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fact that Pepys had been a roundhead, or called from Charles' own lips the romantic narrative of so when at school, was entirely forgotten ; but, in his escape after the battle of Worcester. general, malice dealt not with facts or half facts, In the next year the king assumed the office of but with absolute falsehoods, admitting of no ex- lord high admiral, and Pepys was constituted secplanation, nor of any other contradiction than such retary for the affairs of the admiralty, which office as arises from being able to prove the witnesses of he filled during the remainder of Charles' reign, the invented calumny unworthy of any credit. Pepys and the whole of James II. When news came of was returned as member to the House of Com- the landing of William, James was sitting to Knelmons, but his seat was disputed, and the house ler for his picture; with entire composure he desired thought itself entitled to examine some statements the painter" to proceed and finish the portrait, that that personally affected Pepys. It was stated that his good friend might not be disappointed :”— he had an altar and a crucifix in his house. It was with difficulty extorted that the information on mittal to the Tower to the abdication of James II.,

The history of the period from Mr. Pepys' comwhich the house was disposed to act had been given so far as the administration of the navy is conby Lord Shaftesbury. Sir J. Banks was also said cerned, and the part borne by him therein, will be to have seen the altar. Shaftesbury evaded and found fully and elegantly detailed in his Memoirs equivocated, denied the altar, but said he saw published in 1690, which the reader may consult something like a crucifix, whether painted or

for his more ample satisfaction. From the perusal carved he could not say, “his memory was so im- of the work now published, it may be seen how

of this interesting little tract, as well as many parts perfect that, were he on his oath, he could give no erroneously the merit of restoring the navy to its testimony.” Banks denied the thing altogether. pristine splendor has been assigned to James II. One solitary word of truth there does not appear by his different biographers. Mr. Stanier Clarke, to have been in the accusation. The opposition to in particular, actually dwells upon the essential and Pepys was allowed to drop, and he was allowed lasting benefit which that monarch conferred on his peaceably to retain his seat. Pepys' journal bears country, by building up and regenerating the naval incontrovertible testimony to his attachment to the power; and asserts, as a proof of the king's great

ability, that the regulations still enforced under the Church of England :

orders of the admiralty, are nearly the same as those In some of the earliest pages of his Diary how originally drawn up by him. It becomes due, thereinteresting are the accounts of his attendance on

fore, to Mr. Pepys to explain, that for these imthe worship of that church, when her rites were provements, the value of which no person can administered to a scattered flock by a few faithful doubt, we are indebted to him, and not to his royal and courageous men, who met for ihat purpose in master. To establish this fact, it is only necessary secret and in danger, like the fathers of the primi- to refer to the MSS. connected with the subject, in tive church under the tyranny of their heathen per

the Bodleian and Pepysian Libraries, by which the secutors! After the Restoration, the confidential extent of Mr. Pepys' official labors can alone be servant of the Duke of York, and the secretary of appreciated ; and we even find in the Diary, as the admiralty to Charles II. and James II., saw, early as 1668, that a long letter of regulation, proundoubtedly, how much his temporal interests duced before the commissioners of the navy by the would be promoted by his conversion to that faith Duke of York,

as his own composition, was entirely which both those princes had embraced, and for written by the Clerk of the Acts.—Lord Braybrooke. the propagation of which the last of them, his im- -Life. mediate patron, manifested such a bigoted and fanatical enthusiasm. But there is no reason for

Pepys' attachment to James was too great to believing that any such temptation ever entered have it natural that he should continue to be eminto his mind; or, if it did, the reader will see, in ployed after the revolution, and he passed into prithe close of this memoir, the most satisfactory vate life. Still till the time of his death he was proofs that it was steadily and successfully resisted. consulted about all things that in any way related -Lord Braybrooke. Life of Pepys.

to the navy. In 1684, he was raised to the high In 1673, the Duke of York having resigned all station of President of the Royal Society. In 1703 his employments, Pepys was called into the king's he died. “I never,” said the clergyman who immediate service as secretary for the affairs of the attended him in his death illness—"I never atnavy. In 1679, Pepys was again accused. It was tended any sick or dying person that died with so the day of pretended plots and conspiracies. Pepys much Christian greatness of mind, or a more lively was accused of treasonable correspondence with sense of immortality, or so much fortitude or France, and was committed to the Tower. One of patience, in so long and sharp a trial, or greater his servants gave testimony that his master was a resignation to the will which he acknowledged to Roman Catholic, and that a foreign music master be the wisdom of God." who lived in Pepys' house was a priest in disguise. The “ Diary” is the record of ten years—from": The servant afterwards retracted all he said, and January, 1659–60, to May, 1670. In the earlier if other evidence of Pepys' innocence be required editions of the work Lord Braybrooke had considit is enough to say that Evelyn states his belief erably abridged the narrative ; and even in the last that the accusation was altogether groundless. edition there are omissions. The manners of our

Another change in the constitution of the admi- age will not permit much that, in days infinitely less ralty separated Pepys from it, but during this in- licentious than those of the second Charles, was in- : terval he attended Charles at Newmarket, and it offensively and innocently spoken and written, and was then and there that he took down in short hand we doubt, accordingly, the fitness of any omissions

whatever. Allowance is made for the difference of sat Exeter House, where he made a very good sermanners which neutralizes whatever is mischiev- mon upon these words—" That in the fulır is of ous; and a distrust of every part of the work is intro- time God sent his Son, made of a woman,” 3:0. ; duced, when an editor once begins to exercise his showing that, by “ made under the law,” is meant

the circumcision, which is solemnized this day. own discretion in determining how much or how Dined at home in the garret, where my wife dressed little of the work he edits is to appear before the the remains of a turkey, and in the doing of it she public. In the new edition of Pepys, the additions burned her hand. I staid at home the whole afterare very considerable-scarce a page where they do noon looking over my accounts. not occur; and, as in the original selections, all that

The Downing here mentioned is described by bore on the general history of the country was stu- Wood as “a sider with all times and changes, diously preserved, it now happens, that the matter, skilled in the coinmon cant, and a preacher occafor the first time printed, and which was then sionally.” He was employed by Cromwell, and omitted, is that which relates to Pepys himself, or after the Restoration he became secretary to the to some passing incident of no seeming importance. treasury. Pepys' employment under him was in To us these trifling traits of character—these tran- some way connected with the Exchequer. The sient indications of manners, are of more value than Mr. Gunning whom he mentions, became afterthe more formal passages, if, indeed, anything in wards Bishop of Ely. He had continued to read this most amusing and most unreserved journal can the liturgy at Exeter House, when the parliament be called formal. There is not a single page of was most predominant, for which Wood often the new edition which it is not necessary to read, rebuked him. Downing's changes of politics in as the additions are often of but a few lines, and these strange times, when no man could see his are not in any way distinguished by any difference way, are not to be too harshly judged of. The of type. The new edition is, in truth, an absolutely fact itself was, probably, nothing more than that new work. Lord Braybrooke's notes to it are also he served under the parliament, and afterwards considerably more illustrative of the text than those under Charles. The temper in which it is in the former editions. Five-and-twenty years recorded is, that of some writer of the day relating have not passed without having considerably in the fact in a tone that exhibits his own feelings, creased his means of information on the subjects and not those of the person he describes. We with which his notes are occupied.

mention this, because too much stress has been The “ Diary” commences at a time when it was laid on Pepys' school-boy Roundheadism, and his manifest that the son of Cromwell had not the being indebted to Downing for the humble office genius or the disposition to retain the sovereignty which he held, has been made the subject of absurd of England. Everything tended to a restoration. accusation against him. In spite of his schoolboy We may as well transcribe Pepys’ two first entries, republicanism, which was but a transient fever of as they have the advantage both of exhibiting the the mind, Pepys was, long before the Restoration, posture of public affairs, and of showing his own in spirit and in heart, a loyalist. In religion, he character :

was at all times an episcopalian ; and the thought 1659-60.-Blessed be God, at the end of the of royalty and the church were at that time fixedly last year I was in very good health, without any associated in men's mids. There is a striking sense of my old pain, but upon taking cold. I entry, dated the 30th of January, 1659, (1660, as lived in Axe-yard, having my wife, and servant

we would write,) for the first time printed, in Jane, and no other in family than us three. The condition of the state was thus, viz., the

Lord Braybrooke's last edition of the “ Diary," Rump, after being disturbed by my Lord' Lambert, which shows the true tone of Pepys' feelings :was lately returned to sit again. The officers of " This morning, before I was up, I fell singing the army all forced to yield. Lawson lies still in of my song “Great, good, and just,' &c., and the river, and Monk is with his army in Scotland. put myself thereby in mind that this was the fatal Only my Lord Lambert is not yet come into the day, now ten years since, his majesty died. parliament, nor is it expected that he will without there seems now to be a general cease of talk, being forced to it. The new cornmon council of it being taken for granted that Monk do resolve the city do speak very high; and had sent to Monk their sword-bearer, to acquaint him with their to stand to the parliament, and nothing else.” desires for a free and full parliament, which is at The expectation, then, of the Restoration was present the desires, and the hopes, and the expec- dying away at the time when Pepys' thoughts tations of all. Twenty-two of the old secluded were thus occupied. What Pepys calls his song, members having been at the House-door the last was the beginning of Montrose’s verses on the week to demand entrance, but it was denied them; execution of Charles, which he had set to and it is believed, that neither they nor the people

music: will be satisfied till the House be filled. My own private condition very handsome, and esteemed Great, good, and just, could I but rate rich, but, indeed, very poor; besides my goods of

My grief, and thy too rigid fate ;

I'd weep the world to such a strain, my house, and my office, which at present is some That it should deluge once again. what certain. Mr. Downing master of my office. But, since thy loud-tongued blond demands supplies,

Jan. Ist (Lord's day).—This morning (we liv More from Briareus' hands than Argus' eyes, ing lately in the garret) I rose, put on my suit I'll sing thy obsequies with trumpet sounds, with great skirts, having not lately worn any other

And write thy epitaph with blood and wounds. clothes but them. Went to Mr. Gunning's chapel The fluctuations of opinion everywhere, and the

watchful anxiety with which Monk's movements he will come in,) unless he carry himself very were regarded by all, during a period in which soberly and well. Everybody now drinks the the fate of the nation seemed to depend on the king's health without any fear; whereas it was part he might take, are nowhere so strikingly before very private that a man dare to do it.” described as in this journal. His whole conduct, Pepys' solution of Lambert's not being unwilinterpreted by the fact of his ultimately declaring ling to go to the Tower is not bad :--" My Lord for the Restoration, is, in the popular histories of did seem to wonder much why Lambert was so England, described as if it were consistent, and willing to be put into the Tower, and thinks he as if the purpose which he accomplished was a has some design in it; but I think that he is so part of his original design, and not like most of poor that he cannot use his liberty for debts, if he the acts of men, in whatever position, a com- were at liberty ; and so it is as good and better promise with circumstances which they but par- for him to be there than anywhere else." tially influence. We learn more of hunan In Dr. Beattie's “Life of Campbell the Poet," nature, and more of actual fact, in these successive we remember something like this. An Irish notices, drawn up without the key which after- patriot of 1798 finds himself comfortably boarded events give. The joy of the city, when Monk and lodged as a state prisoner. He is detained declared for a free parliament, and when the so long that a kind of intimacy grows up between rump was dethroned, is well told :

him and his gaoler. The governor of the prison 11th February, 1659-60.- We were told that

has a daughter, who listens indulgently to his

stories of forfeited estates and chateaux in Ireland, the parliament had sent Scott and Robinson to Monk this afternoon, but he would not hear them. inherited from his ancestors in the days of MileAnd that the mayor and aldermen had offered their sius. The state prisoner gradually becomes a own houses for himself and his officers ; and that great man ; and as he is pretty sure to return his soldiers would lack for nothing. And indeed each evening about dinner-time, is allowed to I saw many people give the soldiers drink and ramble where he pleases during the day. At money, and all along the streets cried, “ God bless last a real grievance comes--the order for his them !” and extraordinary good words. Hence we went to a merchant's house hard by, where I liberation--and O‘Donovan is obliged to curtail saw Sir Nich. Crisp, and so we went to the Star his name of some dozen Celtic letters, which he Tavern (Monk being then at Benson's.) In Cheap- had each day amused himself in explaining to the side there was a great many bonfires, and Bow governor's daughter ; has to forget all about bells and all the bells in all the churches as we Milesius, and Finn M'Comhal, and the glories went home were a-ringing. Hence we went home and victories of his ancestors, Christian and wards, it being about ten at night. But the common joy that was everywhere to be seen! The Pagan, and earn his bread, or cease to eat it, as number of bonfires, there being fourteen between if he were no better than a mere Saxon. St. Dunstan's and Temple Bar, and at Strand Pepys was not entrusted with the secret of Sir Bridge I could at one time tell thirty-one fires. Edward Montag”, who had been in correspondence In King street seven or eight; and all along burn- with the king and the Duke of York for some ing, and roasting, and drinking for rumps. There time; nor were the movements of Monk and being rumps tied upon sticks, and carried up and Montagu in concert, though all were plainly down. The butchers at the May Pole in the Strand rang a peal with their knives when they determined on taking Pepys on board with him in

tending to the Restoration. When Montagu were going to sacrifice their rump. On Ludgate Hill there was one turning of the spit that had a the vessel that was to bring back the king, the rump tied upon it, and another basting of it. object of the voyage was not communicated to Indeed it was past imagination, both the greatness Pepys, nor perhaps was it quite distinctly before and the suddenness of it. At one end of the street Montagu's own mind—it depended on so many you would think there was a whole lane of fire, calculations, and on so many contingencies that and so hot that we were fain to kcep on the further side.

were beyond the reach of calculation. Pepys

made his will, and left to his wife all he had in Still all was doublful. Something like mon- the world, except his books. In spite of his joyarchy is becoming the popular thought. Pepys' ous anticipations connected with the purpose of entry of the first of March following tells us—the voyage, which he more than suspected, he “ Great is the talk of a single person, and that it had misgivings; and he seems to have busied would be Charles, George, or Richard* again. himself in reading signs in the heavens, and Great, also, is the dispute now in the house in guessing what destiny was about, by watching whose name the new writs shall run for the next the shiftings of the clouds, and the changes of the parliament; and it is said that Mr. Prin, in open wind. “I took,” says he, “ a short, melancholy house said, “In King Charles'.'” The entry leave of my father and mother, without having of March the 6th contains the following : them to drink, or say anything of business one to “My Lord [Sir E. Montagu] told me that there another. At Westminster, by reason of rain and was great endeavors to bring in the protector an easterly wind, the water was so high that again ; but he told me, too, that he did not think there were boats rowed in King street, and all our it would last long if he were brought in ; no, nor yards were drowned that no one could go to my the king neither, (though he seems to think that house, so as no man has seen the like almost, and * Charles Rex, George Monk, Richard Cromwell.

most houses full of water."

“ Sir

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Montagu also made his will, for we have an | ther towards a king; that the Skinners' Company, entry :—“ Carried my Lord's will in a black box the other day, at their entertaining of General to Mr. W. Montagu, for him to keep for him.” Monk, had took down the Parliament Arms in Still, in spite of a few misgivings, the omens their Hall, and set up the King's. My Lord and were favorable, and Pepys soon gets into exulting I had a great deal of discourse about the serspirits. Pepys' had been a prosperous life hith- eral captains of the fleet, and his interest among erto, and there was now the dawn of higher pros- them, and had his mind clear to bring in the King. perity. Competence, at least, was within his He confessed to me that he was not sure of his reach-probably wealth, and perhaps rank. The own captain to be true to him, and that he did not manners of the time were such as to us would ap- like Captain Stokes." We soon, however, have pear strange-nay, shabby. Presents—bribes, in the fleet with the king. Pepys drew up the vote, truth -were universal ; and it seems astonishing and we have the letter which accompanied the offihow a system of corruption, extending itself to cial copies of it signed with his name :everything, and overspreading private and public He that can fancy a fleet (like ours) in her pride, life, did not leave society less sound at the core with pendants loose, guns roaring, caps flying, and than it appears to have been. When Downing, the loud Vive le Roys, echoed from one ship's Pepys' first master, went on an excursion to Hol- company to another, he and he only can apprehend land, he took a civil leave of the poor clerk, who the joy this enclosed vote was received with, or was trembling lest his master was about dismiss the blessing he thought himself possessed of that ing him.

• I was afraid," says Pepys, “ that he bore it, and is your humble servant-S. Pepys." would have told me something of removing me The pecuniary distress of the royal family at from my office ; but he did not ; but that he would the moment of the Restoration is mentioned :do me any service that lay in his power. So I

May 16, 1660. This afternoon Mr. E. Pickerwent down, and sent a porter to my house for my ing told me in what a sad, poor condition, for best sur cap ; but he coming too late with it, I did clothes and money, the King was, and all his atnot present it to him; and so I returned and went tendants, when he came to him first from my Lord. to Heaven, * where I dined.”

their clothes not being worth forty shillings, the Pepys was now in the position to feel how best of them. And how overjoyed the King was

when Sir J. Greenville brought him some money; much more blessed it is to receive than to give. He is appointed secretary to the two generals of Duke of York to look upon it as it lay in the port

so joyful that he called the Princess Royal and the fleet, and we find him writing, in his secret manteau before it was taken out. My Lord told cipher—" Strange how these people do promise me, too, that the Duke of York is made High Adme anything ; one rapier, the other a vessel of miral of England. wine or a gun; and one offered me a silver hatband to do him a courtesy.

On the 17th, Pepys was presented to the king,

I pray God to keep the Duke of York, and the princess royal. me from being proud, or too much lifted up hereby.” We have an entry of the 30th—“I was

May 23, 1660. We weighed anchor, and with saluted in the morning with two letters from some for England. All the afternoon the King walked

a fresh gale and most happy weather, we set sail one I had done a favor to, which bronglit me in here and there, up and down (quite contrary to each a piece of gold.” Neither of the passages what I thought him to have been) very active and which we have last quoted are in the earlier edi- stirring. Upon the quarter-deck he fell into distions of the " Diary;" and this may suggest to course of his escape from Worcester, where it our readers how imperfect any acquaintance with made me ready to weep to hear the stories that he the book derived from the former editions can be. told of his difficulties that he had passed through, An entry of April the 1st follows, the following

as his travelling four days and three nights on foot, sentence of which was first printed in 1848 :

every step up to his knees in dirt, with nothing but “ April 1 (Lord's day.)—This morning I gave a pair of country shoes that made him so sore all

a green coat and a pair of country breeches on, and Mr. Hill, that was on board with the vice-admiral, over bis feet, that he could scarce stir. Yet he was a bottle of wine, and was exceedingly satisfied forced to run away from a miller and other compawith the power I have to make my friends wel ny, that took them for rogues. His sitting at table come.”

Some parts of the entry, that may be of at one place, where the master of the house, that use with reference to general history, follow ; but had not seen him in eight years, did know him, but their value for this, or for any purpose, is dimin- kept it private ; when at the table there was one

that had been of his own regiment at Worcester, ished, by omitting anything illustrative of the could not know him, but made him drink the King's character of the writer. The entire unreserve health, and said that the King was at least four finwith which everything that passes through his gers higher than he. At another place he was by mind is jotted down, is no inconsiderable part of some servants of the house made to drink, that they the evidence that makes us rely entirely on his might know that he was not a Roundhead, which fidelity. Montagu soon ceased to have any secrets the master of the house, as the king was standing

they swore he was. In another place at his inn, from Pepys; but the necessity of caution and se- with his hands on the back of a chair at the fireside, crecy still existed.

When at sea, they learn that kneeled down and kissed his hand, privately, say. "All the news from London is, that things go on fur-ing, that he would not ask him who he was, but

*"False Heaven, at the end of the Hall.”—Hudibras. bid God bless him whither he was going. Then A place of entertainment in Old Palace-yard.

the difficulties in getting a boat to get into France, 36




where he was fain to plot with the master thereof | Lord, I, and W. Howe did stand, listening a great to keep his design from the foreman and a boy, while to the musique.” The whispering about (which was all the ship's company,) and so get to Madame Palmer goes on, and there is more in the Fecamp, in France. At Rouen he looked so poorly that the people went into the rooms before he went

matter than Pepys has heard ; the king, however,

and not the duke, seems the favored lover. away, to see whether he had not stole something or other.

“ There are factions," we are told, “private ones

at court, about Mrs. Palmer, but what it is about Pepys is, however, occupied in one way or oth- I know not. But it is about the King's favor to er for a month more, so as to have no opportunity her now that the Queen is coming.” Our next of rejoining his family; and it is not until the meeting with Mrs. Palmer is as Lady Castlemaine. 22nd of the following month that we have the en- We are told of a patent for “Roger Palmer (Madtry—“To bed the first time since my coming from ame Palmer's husband) to be Earl of Castlemaine sea in my own house, for which God be praised.

and Baron of Limbricke in Ireland ; but the honor On the 8th of July we have the entry—“To is tied up to the males of the body of this wife, Whitehall Chapel, where I got in with ease, by the reason whereof everybody knows.” Soon after going before the Lord Chancellor with Mr. Kipps. we have an account that Lady Castlemaine, “ beHere I heard very good musique, the first time ing quite fallen out with her husband, did yesterthat ever I remember to have heard the organs, day go away from him with all her plate, jewels, and singing men in surplices, in my life. The

and other best things, and is gone to Richmond Bishop of Chichester [King] preached before the to a brother of hers; which I am apt to think King, and made a great flattering sermon, which was a design to get her out of town, that the I did not like, that the clergy should meddle with King might come at her the better.” This entry matters of state."

was in July. In the following January we have The 10th is an important day with Pepys. It recorded a visit to Whitehall, " where I spent a was the day on which his patron obtained the title little time walking among the courtiers, which I of Earl of Sandwich. It was more important on

perceive I shall be able to do with great confiother accounts. - This day I put on my new silk dence, being now beginning to be pretty well suit, the first that ever I wore in my life.” It

known among them. Among other discourse am had further interest. Pepys had an eye for pretty told how the King sups at least four times every women, and that day he took his wife to “a great week with my Lady Castlemaine, and most often wedding of Nan Hartlib's to Mynheer Roder,

stays till the morning with her, and goes home which was kept at Goring House, with very great through the garden all alone, privately; and that state, cost, and able company. But among all

so as the very sentries take notice of it and speak the beauties there my wife was thought the great- of it.” In February he is told “ that my Lady est.” “Home, with my mind pretty quiet ; not Castlemaine hath all the King's Christmas presreturning, as I said I would, to see the bride put ents made him by the peers given to her, which is in bed."

a most aboininable thing; and that at the great On the 13th Pepys rises early, for he has busi- ball she was much richer in jewels than the Queen ness to do—he had been promised the patent place and Duchess both put together.” In a miscellaof Clerk of the Acts, and he had to pass his pa- neous entry of the 25th of April, the greater part tent. This was difficult, for fees were to be paid of which was suppressed in the earlier editions, to every one who had anything to do in preparing

we find a good deal worth preserving : it ; and it would seem that even a copying clerk, who had not been the person himself to copy it,

April 25th, 1663. In the evening, merrily pracwas near interrupting all by insisting that it was tising the dance which my wife hath begun to learn not fairly written. However, Pepys gave him this day of Mr. Pembleton. but I fear will hardly - two pieces, after which it was strange how civil that she do well already, though I think no such

do any great good at it, because she is conceited and tractable he was to me.” Pepys' fear was thing. At Westminister Hall this day I bought a lest some sudden change should displace his patron book, lately printed, and licensed by Dr. Stradling, from power, before the patent was passed. The the Bishop of London's chaplain, being a book disbusiness of the day, however, succeeded to his covering the practices and designs of the Papists heart's content, and on that day he was a happy of the Queen Mother's father confessors, the bishop,

a very good book ; but forasmuch as it touches one man. “ It was," this faithful record states, "the

which troubles many good men and members of parfirst day I put on my black camlett cloak with sil- liament, hath called it in, which I am sorry for it. ver buttons.” The same entry concludes with a Another book I bought, being a collection of many notice which shows to what the court was coming, expressions of the great Presbyterian preachers and that another reign than that of the Puritans upon public occasions, in the late times, against the was what the English people had to prepare them- King and his party, as some of Mr. Marshall, Case, selves for :—“Late writing letters, and great do- Calamy, Baxter, &c., which is good reading now,

to see what they then did teach, and the people beings of musique, at the next house, which was

lieve, and what they would seem to believe now. Whally's ; the King and the Duke there with I did fear that the Queen is much grieved of late Madame Palmer, a pretty woman that they had a

at the King's neglecting her, he not having supped fancy too, to make her husband a cuckold. Here once with her this quarter of a year, and almost at the old door, that did go into his lodgings, my every night with my Lady Castlemaine, who hath

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