to the Jewish patriarchs as an old-world tradition. I descending thence in the form of rain, carries down
Having now run through these lectures-al- with it the gases and the finer particles of solid though not in a cursory manner, for one must bodies suspended in the atmosphere. The fallen piek his steps while traversing such a mass of rain, flowing along the surface of the earth and erudition—we have only to recommend the vol- sinking through its interstices, parts with some ume to the studious reader, as one from which he of these adventitious matters, to enrich the soil will receive as much general information on and speed the work of vegetation ; in exchange Egyptiological science as he could obtain by the for them it again takes up others, such as animal perusal of a variety of more bulky, though not and vegetable remains, and earthy, alkaline, and more learned, productions.
metallic salts. Thus freighted, and often deposit
ing and renewing its freight, it pursues its subFrom the Spectator.
terraneous course, until it again finds vent at some
point where the stratum over which it trickles WATER IN LONDON.
crops out at the earth's surface. The lower that LONDON pines and sickens for want of water ! stratum, the purer in general is the water issuing The paragon of modern cities, the unrivalled from the spring. The water of Artesian wells, metropolis of the mightiest nation of the earth, is being derived from a great depth below the surgrovelling like a Calmuck camp in squalor, stench, face, is preëminent for purity and softness. and unwholesomeness, for want of one of the first The hardness of water is owing to the presence necessaries of life. The fact illustrates a curious of earthy and alkaline salts. A great portion of tendency in civilization to run in some respects a the water used in London labors under this grave cyclical course. Allured by certain natural ad- defect. The consequences are, great waste and vantages of site, and chiefly by the abundance of enhanced cost in washing and culinary processes, water for domestic use and for the purposes of and a long catalogue of bodily sufferings entailed manufacture and transit, men congregate together on the drinkers of the impure beverage. To illusand lay the foundation of great cities. In the lapse trate by contrast the pernicious effects of repeated of ages, as their numbers and their activity in- calcareous drenches, we need only point to the recrease, their own animal exuviæ, and the refuse storative qualities of the Malvern waters. Long matter of the arts which they exercise, become before Priessnitz and hydropathy were heard of, sources of grievous discomfort, vitiaiing the soil, those celebrated springs were resorted to for their the water, and the air. A wise economy will curative powers, especially in diseases of the dithen seek to arrest this deteriorating process, and gestive organs, the kidneys, &c., such as the to recover and preserve for the dwellers in the hard water of London :ends to produce. Now city the primitive bounties of nature. To be in the Malvern waters are not of the mineral class;
they cure, not by means of any medicinal ingre- / same identical dose of agaric wine has been known dients contained in them, but simply by virtue of to make five Tartar tipplers happy one after the their own exceeding purity. Their specific grav- other. It is not speculating too minutely to conity is only 1.002, showing them to be all but de-jecture that in London the same particles of animal void of foreign admixture. There lies beneath sordes or of morbid poison may pass unaltered London, quite accessible and ready to overflow for through the bodies of several human beings sucour use, an inexhaustible lake of water as pure as cessively. that of Malvern ; but we are forbidden to touch it. The grievances we have here set forth are no The sick Londoner, craving for nature's pure cordial new ones. They have been for many years the draught, must gulp down his lime-drugged potion, subject of loud and general remonstrance. Flesh in reverence for the monopoly of the water com- and blood can endure them no longer. There is panies.
nothing to hinder their prompt and entire removal, But there are worse impurities in our daily except the resistance of the water companies on drink than those of which we have yet spoken. the one hand, and on the other the absence of We are paying the companies collectively 340,0001. a power able and willing to enforce the reasonable per annum for the privilege of cooking our food, desire of the community. To do that is the proper sweetening our persons, and washing down our office of the government. If
hazard we posmeals, with a more or less concentrated solution sess a government which is not altogether a sham, of native guano. Excepting the parts of London it will seriously take up this subject at the comsupplied by the New River, the metropolis derives mencement of next session ; only a government its supply of water chiefly from the Thames, just can bring together the needful information on the as in the reign of Henry the Third, when the legal hindrances that obstruct the supply of sweet limpid river still pursued “its silver winding and wholesome water for London and the other way," where now see a great fetid ditch, towns-only a government has power to grapple seething with the putrescent sordes of more than with those obstructions by a sweeping vindication two millions of human beings, and incessantly of public health against private monopoly and local churned by the paddles of steamers rushing about corruption. in every direction to make the infusion more slab and homogeneous. The tyranny of the water
What hast thou to do with Peace? companies entails on this metropolis some of the
2 Kings, ix. 18. horrors of a state of siege, literally compelling its inhabitants to quaff
Childhood! thy wild and frolic hour,
Long as the butterfly's bright race,
As short-lived, and as full of grace;
Will it from future care release? in London, but, for the sake of consistency we
But, what hast thou to do with peace ? suppose, many of these are so situated as to receive the drainings of graveyards. Elsewhere, Maiden of throbbing heart—whose breast wells and cisterns have been constructed in such Hardly for what 't is yearning knows, a manner as to have their contents mingled with Yet, like the polyp, without rest, the overflowings of the adjacent cesspools. The
Its trembling filaments out-throws, frightful mortality by cholera in Albion Terrace,
Oft to be wounded-shrinking oft,
Wearied, but not from search will cease
Thought sits within thy brow sedate,
And busy cares thy bosom throng. an account of certain Tartar tipplings, that bear
Bays that might serve victorious Greece; no remote analogy to our London ways of using Tumultuous joys thou hast, and namewater. From a choice species of mushroom or But what hast thou to do with peace ? agaric the Tartars extract a wine too costly to be within the means of any but the rich ; the poorer
Thou sire, of venerable age, sort, being forced to content themselves with the With sons to take thy heritage,
White-haired ; for counsel rightly sought; generous juice at second-hand, assemble round the
And well-filled chests, for which thou 'st wrought; place where the revels are held ; and we pray our Long have been here thy wanderings, readers to surmise the sort of transformation it is
Thy grandchildren sit on thy knees ; made to undergo before it reaches their lips. Dr. Thou 'rt troubled about many thingsPereira, if we remember rightly, states, in his And what hast thou to do with peace? commentaries on the Materia Medica, that the
expecting him. Years had not conquered Cas
imir's dislike to the surly peasant who had been Years glided on, each summer regularly bring the butt of his childish persecution ; when, thereing the family to Stanoiki, and winter as regularly fore, divers means of attracting the creatures to transporting them to Lemberg. During this time the surface had been resorted to in vain, he exbut little perceptible change took place in the sev-claimed: eral personages of this drama, with the exception “ That dog has again been lying! How dare of Casimir, who was now verging upon nineteen, you, sirrah, look at me thus ? By my honor, I and looking and demeaning himself like a town- think the fellow has a mind to be insolent! bred cavalier. He had, latterly, attended lectures Where are the beavers ?—can none of you say ?” at the Lemberg university ; but a recent duel The peasants looked stolidly at Pavel, who at between a Polish and a German nobleman, occa- length answered, in a voice tremulous with supsioned by difference of opinion, political and pressed emotion : national, which had ended fatally to the former, “Doubtless they are gone into the hollows of had induced many cautious mothers, and among the rocks—it is the way with these animals when them Casimir's, to recall their sons until the first scared.” distemperate heat produced by this affair should “A precious goose-chase we have had of it," have subsided. Casimir had gained but little by said one of the young men, so incensing Casimir his short and irregular attendance at college. The that, turning to Pavel with rage, he cried : only thing he deigned to borrow of the Germans “ If I find that you have deceived me, by all was their smoking propensity; and he was, that is sacred, I'll break every bone in your indeed, seldom now seen without a pipe in his body !" mouth. He was at this time a fair, aristocratic Pavel, with expanding nostrils, flashing eyes, youth, seeming by rapid growth to have somewhat and heaving chest, folded his arms, threw back undermined his strength, with that mingled air of his head, and met sternly the eye of his young indolence and grace which constitute what is com- lord. Casimir, excited beyond the pitch of endurmonly called an elegant person ; but there was ance by this tacit though manifest defiance, grasped about his mouth, already ornamented with an his riding-whip nervously; and the scene might incipient moustache, and in his light gray eyes, a have had a tragic conclusion, had it not been interfeline expression that marred the effect of a coun- rupted by the general cry—"A beaver, a beaver !" tenance which, despite its effeminacy, might have
was Casimir's back turned, than been termed handsome.
Pavel walked off, making the best of his way to The spring of the year 1845 was the first time the village. Casimir's eye, however, was upon that Casimir had visited the estate since his res- him. That he did not call him back was due to no idence at the university. He caine accompanied feeling of kindness or mistrust. For the former by a few of his friends who had proposed to assist he was too much spoiled — for the latter too bold; him in whiling away the tedium of a residence in but he remembered his father's interdiction about the country ; and tedious enough it proved, no this serf, and felt that it would not do to carry ripple stirring the monotonous, calm surface of the things too far; so he let him go, mentally resolvlife at the chateau. Still, one or two incidents ing that when he should be lord of the manor, such occurred during this summer which, however tri- a face as that should not be seen within its bounfling and insignificant to all appearance, assume daries. And Pavel, as he wended his way home, some importance from their connection with after muttered to himself : “ When that young lord
comes to the estate, he must either let me depart, At a considerable distance from the chateau, or there will be war between us !" touching the confines of the domain, there was a War between the vassal and the lord! What dark, desolate-looking pool, surrounded by a mass a history of malignant, merciless hatred on the of rocks so embedded in the sand as to be little one hand—ceaseless persecution, from which there discernible from afar. In this pool Pavel, in his is no escape but in death ; or, on the other, a sursolitary roamings, had traced a colony of beavers, prise in a lone place, a fierce struggle, and an unabundant enough in some parts of Gallicia, though known grave! rare in others. His discovery soon became the But Pavel was not the only one on the estate talk of the village, where it reached the ears of whom Casimir loved to annoy. Instigated by his Duski, who lost no time in communicating the mother's thoughtless remarks, he took it into his intelligence at the chateau. Casimir immediately head that his father did not overlook the peasants determined to visit the spot; and, conceiving him with sufficient care, and began to inquire into the self to be of an age when no paternal commands most minute details connected with them, in a way in trifles should interfere with his will and pleas- that gave rise to a saying among the serfs, that he ure, ordered Pavel to wait for him at the pool, to should have been the steward's son instead of the point out the exact place where the beavers might lord's, showing such an apt disposition for his line be seen.
of business. His mother, with her usual blindHe came, with his young friends, full of eager-ness, called this narrow intermeddling an evincing ness for the sport, riding at a gallop to the spot of an early turn for affairs, whilst his father rewhere Pavel and a few more villagers stood proved it as often as it came under his cognizance.
The count loved his son, but he did not encouragedeed"it's well ; but he who plants another tree those illusions about him which his mother so on this estate is not worthy to call himself a Pole. largely indulged. He saw what was true—that The only relaxation of the slave is the brandy he was not deficient in talent, though it was ren- | bottle. Be it so; but remember this day, and dered of little avail by mismanagement. He now never toil for those who, at best, reap where they put his trust in that great reformer, the world, and have not sown, and destroy where they do not hoped that the lessons of life would correct the choose to reap. evils of a bad education.
But that summer the count himself caused much In the shooting season, neither Casimir nor his discontent on the estate. Many of the peasants friends spared the property of the peasants; and who had attempted to slur over part of their dues, again Pavel was destined to undergo an interview were reminded of them in no gentle manner. Arwith the young man, chance seeming to be as ma-rears in kind were called in with severe exactilicious in this respect as Casimir's will had been tude-pecuniary arrears that had been overlooked formerly. Applying his semi-education to the for many terms were now rigorously claimed ; and doing of everything that came in his way with men who thought by producing musty records to more reflection and method than his companions, prove that their tenure obliged them but to so Pavel had turned a piece of waste-land to account, many days' work gratis, and to supply but a limby converting it into a nursery for fruit-trees-a ited number of teams, were made to feel the nulrare effort in Gallicia, where the cultivation of fruit lity of these documents, and forced to accept what was long neglected, not so much owing to the cli- terms the count or his steward chose to dictate. mate, hard and rough though it be, as to the claims But the chief subject of complaint was at harvestof the lord of the soil upon the produce-a sys- time. On most of the Gallician estates, at this tem which paralyzes all industry, and destroys season of the year, the peasants were entirely at alike hope and energy. Pavel's care and patience their masters' disposal ; and whatever attention had been duly rewarded, and a young orchard was they might have to bestow upon their own landnow shooting forth, the first that had arisen on the be the nature of the work never so pressing—the Stanoiki estate.
risk to their own harvest what it might—they One morning, as he was musing over the increas- must toil incessantly until their masters' grain ing vigor of his young trees, the gamekeepers, was gathered in. Every year, at this period, great accompanied by twenty or thirty peasants, came in discontent prevailed throughout the country; and sight, and advanced directly towards him. The in the autumn of 1845, the peasantry began to men pressed into the service of the battue were all quarrel more seriously than heretofore with the of Pavel's village, and had watched, with a sort exaction of these extra days of labor. The count's of interest, the growth of his saplings; when, serfs, before following the example set them by therefore, they were ordered, in an authoritative those of the neighboring estates, determined to manner, to cut down the plantation, they hesitated, make an appeal to his generosity. They deputed eying Pavel as if they expected some hint from envoys to him, selected from the oldest men on the him in what manner to act. The head game- property ; but they were received with an explokeeper, either seeing something dangerous lurking sion of rage most rare with their master, and sent in Pavel's dark eye, or doubting, in this case, home scared and frightened.' What could not be ready compliance with his orders on the part of claimed as a right, it was now determined to the boors, beat a precipitate retreat, but soon establish by precedent; but the count, who had reäppeared, accompanied by Casimir himself. foreseen this measure, threatened, if it were per
“Again insolent!” said the young count, ap- sisted in, to bring a regiment from Lemberg to proaching Pavel —" what means this? Here is settle the question. a thicket we must have down, and you dare to As the autumn advanced, however, the severity oppose the gamekeeper in his duty ?”
of these exactions suddenly relaxed.
These conPavel smiled bitterly.
trary movements of heightening and lowering “Will you answer when you are spoken to, pressure being simultaneous throughout the several varlet?"
circles of Gallicia, it was obvious that both deno varlet of yours," was the bold pended on more than the mere caprice of the landreply.
lords. Changes, too, in the family arrangements Pavel's friends looked at him approvingly. Not at the chateau were not a little puzzling. There so the young count-could a look have killed, that appeared to be no thought of removing to Lemmoment had been Pavel's last. With a motion of berg for the winter; and, par extraordinaire, the his hand, he directed the peasants to proceed to the countess seemed perfectly resigned to the notion work of demolition, who now hastened to obey, of facing the snows at Stanoiki. No ennui managing, in so doing, to form an effectual screen seemed now to scare away the guests, for the between Pavel and his tormentor, from behind mansion was constantly full ; and many were the which the former retired, unobserved, from the surmises of the servants, the peasants, and even spot ; but his little plantation was mercilessly laid the steward himself, upon the sudden influx of bare.
So numerous, “ It's well," he said, when they next met, to indeed, were they, that the castle being all insufthose who had been compelled to accomplish the ficient to contain them, many flocked to the village
visitors of all kinds and ranks.
66 I am