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1. Wild Sports of the Falklands,

New Monthly Magazine, 2. The Emerson Mania,

English Review, 3. Private Correspondence of George the Third, Bentley's Miscellany, 4. Phonetics,

Fruser s Magazine, 5. Hilurein's History of the United States, New York Tribune, 6. Benzole,

Fraser's Magazine, 7. Cessation of Cholera in London,

London Tines, E. Memoir of Miss Pardoe,

Bentley's Miscellany, 9. Mr. Robert Simpson's Courtship,

Chamber's Journal, 10. Russian and Turkish Treaties,

Brittania, 11. Punch,

New York Independent,
ILLUSTRATION.—John Bull's Plum Pudding, from Punch, 368.
POETRY.-Mother and Child, 366.—The Bells, 383.

337 344 350 356 365 369 373 375 376 381

382

of

ProspectU9.—This work is conducted in the spirit of now becomes every intelligent American to be informed Littell's Museuin of Foreign Literature, (which was favor- of the condition and changes of foreign countries. And ably received by the public for twenty years,) but as it is this not only because of their nearer connection with our twice as large, and appears so often, we not only give selves, but because the nations seem to be hastening spirit and freshness to it by many ihings which were through a rapid process of change, to some new state of excluded by a month's delay, but while thus extending our things, which the merely political prophet cannot compute scope and gathering a greater and more attractive variety, or foresee. are able so to increase the solid and substantial part Geographical Discoveries, the progress of Colonization, our literary, historical, and political harvest, as fully to (which is extending over the whole world,) and Voyages satisfy the wants of the American reader.

and Travels, will be favorite matter for our selections ; The elaborate and stately Essays of the Edinburgh, and, in general, we shall systematically and very fully Quarterly, and other Reviews; and Blackwood's nolle acquaint our readers with the great department of Foreiga criticisms on Poetry, his keen political Commentaries, affairs, without entirely neglecting our own. highly wrought Tales, and vivid descriptions of rural and While we aspire to make the Living Age desirable mountain Scenery; and the contributions to Literature, all who wish io keep themselves informed of the rapid History, and Cominon Life, by the sagacious Spectator, progress of the movement-lo Statesmen, Divines, Lai the sparkling Examiner, the judicious Atheneum, the yers, and Physicians-lo men of busmess and men of busy and industrious Literary Gazette, the sensible and leisure--it is still a stronger object to make it attractive comprehensive Brilannia, the sober and respectable Chris- and useful to their Wives and Children. We believe that tian Observer; these are intermixed with the Military we can thus do some good in our day and generation ; and and Naval reminiscences of the United Service, and with hope to make the work indispensable in every well.in the best articles of the Dublin University, New Monthly, formed family. We say indispensable, because in this Fraser's, Tait's, Ainsworth's, Hood's, and Sporting Mag- day of cheap literature it is not possible to guard against azines, and of Chambers' admirable Journal. We do not the influx of what is bad in taste and vicious in morals, consider it beneath our dignity to borrow wit and wisdom in any other way than by furnishing a sufficient supply from Punch ; and, when we ihink it good enough, make of a healthy character. The mental and moral appelite use of the thunder of The Times. We shall increase our must be gratified. variety by importations from the continent of Europe, and We hope that, by "winnowing the wheat from this from the new growth of the British colonies.

chaff," by providing abundantly for the imagination, and The steamship, has brought Europe, Asia and Africa, by a large collection of Biography, Voyages and Travels, into our neighborhood ; and will greatly multiply our con- History, and more solid matter, we may produce a work nections, as Merchants, Travellers, and Politicians, with which shall be popular, while at the same time it will all narts of the world ; so that much more than ever it I aspire to raise the standard of public taste.

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WASHINGTON, 27 Dec., 1848. Or all the Periodical Journals devoted to literature and science which abound in Europe and in this country, this has appeared to me to be the most useful. It contains indeed the exposition only of the current literature of tho English language, but this by its immense extent and comprehension includes a portraiture of the human mind in the utmost expansion of the present age.

J. Q. ADAMS.

LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.-No. 289.-1 DECEMBER, 1849.

From the Examiner.

will have it, although, like many a civil suit, the

contest may cost her greatly more than her demands. THE PRESIDENTS OF FRANCE AND AMERICA.

She is not to be shuffled off, or brought to a comTo be pacific is as good a reason for French hos- promise, by a minor piece of trickery; the amount tility as to be weak. Italy was so inviting that no of money is not in question. The question is, wonder was excited at French invasion or French whether the Americans are to be treated as ignoperfidy; but there is hardly an example in history miniously and superciliously as the Italians. At of policy so blind and erroneous. Detested as the the head of the United States is a brave, a temperFrench always were by every other people, the ate, a sagacious man; no falsehood of word or deed Italians, always deceived by them, always plun- could ever be objected to him. Americans, I hope, dered, always trampled on and cast off, continued will pardon me in comparing their president (the to look toward them as protectors. Napoleon bar- indignity is unintentional) with the President of tered Italy for a worthless wife ; his nephew gives France. In one we behold the grave, sedate, veraher up for an imperial crown under a papal conse- cious Englishman of England's commonwealth, cration. He conciliated both Austria and Russia animated not indeed by a better spirit, but a spirit by abstaining from the consolidation of freedom moving over vast and discordant populations with throughout all the states of Europe, which might strength to direct their energies and assign their have been effected by the pressure of his foot, by courses; the other without any first principles, any only one step onward. And what has he gained determinate line of conduct, swearing to republicanby this alliance with despotism? The hatred of all ism before the people, abjuring it before the priest free nations, the contempt even of the enslaved, not hood, undermining it at home, battering it down only of those who were reduced to this condition abroad, delighted at transient cheers on a railroad, under his eye and his connivance, but also of the deaf to the distant voice of history, following his wretches born to servitude, the very nails and rivets uncle where the way is tortuous, deviating whero of the chain that now encompasses the globe. it is straight, and stopping in the midst of it to bow

To what a height of glory might the President with equal obsequiousness to the heads of two reliof France have attained if he had sprung up with gions. Symbolical of such a character is the tree her in her ascent toward freedom, if he had seconded of liberty; a tree unsound at root, shrivelled at top, and directed her energies, if he had abstained but shedding its leaves on the laborers who plant it, from falsehood and fraud! History neither will nor and concealing the nakedness of its branches in the can dissemble them; the eternal city bears the eter- futter of the garlarıds that bedizen it. nal testimony. The words of Mazzini are not the Sometimes a preference makes poor amends for words of an angry zealot, but are registered in the a comparison ; but America will pardon me thus archives of every honest heart. He accuses no man weighing a sound president against a hollow one. without the proof of all he utters; and there was a Temperate and strong as she is, she will treat arro time when such an accusation, so confirmed, would gant petulance with calm derision. The resources have driven the delinquent beyond the pale of hon- of France, she well knows, are inadequate to set orable men's society. A bold front and swagger- afloat, with soldiers and stores, any fleet that could ing gait may reduce the cowardly to silence in make an impression. Her soldiers would find no presence of the ferocious ; not an inch further. It field of operations, until by the humanity and muhas been tried of late against the Americans, and nificence of their captors they should be employed with what success? A receiver of stolen goods is in levelling the road to California. Beside, the defended in his roguery by a French envoy. The Americans would rather see them perform an easier French envoy is requested by the American gov- and more voluntary duty. Not only in common ernment to reconsider the propriety of his protec- with the nations of Europe, but infinitely beyond tion; the American government is answered with them, those on the Atlantic see with abhorrence the same insolence as the Roman was on its calm the wrongs and cruelties committed against the and just expostulation. The matter was submitted bravest and longest free of any on our continent. by the American government to the French cabinet. Europe and Asia rise up simultaneously from a The French cabinet defends at once both the inso-deathlike lethargy, which long held both against lence and the fraud. Passports are delivered to the more outrageous insolence, more unprovoked feroc envoy; he returns to France.

ity. The god of Mahomet is called the Merciful; Arrogance is broken into foam when it dashes on and his worship is not the worship of lip or knee. the western shores of the Atlantic. America knows Because the disciple of Mahomet is merciful to the equally her interests and her dignity. Averse to follower of Christ, a Christian potentate threatens war, averse to the politics of Europe, she is greatly him with a war! America will not strike down the more than a match against the united powers of arm of France if she defends for once the cause of that continent. France owes her money; and she humanity and honor. From no sympathy will sho

25

CCLXXXIX.

LIVING AGE.

VOL. XXIII.

RUSSIA.

ever do it, but from jealousy lest England should facility, long cherished designs against the indebecome more popular and more powerful in the pendence and integrity of Turkey, is a truth we East. WALTER Savage LANDOR.

have repeatedly insisted on. No one acquainted Oct. 5.

with past history, or with the present condition of

the Danubian populations, could resist this convicFrom the Examiner, 13 Oct.

tion... The scheme of the Austrian -cabinet to

consolidate a powerful empire, has been effected An eloquent and well-informed writer in the by means that bár the possibility of any such conEdinburgh Review thus speculated, three months solidation. Russian help has forever dislocated ago, on the possible triumph of Russian arms in and disabled the Austrian empire, and the first Hungary :

important step has been taken to the humiliation

and degradation of the Otioman. If through Russian aid Austria be victorious,

Kossuth has addressed a letter to Lord Palmerthe last barrier is swept away from the road to Constantinople. Austria herself will, from that time ston from Widdin, calculated to strengthen the forward, need the bayonets of the czar to keep down feeling of sympathy for the writer which we her discontented subjects, and must sink to the level believe to exist very generally throughout Engof a secondary power. Its policy will be the pol- land. It appears from this letter that the mission icy of St. Petersburg; and the dream of a Panscla- of Prince Radzivil, even though foiled in its thirst vic empire will not end in the suppression of the for. blood, will not have been without one effect

proud Magyars,” but in the reduction of Eastern aimed at by its author, in exhibiting the weakEurope into a Russian province. If history has

The meaning in it as well as words, we are not pre

ness of the government of the sultan. dicting without sufficient warrant. Russian unconditional hospitality offered to the Hungarians

protection and Russian intervention have for a century before Radzivil's arrival was sought to be encumpast been equally fatal. The poor ally non equitem bered with disgraceful conditions immediately after dorso, non frænum depulit ore. “Where is Ha- his departure. The Turkish ministers, urged and math and Arphad, Sepharvaina and Ivah?" was the threatened by a majority of the council under Rusquestion of the Babylonian envoy. What, with

sian influence, appear to have had no confidence in equal pertinence, we may ask, have been the fruits of Russian aid to Turkey and Persia, to Warsaw their power to protect the exiles but by inducing and Finland, in Asterabad and Bessarabia, and now the latter to embrace Mahommedanism., This in Moldavia and Wallachia? To all these lands extraordinary proposal has accordingly been delibits hatred has been dangerous, but its embrace erately made ; and in this state, for the present, deadly. Nor is Russian policy the work of a sin- the matter remains. gle man, or a single generation. Four sovereigns

The following affecting passage occurs in Kosof the house of Romanoff have consistently walked

suth's letter : in the same track. Yet it is not the policy of Catherine, of Paul, of Alexander, or of Nicholas, but

it

may be expedient that you should of Russia. It bides its time; and the purpose of take, what we have a right to expect from the wellthe fathers is accomplished by the third or fourth known generosity of England, it would be hardly generation of the children. It employs, with equal fitting for me to enter on. I place my own and my readiness, fraud or force. Muscovite, Pansclavism, companions' fate in your hands, my lord, and in the and the Greek church, are as much its instruments name of humanity throw myself under the protecas the gold of the Ural and the Cossack's lance. It tion of England. Time presses—our doom may proscribes at Warsaw, it bullies at Constantinople, in a few days be sealed. Allow me to make an it flatters France, and is coldly courteous to Eng- humble personal request. I am a man, my lord, land. It has at once the versatility and fixedness prepared to face the worst ; and I can die with a which the ancients attributed to destiny-10 or free look at heaven, as I have lived. But I a ovouútor doggi uía. Its journals and proclamations also, my lord, a husband, son, and father ; my poor boast of its paternal sway and vigilance ; while it true-hearted wife, my children, and my noble old peoples Siberia with the children of its victims, mother, are wandering about Hungary. They and fills their cities and homes with spies. It has will probably soon fall into the hands of those Ausa vulture's scent for the tainted portion of nations, trians who delight in torturing even feeble women, and holds out every lure to the indolent, the venal, and with whom the innocence of childhood is no and the ambitious.' Hardly ten years have elapsed protection against persecutions. I conjure your since England encountered, in Central Asia, the excellency, in the name of the Most High, to put a intrigues of Russia. The Muscovite is now“ step-stop to these cruelties by your powerful mediation, ping westward”—not with emissaries or protocols, and especially to accord to my wife and children an but with “ war in procinct," to subvert by its bat- asylum on the soil of the generous English people. talions that national independence by which Austrian arms and arts were equally discomfited. Aus- It is not long since the Times affected to distria, however, is at present merely a stage in the believe the wanton and barbarous cruelties here progress of Russia : the road to Constantinople is pointed at; and though, from day to day, it as direct by Vienna as by Bucharest.

eagerly seizes on every apochryphal rumor that That the overthrow of the Hungarians, and the can damage the defeated patriots, it has omitied to consequent reduction of Austria to a state of utter protest against an act of fiendish barbarity recorded dependence on Russia, would strengthen the czar four days ago in its own columns, and which we in the traditional policy of the Russian cabinet, believe to be without parallel in any civilized or and enable him to carry out, with comparative uncivilized country. How striking is the simple

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intensity of language in the letter recording this does not know the topography, much less the feelunparalleled act of shame!

ings and requirements. Ruskby, September 18. I will narrate to you

Side by side with this damnatory letter appeared the fate of my family with calmness and composure, the announcement that in Vienna alone, in one day, for my heart is become stone. In our neighbor- the sum of twenty-six millions had been subscribed hood an army of Hungarians surrendered, 10,000 towards the loan. We wish the Viennese joy of men with forty cannon. Two days later the Aus- it, and honestly counsel the English to keep out trian troops entered our town. They consisted of a

of it. That is the sum of our philosophy in the detachment of Lichtenstein light horse, commanded by Capt. Graber, a native of Werschitz. It is pos- matter, and all we think it needful to urge on the sible that the great domestic happiness which I dispute still raging between Mr. Cobden and the enjoyed may have stirred envy and gained me en- Times. Before the orator of free trade published emies in Ruskhy, but of no other crime am I his letter, we had protested against all sympathy guilty. Two families, low and coarsely bred, with any adventurous capitalist in this loan, either and

set this captain on his horrible crime. I here or abroad, who should subsequently find his was torn from the arms of my husband, from the interest reduced to one hall, or (by some alteration circle of my children, from the hallowed sanctuary in the currency) his capital reduced to one fifth, or of my home, charged with no offence, allowed no hearing, arraigned before no judge. I, a woman, should be victimized by any of the pleasing variwife, and mother, was in my own native town, eties that have hitherto distinguished the numerous before the people accustomed to treat me with national bankruptcies of Austria. We were happy respect, dragged into a square of soldiers, and to find Mr. Cobden wisely adopting the same tone there scourged with rods. Look, I can write

at Monday's meeting. He did good service by his this without dropping dead. But my

husband killed himself. Robbed of all other weapons, he shot happy exposure of Austrian beggary and knavery ; himself with a pocket pistol. A cry of horror filled and if any one wants to complete the picture, he the air. I was dragged further to Karansebes. has but to turn to the account which Mr. Paget The people rose, and would have killed those who gave, ten years ago, of the conduct of Austria at instigated these horrors ; but their lives were saved the close of the war against Bonaparte, when her by the interference of the military. My eldest son treasures had been exhausted, her resources dried was taken prisoner with the army of Görgey, and

There was one honest sent as a common soldier into Italy; and so is the up, and her credit ruined. measure of my grief full. Can you picture to

course left to her, yet she preferred committing the yourself the state of my mind? You knew not my greatest of political frauds. She reduced the value husband. I tell you that no nobler, more elevated, of her paper money successively from 100 to 20, more adorable character, does or ever will exist. and from 20 to 8! so that a person who possessed The productions of his intellect are known. He a hundred florins in 1811, found himself, in 1813, was the inventor of iron bridges. In him the world in every part of the Austrian dominions, worth has sustained a great loss. My misfortune is bound- exactly eight! With the same proportionale less, and unexampled are the tortures which I have diminution, all contracts, loans, trusts, and debts endured. My grief will be eternal. You will conceive that I can dwell on nothing but my sorrow.

were paid off; and the consequent confusion and One only wish still keeps my body and soul together misery may be imagined.

“ Had the spirit of —to liberate my son. They have transported him evil,” says Mr. Paget," sought by one act to to Gratz. If you have friends there, think of my demoralize a whole people, his ingenuity could poor boy of eighteen.

scarcely have found a more happy means of acF. VON MADERSBACH.

complishing his object than this master-stroke of The Times correspondent at first affected to policy of the Austrian financier.” doubt the authenticity of this letter, and said he Let every subscriber to the present loan be could not find Ruskby marked in the map. No-warned that he is, in all human probability, conbut he might have found Ruskberg there, which tributing to another such act of national infamy, the smallest modicum of knowledge of the country not a little of the misery of which will fall to his he so freely writes about would have served to own share. He has already the comfort of reflectidentify. Ruskberg is not only to be found in ing that, whatever may turn out in that respect, common Austrian maps, (such as Artaria's,) but is he has proclaimed himself the fast and friendly ally even in the very small map prefixed to Mr. Pa- of the Haynaus and the Gräbers—floggers of get's Hungary, and is observed at once to be not unoffending women, gaolers of girls and children, far distant from the Iron Gate pass, through which butchers of gallant and unfortunate men. the high road from Karansebes, also mentioned by The Times tells us that the czar is retracing Madame Madersbach, conducts into Transylvania. his steps, and that there will be no war for the The internal evidence of the letter is, alas! but present. We never thought there would be. If too favorable to its truth. Ruskberg is celebrated | he had resolved to persist in his arrogant and for its iron works, which most travellers in Hun- iniquitous demand, after England and (however gary have heard of, if they have not seen, and in lukewarmly) France declared against it, we should connection with which the most distinguished firm believe his intellect to have been affected by the of manufacturers was that of Hofmann and Mad- progress of his Hungarian campaign, and that he ersbach. But there is nothing so easy as for attributes to his own superior intelligence and his “our Viennese correspondent” to dogmatize daily “mission,” that success which only by the follies about the weal and woe of a nation, of which he and vices of despotic governments, and by intrigues which have paralyzed his opponents in constitu- rious, and mean, it was the French expedition to tional countries, he has been enabled to obtain. Rome. And yet M. Thiers likens it to the seats The time is yet to come when, in the full and im- of Arcola and of Lodi! There needs no further pious confidence that no earthly power is capable proof of how completely the French Moderates of withstanding him, he will rush headlong to his are lost to sentiments of either truth or decorum, own destruction.

when M. Thiers could give utterance to such a No-there will be no war just now. Turkey flagrant, such a comical absurdity. It displays, needs no colossal assistance to turn the scale in indeed, an utter contempt for the people and for her favor. She can do without France this time. the Assembly, when any one, even M. Thiers, No one knows better than the czar how necessary can dare to come forward and plead that the expeit is for him to limit his enterprises to those dition to Rome has reaped such an immense crop objects for which he may reasonably calculate no of glory, that there is no need whatever of looking more than one campaign to be necessary. Aus- for any more solid advantages from it, for either tria, in her present condition, can give him no French character or Roman freedom. help to the dismemberment of the Turkish empire. The nonsense of this is so complete, so entirely So he will make a virtue of necessity, offer pro- transparent for even the most simple not to see fessions of magnanimous moderation, and save us through, that it is impossible not to suppose it to from the horrors of war. He has succeeded, nev- be the aim of the French to allow the Pope to ertheless, in two objects he has much at heart. restore his old stupid despotism, by the side of He has displayed the weakness of the Turkish gov- similarly stupid despotisms in Naples and in Lomernment, and (if it be true, as the Times announces, bardy, in order to leave the foundation, or to that France is " disposed, at any price, to avoid a create facilities for a future French regenerarupture with the Northern Powers”) he has low- tion and conquest of the country. In fact, what ered the pride of Frenchmen to a possible acqui- the short-sighted politicians of France and Ausescence in the future scheme of a Protectorate tria both require, is a divided, disturbed, and designed for Eastern Europe.

oppressed Italy—an Italy which shall be avail

able as a field of battle for the future campaigns From the Examiner, 13th Oct.

of either diploınacy or armies. FRANCE AND THE ROMAN QUESTION.

It is greatly to be wished that the liberal

French would see through this, and denounce it There is no explaining the policy recommended, and the sentiments expressed, by eminent hearts of the latter it cannot fail to produce a

as clearly as the Italians must discern it. In the and influential French statesmen on the questions horror of the French name. The liberals of the of Rome and of Italy, without coming to the con- Paris Assembly, however, see nothing in such clusion that they consider it the interest of France

maneuvres but a love of military discipline; that Italy should not be pacified. To establish a whilst the French ministerialists see in such good, wise, and well-working constitutional gov- denunciation nothing but a patronizing of republiernment in Central Italy, would form a kind of a canism and disorder. In fact, these two miserable star for the rest of Italy to gaze at and admire ; French parties have so blinded each other's opinand by and by this would form a nucleus to ions on all subjects, that they have lost every attract the rest, and around which they might genuine sentiment of liberty, of true pride, or rally.

even of just decorum. Oudinot compared to li is much to be feared that the French, not Napoleon, and the sapping of the Porte St. Panindeed the nation, which is generous and liberal, crazio to Lodi !—and this by the great historian but their politicians, who are quite the contrary, of the great revolution ! do not want to see the Italians enjoying freedom and good government without French aid and protection. Italy is looked on by French statesmen as their appanage, or domain, where wealth, Kavanagh; a Tale. By HENRY WadswORTH influence, and honor are to be won. All want to

LONGFELLOW. Boston, 1849. play benefactor towards it, and fight for it in Evangeline; a Tale of Acadie. By H. W. LONG

FELLOW. Boston, 1848. order to dominate it. But of an Italy setting up for itself, the French have no idea. They abhor ONE source of the pleasure derived from the Mazzini quite as much as they do Radetski. perusal of Mr. Longfellow's writings is the quiet Both are equally the enemies of French supremacy truth of their local coloring. In the writings of in Italy.

some of his countrymen we detect a continuous and After all, the Italians would not be so angry painful effort to be American. Mr. Longfellow, on with the French if they had the courage propor- the contrary, is contented to be what nature mado tionate to their pretensions, and if, determined to him. And hence the impressions and modes of dominate Italy, they would really have the courage thought unconsciously received from the scenery to conquer it. But, like the dog in the manger, and society amid which his mind has formed itself, the French will neither take Italy itself, nor let reveal themselves with equal unconsciousness. Mr. the Italians have it themselves.

Longfellow delineates American life with singular If ever there was an act unwarrantable, inglo- felicity.

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From the Examiner.

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