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trary, when a rupture with France became inevita- | head of which stood Lord Bute; and the first opble, Pitt seconded the proposal of Viscount Bar- portunity was taken to force him out of the king's rington, secretary at war, to increase the army, councils. On the 25th of October, 1760, George which was accordingly raised from about 20,000 to II. died. He was succeeded by his grandsca, 35,000 men. In spite, however, of this indisposi- George III. ; and Pitt's days of influence and tion unnecessarily to embarrass the councils of the power became numbered. Negotiations for peace government, the war was not well managed. Mi- had been begun on the side of France, and were norca fell into the hands of the French. Admiral proceeding as favorably as an English minister Byng was sacrificed. Oswego in America, and could desire, when Charles III. came to the throne Calcutta in Asia, were both lost. A panic seized of Spain, with feelings strongly prejudiced in favor the Duke of Newcastle, and after vainly endeavor- of his relative, Louis XV. Pitt was not long keps ing to bring Pitt back again, he resigned. A new in doubt respecting the formation of the “ family cabinet was accordingly formed, with the Duke of compact,” and foreseeing that its consequenes Devonshire at its head, and Mr. Pitt and Mr. Legge would be, not peace with France, but war with formed part of it—the former as secretary of state, Spain, and, perhaps, with Sicily likewise, he da the latter as chancellor of the exchequer.
termined to anticipate the plans of both. He preThere was still on the part of the king a rooted posed in the cabinet that the negotiations with dislike to his servant—a feeling which was carried France should be broken off, and that England to a still greater extreme by the Duke of Cumber-should take the initiative in the inevitable quarrel land. The latter, indeed, refused to take com- | with them. To his great surprise he found himmand of the army which was to protect Hanover self outvoted. He tried a second appeal in the unless Pitt were removed from office ; and once council chamber, and was again defeated; whersmore Pitt, with Legge, and this time with Lord upon he tendered his advice in writing to the young Temple, were sacrificed. But the disfavor of the king, and there, likewise, met with a repulse. Yo court was more than compensated to the two for- course now lay open to him except resignation. mer by the respect and admiration of the people. He went with his seals of office to St. James, Numerous addresses of thanks poured in upon them where the young king received him with suca from all quarters ; and cities and boroughs loaded marks of kindness and respect, that the heart of them with deeds of freedom, each enclosed in a the proud statesman was touched. His resignation gold box. The king's faction could not make head could not, of course, be withdrawn; but he accepted, against this stream, the weight of which was fur- in token of the gratitude of the crown, a peerare ther increased by the abortive issue of the Duke for his wife, and was not ashamed (he had no ni of Cumberland's military operations. Another son to be) of becoming a pensioner to the extent change of administration became necessary, and of 30001. a year. the Duke of Newcastle assuming the post of first A retiring statesman, whose descent into pri lord of the treasury, Pitt became again secretary vate life is softened by a pension, seldom fails to of state, and to all intents and purposes leader in incur at least temporary unpopularity. This was the councils of the nation.
the case with Pitt; but the storm, though shan It is unnecessary to dwell at length upon the for the moment, soon blew over, and he became great events which characterized the interval be- again the idol of the people. All that he had tween 1757 and 1762. However averse he might foretold as about to happen in regard to Spain be to war, Pitt_threw himself into the contest came to pass. On the 4th of January, 1762, war which he found raging, with wisdom and vigor. was declared against that power, under circumThe navies of France were swept from the face of stances far less favorable to England than would the ocean.
Canada was conquered, and numerous have attended the measure had Pitt's suggestions islands and stations in the West Indies, in Africa, been acted upon. On the whole, however, ihe and in Asia, subdued. Nor was his triumph over country had no cause to complain of the results the prejudices of the Jacobites either less striking of the contest. Several of Spain's most valuable or less creditable to himself. He conquered Can- settlements, of which Cuba was one, fell into the ada, and several of the West Indies, by bringing hands of the English, and the tide of success was against them the stout right arms of the very clans flowing without a check, when negotiations for which had followed Charles Edward to Derby, and peace were entered into. Pitt heard of these, fought at Falkirk and Culloden. It was a wise and left his bed, to which he had been confided policy this which enlisted the military spirit of the for several days, to protest against them. Unable Highlanders on the side of the established govern- to stand, he was permitted to address the house ment, and consummated by kindness the triumph from the bench on which he sat, but he fairly which Lord Hardwicke's terrible, but necessary, broke down ere he could reach the pith of his laws of proscription had begun. But Pitt, though argument. His speech produced a great sensaa great and most successful minister, was intolera- tion, though it could not arrest the progress of bly overbearing in the cabinet; and showed no
Cuba, the most important conquest disposition to yield, even in manner, to royalty which England had ever made, was restored to itself. He ruled his colleagues with a rod of Spain in exchange for Florida ; an arrangement iron, and lost all hold except upon their fears. of which, down to the present day, England has Hence a cabal formed itself against him, at the good reason to regret the improvidence.
It was about this time, or rather in the early
Be to her faults a little blind ;
Be to her virtues very kind. part of the following year, that Sir William Pynsent, a Somerset baronet of ancient family, died Upon the whole, I will beg leave to tell the and bequeathed to William Pitt the estate of house what is really my opinion. It is, that the Burton Pynsent, with a rental of 3000l. a year. immediately. That the reason for the repeal be
Stamp Act be repealed absolutely, totally, and The baronet had no personal acquaintance with assigned, because it was founded on an erroneous the legatee-jt is doubtful whether he had ever principle. At the same time, let the sovereign seen him ; but he was a great admirer of Pitt's authority of this country over the colonies be public character, and seems to have had no near asserted in as strong terms as can be devised, and relatives. So considerable an accession to means be made to extend to every point of legislation
whatsoever. We may bind iheir trade, confine not previously abundant proved very acceptable to the recipient; but it did not abate one jot of the soever, except that of taking their money out of
their manufactures, and exercise every power whatmental activity of the man. A martyr to gout, their pockets without their consent. he still played a conspicuous part in Parliament, though he steadily refused to become again a famous disputes between the House of Commons
It was during this interval, likewise, that the member of the cabinet which had so unceremoni- and John Wilkes occurred. Pitt was no admirer ously thrown him overboard. From 1761 to 1766 Pitt remained excluded stitutional and impolitic proceedings of those who,
of Wilkes ; but he still less admired the unconfrom the king's councils. He
in their abhorrence of a demagogue and a libeller, party to the ill-judged Stamp-Act, which had
forgot what was due to the privileges of Parliawell nigh precipitated, by a year or two, the rupture with the North American colonies ; cies. He spoke against the sentence of expulsion,
ment, and the undoubted rights of the constituenindeed, he opposed it when first brought forward vigorously, and contributed largely, by the elo- which was, however, as is well known, carried
into effect. quence and power of his denunciation, in effecting its repeal. The following extract from his speech bondage in which the great whig families seemed
The king was by this time heartily tired of the on the latter occasion well deserves to be remem- determined to keep him. His first attempt to bered :
emancipate himself, by placing Lord Bute at the A great deal has been said without doors of the head of the administration, had failed. power, of the strength, of America. It is a topic endeavored, with the assistance of Lord Rockingthat ought to be cautiously meddled with. In a ham, to shake them off; but Lord Rockingham good cause, on a sound bottom, the force of this
possessed small influence in Parliament, and was country can crush America to atoms. I know the valor of your troops ; I know the skill of your offi- quite as much a member of the clique at heart as
There is not a company of foot that has many who followed more openly in the wake of served in America out of which you may not pick the house of Russell. Nothing now remained, a man of suficient knowledge and experience to therefore, except to call upon Pitt to form an make a goverijor of a colony there. But on this administration. He did so, “and produced,” ground-on the Stamp Act, then so many here says Burke, “such a piece of diversified mosaic, will think it a crying injustice, I am one who will such a tessellated pavement without cement; here lift up my hands against it.
In such a cause, even your success would be a bit of black stone, and there a bit of whitehazardous. America, if she fell, would fall like patriots and courtiers, king's friends and republithe strong man. She would embrace the pillars cans, whigs and tories, treacherous friends and of the state, and pull down the constitution along open enemies ; that it was, indeed, a very curious with her. Is this your boasted peace? To show, but utterly unsafe to touch, and unsure to sheathe the sword, not in its scabbard, but in the stand on." Nor would the state of his own bowels of your countrymen? Will you quarrel health permit the framer of the cabinet to watch, with yourselves now the whole house of Bourbon is united against you? While France disturbs as it was right that he should, over its proceedyour fisheries in Newfoundland, embarrasses your ings. The business of the House of Commons slave-trade to Africa, and witl holds from your was too much for him, and he passed into the subjects in Canada their property stipulated by Lords as Earl of Chatham. Had he consulted treaty; while the runsuri for the Manillas is his own fame more, and what he believed to be denied by Spain, and its gallant conqueror basely the best interests of the crown less, he would traduced into a mean plunderer—a gentleman have retired from the cabinet as soon as the truth whose noble and generous spirit would do honor
was forced upon him that physical strength to the proudest grandee of the country.
The Americans have not acted in all things with pru- enough to guide its deliberations was wanting. dence and temper. The Americans have been He failed to do this; and cannot, therefore, escape wronged. They have been driven to madness by his share of responsibility for measures which injustice. Will you punish them for the madness resulted in the catastrophe which he had on which you have occasioned? Rather let prudence former occasions contributed to postpone. and temper come first from this side. I will undertake for America that she will follow the example. duced into the House of Commons a bill for
In the year 1767, Charles Townsend introThere are two lines in a ballad of Prior's, of a man's behavior to his wife, so applicable to you taxing America, by levying duties on certain artiand your colonies, that I cannot help repeating cles which the Americans were not permitted to them,
import, except from Great Britain. We need
not so much as refer to the consequences of this dropped a handkerchief the noise would have been measure ; but it is due to Lord Chatham not to heard. At first Lord Chatham spoke in a very low place out of record, that, as the scheme was none and feeble tone ; but as he grew warm, his voice of his, he hastened, in 1768, to mark his disap- cal and affecting, perhaps more than at any former
and became as harmonious as ever; oratoriproval of it by withdrawing from the government. period, both from his own situation, and from the It is just, also, to bear in mind, that almost from importance of the subject on which he spoke. He the date of his return to power till his resignation gave the whole history of the American war; of he labored under the pressure of a malady, which all the measures to which he had objected ; and though not, perhaps, such as deserves to be all the evil consequences which he had foretold :
" And so it described as an aberration of intellect, entirely adding at the end of each period,
proved.” unfitted him from taking part in public affairs.
In one part of his speech he ridiculed the appreThe portion of blame which attaches to him, as hension of an invasion, and then recalled the compared with that justly attributable to his col- remembrance of former invasions—“A Spanish leagues, is very small. But if he erred in suffer- invasion, a French invasion, a Dutch invasion, ing himself to be made an involuntary party to many noble lords must have read of in history: the beginning of the strife, he more than made and some lords (looking keenly at one who sat amends by the unwearied zeal which marked his near him) may remember a Scotch invasion."
“My lords,” continued he, “ I rejoice that the efforts to heal the breach. In 1770, his health
grave has not closed upon me; that I am still alive being somewhat reëstablished, he returned to to lift up my voice against the dismemberment of public life; and as a peer of Parliament advocated this ancient and most noble monarchy! Pressed measures of conciliation, which were unhappily down as I am by the hand of infirmity, I am little rejected. At last, as is well known, the govern- able to assist my country in this most perilous ment, which had repeatedly declined to entertain conjuncture ; but, my lords, while I have sense fair and honorable propositions from the enemy, royal offspring of the house of Brunswick. the
and memory, I will never consent to deprive the gave up all for lost, and resolved to have peace heirs of the Princess Sophia, of their fairest inheron any terms. This was quite as much at vari- itance. Where is the man that will dare to advise ance with Lord Chatham's sense of right as the such a measure? My lords, his majesty succeeded original ground of the war. He resolved, there to an empire as great in extent as its reputation fore, to oppose the motion ; and rose from a sick was unsullied. Shall we tarnish the lustre of this bed, to which he had been long confined in the nation by an ignominious surrender of its rights country, that he might carry his design into force, dom, that has survived, whole and entire, the
and fairest possessions ? Shall this great kingHe proceeded to London, and sat in the lord Danish depredations, the Scottish inroads, and the chancellor's room till informed that the business Norman conquest ; that has stood the threatened of the debate was about to begin. Let the editor invasion of the Spanish Armada, now fall prosof the work which we are here reviewing, tell the trate before the house of Bourbon ? Surely, my rest :
lords, this nation is no longer what it was! Shall
a people that, seventeen years ago, was the terror He was then led into the House of Peers by two of the world, now stoop so low as to tell its friends. He was dressed in a rich suit of black ancient inveterate enemy, Take all we have, only velvet, and covered up to the knees in flannel. give us peace? It is impossible ! Within his large wig, little more of his coun “I wage war with no man, or set of men. I tenance was to be seen than his aquiline nose and wish for none of their employments ; nor would his penetrating eye, which retained all its native I coöperate with men who still persist in unrefire. He looked like a dying man; yet never was tracted error; or who, instead of acting on a firm seen a figure of more dignity; he appeared like a decisive line of conduct, halt between two opinbeing of a superior species. The Lords stood up, ions, where there is no middle path. In God's and made a lane for him to pass to his seat, whilst, name, if it is absolutely necessary to declare either with a gracefulness of deportment for which he for peace or war, and the former cannot be prewas so eminently distinguished, he bowed to them served with honor, why is not the latter comas he proceeded. Having taken his seat on the menced without hesitation? I am not, I confess, bench of the earls, he listened to the speech of the well informed of the resources of this kingdom; Duke of Richmond with the most profound atten- but I trust it has still sufficient to maintain its tion.
just rights, though I know them not. My lords, After Lord Weymouth had spoken against the any state is better than despair. Let us at least address, Lord Chatham rose from his seat slowly make one effort; and if we must fall, let us fall and with difficulty, leaning on his crutches, and like men !” supported by his two friends. Taking one hand When his lordship sat down, Earl Temple said from his crutch, he raised it, and, casting his eyes to him, “ You forgot to mention what we talked towards heaven, said, “ I thank God that I have of, shall I get up?" Lord Chatham replied, been enabled to come here this day to perform my “ No, no; I will do it by and bye.” duty, and to speak on a subject which has so The Duke of Richmond then replied ; and it is deeply impressed my mind. I am old and infirm said that, in the course of his speech, Lord Chat-have one foot, more than one foot, in the grave ham gave frequent indications of emotion and dis-I have risen from my bed to stand up in the pleasure. When his grace had concluded, Lord cause of my country—perhaps never again to Chatham, anxious to answer him, made several speak in this house!!**
attempts to stand, but his strength failed him, and, The reverence—the attention—the stillness of pressing his hand to his heart, he fell backwards the house was most affecting; if any one had l in convulsions. The house was immediately
thrown into a state of the greatest agitation, andered we had lighted on a treat—a choice collecan adjournment was at once moved and carried. tion of tales, possessing an intrinsic interest of Lord Chatham was first taken to the house of Mr. subject, and a still greater extrinsic interest, arisSargent, in Downing street; and when he had in some measure recovered, he was removed to his ing from the circumstance of their having furnished own residence at Hayes; where, after lingering warp for the woof of many a bard of fame. for a few days, he expired on the 11th
Being of a benevolent disposition, we wish to the seventieth year of his age. On the evening of enable others to taste of that which has afforded his death, the House of Commons, on the motion pleasure to ourselves ; and so, for the benefit and of Colonel Barré, voted him a funeral and a monu- delectation of those of our readers who may not ment in Westminster Abbey at the public expense. have met with the Gesta, we shall proceed to give a A few days afterwards, an annuity of 40001. was brief history of the work, and then invite their settled upon the heirs of the Earl of Chatham, to whom the title should descend ; and a public grant attention to a few specimens of its contents, interof 20,0001. was made for the payment of his debts. spersed with extracts and remarks that will tend
to show the influence it has had on English poetWe regret that our limits will not permit us
ical literature. to pursue this interesting subject further. The Modern Orator is, however, a work which can be mingled with the honeyed waters” of amusing
For infants, “the strong wine of truth” must well afford to stand or fall upon its own merits ; and we heartily recommend it to the careful story; and when man's mind is childish, through study of all who either delight in observing the imbecility or want of education, it too must have forms and shapes which genius of the highest than the abstract, being unable, or unwilling, to
instruction conveyed to it in the concrete rather order once took in others, or are themselves
admit a principle, unless that principle be clad in desirous of catching a ray from the fires which
an example. The monks of the middle ages were still continue to burn, even amid the ashes of the
aware of this fact, and, therefore, in their preachmighty dead.
ing, endeavored to fix the attention of their be
nighted hearers by striking narratives ; striving From Fraser's Magazine.
afterwards, by the somewhat strained “applicaGESTA ROMANORUM.
tions” they tacked on to them, to awaken their It is a strange old quilt of diverse patches,
sluggish, slumbering consciences. The Gesta Sombre and gay, to suit the tastes of all.-Old Play. Romanorum" is an assortment of such tales, care
Dear, quaint Charles Lamb, in his Detached lessly copied from oriental, classical, and German Thoughts on Books and Reading, lisps out this writers, and generally stated to be the composition drollery :
of Petrus Berchorius, who was prior of the BenI can read anything which I call a book. There Pisistratus, however, might as justly be called the
edictine convent of St. Eloi, in Paris, in 1362. are things in that shape which I cannot allow for such. In this catalogue of books which are no books, author of the Iliad; for all that Berchorius did biblia a-biblia—I reckon court calendars, directories, was to string together “ stirring stories,” that, pocket-books, draught-boards bound and lettered long before his time, had been told by orators in on the back, scientific treatises, almanacs, statutes cope and cowl, to make their congregations change at large; the works of Hume, Gibbon, Robertson, their weary gaping into wonderment. An imitaBeattie, Soame Jenyns, and, generally, all those tion of the work, slightly differing in contents volumes which “no gentleman's library should be without;" the histories of Flavius Josephus, (that
from the original, and qualified with a dash of learned Jew,) and Paley's Moral Philosophy. With nationalism to suit the taste of its probable readthese exceptions, I can read almost anything. I ers, (just as now-a-days French Vaudevilles are bless my stars for a taste so catholic, so unex- adapted to Adelphi audiences,) was produced in cluding:
England by a monk, at a very early period ; and I confess that it moves my spleen to see these to this version Shakspeare appears to be indebted things in books' clothing perched up on shelves, like for the plots of several of his plays. false saints, usurpers of true shrines, intruders into the sanctuary, thrusting out the legitimate occu
So much by way of introduction. Now for our pants. To reach down a well-bound stroklance of specimens, selected both from the continental and a volume, and hope it some kind-hearted play-book; the insular edition." then, opening what" seem its leaves,' to come bolt upon a withering population essay! To expect a Steele, or a Farquhar, and find—Adam Smith! A fair face was the emperor Leo's chief delight. We can keenly sympathize in the disappoint- be made in the form of women, dedicated a tem
To enjoy it to the full, he caused three images to ment that “ Elia” so whimsically describes, having “many a time and oft” put forth our hand to
ple to their service, and ordered all his subjects to
worship them. The first stretched forth its hand, grasp what we fondly deemed would a clusier of delicious thoughts, and found, to our cha
as though in the act of benediction, having on one grin, that its grapes had been gathered from a vine
a We would observe, en passant, that the recorded of Sodom. It was, therefore, with no small
“Gests" are by no means exclusively those of the Rodelight that, on taking down the book that gives In fitting these with an English dress, we have its title to the present article, from a very dusty derived considerable assistance from the Rev. Charles
Swan's elegant translation of the Gesta.
The notes shelf in our library, some months ago, we discov-appended to it have also been laid under contribution.
A SAUCY THIEF.
of its fingers a golden ring, which bore as its
My finger is munificent.” The second had a golden beard, and on its brow was written, “I have a beard ; if anyone be beardless, let him come to me, and I will give him one.” The third was clad in a golden cloak, whilst on its breast gleamed forth, in shining characters, “ I care for nobody.” These three images were made of stone. When they had been placed upon
their pedestals, the emperor decreed that if any one should take away ring, beard, or cloak, he should be doomed to some most ignominious death. It happened, notwithstanding, that a low scoundrel entering the temple, and perceiving the ring upon the finger of the first image, immediately drew it off. He then went to the second, and took away the golden beard ; and, to finish up his work, robbed the third image of its golden cloak. theft was soon discovered, and the culprit dragged before the emperor.
When charged with the crime, he replied with great coolness, “ My lord, suffer me to speak. When I entered the temple, the first image held out its finger towards me, as though it would tempt me to take the ring ; and when I read the motto, ‘My finger is munificent,' I thought it would be very rude to refuse the obliging offer, and, consequently, took it. When I approached the second image, and saw its golden beard, I reasoned thus with myself, · The maker of this statne never had such an appendage to his chin, for I have often seen him ; and, without question, the creature should be inferior to its creator ; ergo, I ought to take the beard.' Any scruple as to the propriety of appropriating it that might still trouble me, was removed when I perceived, in characters most clearly legible, 'I have a beard ; if any one be beardless, let him come to me, and I will give him one.' I am beardless, as your majesty may see, and, therefore, took away the proffered beard for two good reasons ; firstly, that the image might look more like its maker ; and, secondly, that I might cover up my own bare chin. I carried off the golden cloak, partly from a feeling of benevolence, because I thought that a mantle of metal would in summer be burdensome to the statue, and in winter but a poor protection from the cold ; and partly from a feeling of indignation at its haughty boast, “I care for nobody.'
“My good sir,” retorted the emperor, present trial is one of law, and not of logic. You are a robber, and so you must be hanged !” And he was.
Instead of the prosy moralization that follows this story in the Gesta, we will give Gower's happy rendering of it:
Ere Rom-e came to the creanceb
Was none so rich in Rom-e tho. * We shall make it our rule to omit the applications." b Belief. e Callei.
Of plate of gold, a beard he had, The which his breast all over spradde.* Of gold also, withouten fail, His mantle was of large entayle. Be-set with perrey all about, Forth right he stretched his finger out, Upon the which he had a ringTo see it, was a rich-e thing, A fine carbuncle for the nones, Most precious of all stones. And fell that time in Rom-e thus, There was a clerk, one Lucius, A courtier, a famous man; Of every wit, somewhat he can, Out-take that him lacketh rule, His own estate to guide and rule ; How so it stood of his speaking, He was not wise in his doing ; But every riot-e at last Must need-es fall, and may not last. After the need of his desert, So fell this clerk-e in poverte, And wist not how for to risé, He cast his wit-es here and there, He looketh nigh, he looketh far, Fell on a time that he come Into the temple, and heed nome? Where that the god Apollo stood; He saw the riches, and the good ;' And thought he wold-e by some way The treasure pick and steal away. And thereupon so slily wrought, That his purpose about he brought. And went away una perceived ; Thus hath the man his god deceived His ring, his manile, and his beard, As he which nothing was afeard, All privily with him he bare ; And when the wardens were aware Of that their god despoiled was, They thought it was a wondrous case, How that a man for any weal Durst in so holy plac-e steal, And nam-e-ly, so great a thing! This tale cam-e unto the king, And was through spoken over-all. But for to know in special, What manner man hath done the deed, They soughten help upon the need, And maden calculation, Whereof by demonstratión The man was found-e with the good. In judgment, and when he stood, The king hath asked of him thus :
“Say, thou unsely' Lucius, Why hast thou done this sacrilege ?"
• My lord, if I the cause allege,” (Quoth he again)“ me-thinketh this, That I have done nothing amiss. Three points there be, which I have de Whereof the first-e point stands so, That I the ring have ta'en away. Unto this point this will I sayWhen I the god beheld about, I saw how he his hand stretched out, And proffered me the ring to yere ;' And Í, which wold-e gladly live Out of poverte thro' his largess, It underfangk so that I guess ; And therefore am I nought to wite.