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ably-worked agitations, that any country has seen.
Its very success, and the political elevation of all One of the most peculiar, useful, and glorious engaged in it, has tempted a variety of able and political habits of Englishmen, is that of associ- of liberal men to institute similar associations withating for a certain end ; of forming a body which out well considering whether the aim justifies is to receive funds, appoint officers, become what such means, and whether the very principles and foreigners call a propaganda, and meet in public habits of political association may not be weakened to instruct the public, and encourage each other by its application to unfit objects. by expressions of feeling and of eloquence, or by The Peace Association, whose congress at Paris argumentative discourses, destined to spread con now attracts public attention, is certainly one of viction through the press. These means of peace- the boldest yet attempted, since its sphere is not ful and argumentative agitation form one of the merely confined to England, but extends all over noblest products of our free constitution. And it Europe. We may, nevertheless, doubt if its memrequires a country of much steadiness and wisdom bers are quite conscious of the degree of political in the practice of freedom to enjoy such an institu- boldness necessary to the right discharge of their tion without the certainty of its being abused. self-appointed functions. They must beware, that Other countries have been more free than England, for the sake of tolerance or favor they are not led at least in the theory of their charters. But none, to flatter princes and make light of popular intersave the United States, have ever been able to ests. That may be the path of peace and toleraenjoy the benefit of political associations—and it tion to them, but it is not so for the great mass of may be doubted whether, in the United States, it the people whom they would relieve. Preach is not grossly abused and turned to evil.
mutual peace to France and to England. None There are, however, more ways than one of will gainsay it. For what possible good or right neutralizing, or bringing into discredit the power would come of a war between the two countries ? of association. It may be turned, for example, But will you at the same time and in the same into treason ; at a time, too, when all the objects breath preach peace to Poland, and to Hungary, to be obtained by the most successful treason are and to Italy? What can peace mean, in an exto be obtained by constitutional and pacific efforts. hortation to the people of these countries, but subThis is the Irish and the French way of destroy- mission ? If the Peace Association preach that, it ing or annulling the right of association. There will be justly despised. On the other hand, to is also another way—for instance, that of employ- preach justice, mercy, and truth, in respect of ing the grave extreme of political association for popular rights, to a Czar of Russia or an Emidle, for trilling, or for needless purposes. There peror of Austria, is a mission more for a war soare associations which we could name, got up with ciety than for one of peace. Is not, indeed, the no higher aim than merely to kill the leisure or new holy alliance a war congress in direct oppogratify the vanity of individuals. The efforts of sition to that of peace? Does it not found its some single person, who has marked out himself right and permanence upon bayonets and bayonets as the paid secretary, who has succeeded in be- only? Is not the very principle of the new league coming such, and whose activity perpetuates the of government, to which France has disgracefully association for no better reason and to no greater adhered, the maxim that the army is the true and end, have sufficed in a majority of cases to origi- only support of government, and that the one half nate them.
or one third of the male population should be kept Of these trifling associations, however, there idle, in arms, in uniform, and in pay, in order to are fortunately but few and unimportant. Public support a chief governor and a dozen politicians in opinion does justice by them. There are others the task of coercing the rest. which have filled the world with their success and Armies, in fact, are now avowedly kept for the their fame, which have enlisted all that was gen- purposes of police, and not only for police at home, erous, liberal, able, and eloqnent in their ranks, but abroad. Russia would invade Hungary and which have overwhelmed the public with their govern Poland. Austria has stipulated to do the appeals, nay more, which have beat down power- same by Bavaria. The King of Prussia is the ful opposition, even that of the prevailing political great police magistrate of Germany. What is party, and which have won their way despite of Louis Napoleon but a general of gendarmerie, not every obstacle in Parliament, and every hesitation only for his own purposes in France, but to do on the part of the most practical and eminent men. the cardinals' bidding in Rome? If it is this Such was the Anti-Slave-Trade Association. Yet power of mutual oppression that the association what have been its results ? Glorious some, but whose congress has met in Paris purposes to abet, doubtful others. For it disdained to attempt less then give us a war and resistance association, as than the utter destruction of abuses, which an as- something more frank, more manly, and more for sociation of less power and zeal might more wisely the interest of humanity at present, and of permahave remained content with the resolution to miti- nent peace for the future. gate and correct.
The wars now prevailing in Europe are those Since the palmy days of the Anti-Slave-Trade As- of dynasties against nationalities. We doubt its sociation, we have had those of the Anti-Corn-Law being in the power or within the scope of the League, one of the most just, most noble, and most ) Peace Society either to persuade dynasties to give
up those nations which abhor them, or to persuade | arise for exercising it during the siege; not a sinnationalities to forget what is most riveted in the gle condemnation to death or exile bore witness to popular affections. The only solid basis on which a severity which it would have been our right to to establish peace, would be the allowance to each have exercised, but which the perfect unanimity nationality to develop itself according to its na- which reigned among all the elements of the state ture and its tendencies. Let there be a French, rendered useless. a German, an Italian, a Sclavonian, and a Russian I affirm that, except in the case of three or four empire. Each would be too strong to fear the priests, who had been guilty of firing upon our other, each too content to desire conquest. But the combatants, and who were killed by the people will of the nation in these and other things should during the last days of the siege, not a single act prevail over the interests and caprices of a dynasty. of personal violence was committed by any fracA dynasty is warlike. A developed nation is tion of the population against another, and that if never so, unless when provoked or oppressed. ever there was a town presenting the spectacle of
a band of brothers pursuing a common end, and
bound together by the same faith, it was Rome FALL OF ROME.
under the republican rule. The city was inhab(The following private letter has lately been published in ited by foreigners from all parts of the world, by England. We copy it from the New York Tribune. It the consular agents, by many of your countryis a good commentary upon the late events, and—like men ; let any one of them arise, and under the everything he has done or written—is honorable to Maz- guarantee of his own signature, deny, if he can, zini.)
the truth of what I say. Terror now reigns in Rome has fallen! It is a great crime and a Rome; the prisons are choked with men who great error. The crime belongs entirely to have been arrested and detained without trial; France; the error to civilized Europe, and above fifty priests are confined in the Castle of St. Anall to your England. I say to your England, for gelo, whose only crime consists in their having in the three questions which are now at issue at lent their services in our hospitals ; the citizens Rome, and which it is vain to attempt to stifle by the best known for their moderation are exiled; the brute force, England appears to me, and did ap- army is almost entirely dissolved, the city dispear to us all, to be especially concerned. Three armed, and the “ factious” sent away even to the questions,—the question of principle, of inter- last man ; and yet France dares not consult in a national right, of European morality--the polit- legal manner the will of the populations, but reical question, properly so called, the balance of establishes the Papal authority by military depower in Europe, influence to be preserved or obtained—and the religious question,-all were, in I do not believe that, since the dismemberment fact, raised already in Rome before the entrance of Poland, there has been committed a more atroof the French. The question of principle is, cious injustice, a more gross violation of the eterthank God, sufficiently clear. A population of nal right which God has implanted in the people more than two millions of men having peacefully, — that of appreciating and defining for themselves solemnly, and legally chosen, through a constitu- their own life, and governing themselves in actional Assembly, regularly elected, a form of gov- cordance with their own appreciation of it. And ernment, is deprived of it by foreign violence, and I cannot believe that it is well for you or for Euforced again to submit to the power which had rope that such things can be accomplished in the been abolished ; and that without that population eyes of the world without one nation arising out having furnished the slightest pretext for such of its immobility to protest in the name of univerviolence, or made the slightest attempt against sal justice. This is to enthrone brute force where, the peace of neighboring countries.
by the power of reason, God alone should reign The calumnies which have been for months sys--it is to substitute the sword and poniard for tematically circulated against our republic, are of law—to decree a ferocious war without limit of little importance; it was necessary to defame time or means between oppressors rendered susthose whom it had been determined to destroy. picious by their fears, and the oppressed abanBut I affirm that the republic voted almost unan- doned to the instincts of reaction and isolation. imously by the Assembly, had the general and Let Europe ponder upon these things. For if the spontaneous approbation of the country ; and of light of human morality becomes but a little more this the explicit declaration of almost all the mu- obscured, in that darkness there will arise a strife nicipalities of the Roman States voluntarily re- that will make those who come after us shudder newed at the time of the French invasion, with with dread. out any initiative on the part of the Roman gov The balance of power in Europe is destroyed. ernment, is a decisive proof. I affirm that with It consisted formerly in the support given to the the exception of Ancona, where the triumvirate smaller states by the great powers ; now they are were obliged energetically to repress certain criin- abandoned. France in Italy, Russia in Hungary, inal acts of political vengeance, the republican Prussia in Germany, a little later perhaps in cause was never sullied by the slightest excess ; Switzerland ; these are now the masters of the that never was there any censorship assumed over continent. England is thus made a nullity; the the press before the siege, never did the occasion “celsâ sedet Eolus in arce," which Canning
delighted to quote, to express the moderating the movement, a mighty pathway for the human function which he wished to reserve for his coun- mind. She has not understood that one bold try, is now a meaningless phrase. Let not your word, “respect for the liberty of thought," oppreachers of the theory of material interests, your posed to the hypocritical language of the French speculators upon extended markets, deceive them- government, would have been sufficient to inauselves; there is history to teach them that politi- gurate the era of a new religious policy, and to cal influence and commercial influence are closely conquer for herself a decisive ascendency upon bound together. Political sympathies hold the key the continent. of the markets; the tariff of the Roman republic Is England beginning to understand these will appear to you, if you study it, to be a decla- things ? You answer me, Yes. I doubt it. ration of sympathy toward England to which your Political and religious indifference appears to me government has not thought it necessary to re- to have taken too deep a root with you to be conspond.
quered by anything short of those internal crises And yet, above the question of right, above the which become more and more inevitable. But if question of political interest, both of which were it be true that the unequal struggle which has of a nature to excite early the attention of Eng- been maintained for two months at Rome has land, there is, as I have said, another question borne fruits—if it be true that you begin to unbeing agitated at Rome of a very different kind of derstand all that there is of brutal in the league importance, and which ought to have aroused all of four powers against the awakening of the Eterthose who believe in the vital principle of reli- nal City—all that there is of grand and fruitful gious reformation—it is that of liberty of con- for humanity in this cry of country and liberty, science. The religious question, which broods at rising from among the ruins of the capital-all the root of all political questions, showed itself that there would be of noble, of generous, of profthere great and visible in all its European impor- itable for England in responding to this cry, as to tance. The Pope at Gaeta was the theory of ab- that of a sister toward whom a debt of gratitude solute infallible authority exiled from Rome for- is owed-you can still do us a great good. You ever; and exiled from Rome was to be exiled from may console—this you have always done—the the world. The abolition of the temporal power exile of our combatants, whom the French gorevidently drew with it, in the minds of all those ernment tears from their homes, poor, mistaken who understood the secret of the papal authority, souls, who dreamed of the fraternity of France, the emancipation of men's minds from the spirit- in utter physical destitution and in despair of ual authority. The principle of liberty and of mind. You can save for us these spirits by prefree consent, elevated by the Constituent Assem- serving them from the attacks of doubt and of unbly into a living, active right, tended rapidly to measured reaction. You can, by your press, by destroy the absolutist dogma which from Rome the voice of your meetings, fix upon the forehead aims more than ever to enchain the universe. of the French republic the mark of Cain ; upon
The high aristocracy of the Roman Catholic the front of Rome the glory of a martyrdom, clergy well know the impossibility of retaining which contain the promise of victory; you can the soul in darkness, in the midst of light inun- give to Europe the consciousness that Italy is bedating the intelligences of men ; for this reasoning born anew, and to Italy a redoubled faith in they carried off their Pope to Gaeta ; for this rea- herself. You may do more. son they now refuse all compromise. They know The Roman question is far from being resolved. that any compromise would be fatal to them ; that France finds herself placed between the necessity they must reënter as conquerors, or not at all. of giving way to a new insurrection, and that of And in the same way that the aristocracy of the prolonging indefinitely the occupation by her clergy felt this inseparability of the two powers, troops ; thus changing intervention into conquest. the French government, in its present reactionary Assemble yourselves, associate yourselves, organmarch, has felt that the keystone of despotism is ize a vast agitation for the political and religious at Rome—that the ruin of the spiritual authority independence of the people ; and say to your govof the middle ages was the ruin of its own ernment, that honor, duty, and the future of Eng. projects—and that the only method of securing to land demand that her flag shall not hang idly in it a few more years of existence, was to rebuild atheistic immobility, amid the continued violation for it a temporal domination.
of the principle which it represents ; that France England has understood nothing of this. She has not the right to dispose of the Roman States has not understood what there was of sublime and as she pleases ; that the will of the Roman people prophetic in this cry of emancipation in this pro- ought to be expressed, and that it cannot be freely testation in favor of human liberty, issuing from expressed while four hostile armies are encamped the very heart of ancient Rome, in the face of the upon its territories. Call upon France to fulfil Vatican. She has not felt that the struggle in her promises. We could not admit—we, 'the Rome was to cut the Gordian knot of moral ser- elected of the people—that they should be called vitude, against which she has long and vainly op- upon to express a second time what they had posed her biblical societies, her Christian and already peacefully, completely, and in the most evangelical alliances; and that there was being unfettered manner, declared. We could not comopened, had she but extended a sisterly hand to 1 mit suicide upon ourselves in our most sacred
right. But, since violence has annihilated the ders applicable, or quotable, the language of Burke, consequences of its exercise, it is for you now to in his masterly epistle to the Empress of Russia, recall France to its engagements, and to say to dated in 1791 : her : “All that you are about to do is null and
Madam, your glory will be complete, if, after havillegal, if the will of the population is not con- ing given peace to Europe by your moderation, you sulted.” And if your government remain silent shall bestow stability on all its governments by your -is France pursues her career of violence—then vigor and decision. The debt which your imperial it is for you, the people, to aid us, you men of majesty's august predecessors have contracted to the justice and liberty, in the struggle. With or with-ancient manners of Europe, by means of which they out the aid of the people we will re-commence
civilized a vast empire, will be nobly repaid by prethis struggle. We cannot, we will not, sacrifice which they are now menaced. By the intervention
serving those manners from the hideous change with our future, and the destinies toward which we are of Russia the world will be preserved from barbarcalled by God, to the caprices of egotism and ism and ruin. of blind force. But the assistance of the people may spare us many bloody sacrifices, much reäc Some of your readers may be startled, and even tionary violence, that we, men of order and peace, indignant, at this my addition—that the repression have striven to avoid, but which, in the power- of anarchy, the restoration and rescue of political lessness of exile, we may not be able to pre
order—the safety of civilization itself—may yet vent.
be the work of Russia. Distrust is banished from JOSEPH MAZZINI.
my mind, by the character, the declarations, and August 6, 1849.
the very obvious interests of Czar Nicholas. Respectfully to utter what we believe to be the truth,
is the best homage which can be rendered to real EXTRACTS FROM MR. WALSH'S LETTER, 15TH
dignity in the sovereign people, or any other sovAUGUST, TO THE JOURNAL OF COMMERCE.
erejøn, or at any bar. The Paris insurgents, made prisoners in the The number recently issued of the Bulletin of four days of June, 1848, who were sent to the the Paris Geographical Society contains a notice hulks in the ports of France, and to be transported by M. Jomard, in six pages, of Lieutenant Lynch's to Cayenne and Tahiti, are now destined to Alge- Expedition to the Dead Sea; also, from the same ria. Their number, originally, was upwards of savant, some pages on the discovery of an ancient twelve thousand. It is a lucky escape for Tahiti. city near San Louis de Potosi. He had often ex.
It is said that the Jews of Buda, the old Hun-pressed the opinion that the “Maya language would garian capital, have announced their intention to furnish the key of the Katouns--that is, of the emigrate to the American Union.
groups of figures and characters which abound in The French government is stated to be reorgan- the admirable monuments of Palenque and Yucaizing the army of the Alps, as if not quite easy on tan.” the Italian question.
In the United States how much rancorous inThe recent speech of M. de Falloux, the Min- vective, malignant humor, violent passion, fretful ister of Public Instruction, may be pronounced the impatience or testiness, is lost in the immensity of finest specimen of oratory furnished in the Legis- space, and the very latitude of universal freedom, lative Assembly during its session of a hundred and public conscious security. Not so here, in a days. I refer to his reply to M. Jules Favre's population of twelve hundred thousand, within a declamation about the affair at Rome. It is dis- circumference of twenty leagues. Any spark may tinguished by philosophical elevation and force; kindle a conflagration. novel and striking historical views of the pope The smugglers in Spain are now estimated at dom, and a broad flow of beautiful diction. The sixty thousand.
At the end of the last century, president of the Assembly, when de Falloux was Count Florida Blanc computed them at one hunviolently interrupted by the Mountain, turned to- dred thousand. wards the brawlers, and said, “Learn at least to The Berlin Triple Union has been recognized by respect the ability of the orator ; we should all all the northern, central, and western states of Gerlisten to what does honor to us all.” The lesson many. Bavaria and Wurtemberg are not indisis good for every debating body, and the compli- pensable to its success. ment was both happy and well merited in this in The best informed observers in Germany think
If de Falloux should continue in public it probable that the governments of Bavaria and life, his general powers, his resolute spirit, his Wurtemberg will ere long accede to the Prussoliterary advantages, his rich and fluent elocution, Germanic constitution, as a security against interhis engaging person and address, will place him nal dangers. on a high eminence. He was born in 1811. If Martial law being withdrawn for Paris, sevnot as a poet, he may yet, as a prose writer, a eral of the suppressed journals, La Reforme at public speaker, and a statesman, outstrip Lamar- the head, have reappeared. The National and tine.
La Presse, which were spared, but obliged to curb There is an affinity between the present phasis their animosities, are now giving loose to them in of this continent, and that of the first years of the the most rancorous and vindictive spirit. Exald French Revolution, which, in my view, ren-| tremely rigorous and reaching as the new code of
the press may be deemed, it will be found insuffi- | tries, and of no small convenience for the world. cient for its purposes. This is manifest, from the We are told that M. Segnier, of the French Infresh experience of only a few days.
stitute, a practical savant of the first order, is about De Lesseps, the late French envoy at Rome, to be appointed director-general of the French magarraigned before the council of state at Paris, has netic telegraph, and will, before he enters on his included in his defensive memoir, to that tribunal, functions, repair to the United States, to become some curious particulars of the attempt of the acquainted with your wires and railroads. You American charge d'affaires, to mediate between have received from me some account of his recent the French commander and the Roman rulers. similar errand to Great Britain.
It is my intention to report to you, in some detail, the whole Lesseps case. His copious memoir
From the same—230 Aug. possesses historical interest ; it discloses a singu Within the three days past this capital has exlar game between the French ministers, on one perienced a strong sensation from the various most hand, and a semi-envoy plenipotentiary on the important news, of which you will have the deother ; the one having ends which they wished to tails in the London papers. The surrender to the veil, and selecting an agent whose political predi- Russians of the Hungarian general, Georgey, with lections and associations might serve as a blind; a large part of his army, thirty or forty thousand the other, exerting himself, while he believed the men, seems to decide the struggle. The Austroministry strong, according to the sense in which he Russian forces appear to have been victorious in supposed they wished him to act; but, as soon as every direction. Few of the better-informed obhe learned that the Constituent Assembly dis- servers here entertained hope of the success of the avowed, and voted an order of the day to rectify, Hungarian cause, but still fewer expected so sudthe proceedings of the military expedition, turning den and abrupt a catastrophe. The contest was short round, violating his instructions, conceding with two of the most powerful empires in the everything to the rulers of Rome, and seeking to world. Prussia would have thrown herself into please only the majority of the Constituent Assem- it if it had been protracted. A declaration on the bly. The National, his former patron, was so side of Hungary by England (which has never deeply irritated by his first course, that it repre- been in the least probable) could not have materisented him as having literally lost his reason. ally influenced the case. Russia, Austria, and His singular evolutions and self-contradiction, Prussia had too much staked on the issue, to dewhich so quickly followed the news of the Assem- sist through the fear of any British hostilities. bly's vote, rendered the allegation of the National With France on their backs, the result might so specious, for his friends, family, and the public have been different, but the yawning gulf of bankin general, that his wife set out in all haste for ruptcy, and the dread of revolutionary paroxysms Rome, to nurse the crazed negotiator. She ar- at home, would alone have sufficed to restrain the rived there the morning after he had departed for French government. In the legations of the northParis with his treaty, by which he truly con- ern powers at Paris, a uniform confidence in the demned the French forces to a result as bad as the Austro-Russian league has prevailed to a degree Candine Forks. He performed the journey from that could well beget despondency in the most Rome to Paris in four days and a half—the great- zealous advocate of Hungary ; in the French deest speed known at the time. The ministry had partments of war and foreign affairs there was recalled him by telegraph, before his treaty reached also an unfeigned, though somewhat fretting, asthem; which, naturally, they at once rejected. surance of the inevitable triumph of the league. A recognition of the Roman republic was the re Our lion in this capital now is the Peace Converse of their whole scheme. It is not unchar- gress, which was opened yesterday. Multitudes itable to infer from all particulars, that the negoti- have repaired to the Rue de Rivoli, to see the ator colluded with the Triunvirate and their privy fifty Quaker families, reported to be inmates of its council, against the French army before Rome, hotels. All the journals furnish articles more or and the cabinet at Paris. He has never been less civil to the congress, though with very differmore than what you call a smart man ; his official ent measures of faith and honor. The Debats has notes were so feeble and so vulnerable in the some semi-ironical paragraphs. It observes, " To topics, that they seem to have been concerted with choose Paris as the centre of a crusade in favor of the Roman republic and its French scribes, for the universal peace, is to carry the war into the very purpose of enabling it to frame victorious and im- focus or hearth of the enemy." pressive replies, which were immediately trans Louis Philippe is in the enjoyment, in Engmitted to the Roman committee of the Mountain in land, of good health and spirits. He is free now, Paris, and their common organ, the National. and his nature and his habits before he mounted a
You will see that the French government has throne were such as that he may rejoice in his authorized an Englishman, Mr. Jacob Brett, to enlargement. establish a sub-marine electrical telegraph across The clever literary critic of the London Mornthe channel between Calais and Bologne and Do-ing Chronicle observes of Mr. Samuel Elliot's
He is to bear all expenses, and retain his work on the Liberty of Rome, &c. : “ This proprivilege for ten years in case of success, which, duction, on a first hasty perusal, appears to be truly, would be of vast importance to both coun- characterized by great learning and ability, no less