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which was, that fome of the most important tranfac tions mentioned in those writings, were relative to himfelf; and many perfonal anecdotes with regard to him, were now brought to light, which could have been difclofed by no one but Sir William, and which put the character of that truly heroic Prince in a high point of view. On thefe accounts Swift thought that fuch a dedication was not only the politeft method of reminding the King of his promise made to Sir William Temple in his behalf, but the likelieft means of having it speedily carried into execution. However, as he did not find the event anfwer his expectation, he applied to that Monarch by memorial.

But after waiting fome time, he found that his memorial had produced no better effect than his dédication. He therefore readily accepted of an offer made to him by Lord Berkeley, then appointed one of the Lords Juftices of Ireland, to attend him to that kingdom, in the double capacity of Chaplain, and private Secretary.

This total neglect of his promife, made in confe quence of a laft, and it may be called a dying request, of his particular friend, feems to bear not a little hard on the character of King William. But it is to be obferved that Swift was the most unfit man in the world to folicit a point of that fort in due form, without which nothing is to be done at Court. He thought that his fhewing himself there, or at moft the dedication of Sir William's Works, was all that was neceffary to be done on his part. And with regard to the memorial, he himfelf exonerated King William fo far, as to say often that he believed it never was received. into the hands of a certain Nobleman, great regard to him, and offered to prefent it to the King, and fecond it with all his might; but Swift had

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afterwards reason to believe that he had funk it, and faid not a word of the matter.

Swift acted as Secretary to Lord Berkeley, till they arrived at Dublin; when he was fupplanted in that office by one Bush, who had by fome means ingratiated himself with my Lord; and reprefenting the office of Secretary as an improper one for a Clergyman, he was appointed in Swift's room. Lord Berkeley making the best apology to him that he could, and at the fame time promifing to make him amends, by bestowing on him the first good church preferment that fhould fall in his gift. Swift was not a man to be treated in this manner with impunity. Accordingly, he gave free fcope to his refentment, in a fevere copy of verses, which placed the Governor and his new-made Secretary in a most ridiculous point of light, and which was every where handed about to their no fmall mortification. Soon after this the rich Deanery of Derry became vacant, and as it was the Earl of Berkeley's turn to prefent to it, Swift applied to him for it upon the strength of his promife. Lord Berkeley faid, that Bush had been before-hand with him, and had got the promise of it for another. Upon feeing Swift's indignation rife at this, my Lord, who began to be in no fmall fear of him, faid that the matter might ftill be fettled if he would talk with Bufh. Swift immediately found out the Secretary, who very frankly told him that he was to get a thousand pound for it, and if he would lay down the money, he fhould have the preference. To which Swift, enraged to the utmoft degree, at an offer which he confidered as the highest infult, and done evidently with Lord Berkeley's participation, made no other answer but this; "God confound you both for a couple of fcoundrels." With thefe words he immediately quitted the room, and turned his back on the Castle,

Castle, determined to appear there no more. But Lord Berkeley was too confcious of the ill treatment he had given him, and too fearful of the refentment of an exasperated genius, not to endeavour to pacify him. He therefore immediately prefented him with the rectory of Agher, and the vicarages of Laracor and Rathbeggan, then vacant in the diocese of Meath. Though thefe livings united did not make up a third of the Deanery in value, and though from the large promises which had been made him, he had reafon to expect much greater preferment, yet, confidering the fpecimens already given of the performance of those promifes, Swift thought it moft prudent to accept of those livings, dropping all future expectations from that quarter. Nor did he afterwards estrange himself from Lord Berkeley's family, but continued ftill in his office of Chaplain; to which he feems to have been chiefly induced, from the great honour and refpect which he had for his excellent Lady: whofe virtues he has celebrated in fo masterly a manner, in the Introduction to the Project for the Advancement of Religion.

From this behaviour to Lord Berkeley, we may judge how little Swift was qualified to rise at Court, in the ufual way of obtaining preferment; and we may eftimate the greatnefs of his fpirit, by the degree of refentment fhewn to the man, in confequence of ill treatment, upon whom all his hopes of preferment then refted.

It was at this time that Swift's true humourous vein in poetry began to display itself, in feveral little pieces, written for the private entertainment of Lord Berkeley's family; among which was that incomparable piece of low humour, called The humble Petition of Mrs. Frances Harris, &c.

When Lord Berkeley quitted the government of Ireland, Swift went to refide on his living at Laracor; where he lived for fome time in the conftant and ftrict discharge of his duty.

It was about this time that Mrs. Johnfon (the afterwards celebrated Stella) arrived in Ireland, accompanied by another Lady of the name of Dingley, who was related to the family of the Temples. Sir William Temple had bequeathed to Mrs. Johnfon a legacy of a thousand pounds, in confideration of her father's faithful fervices, and her own rifing merits. After Sir William's death, fhe lived for fome time with Mrs. Dingley, a lady who had but a fmall annuity to support her. In this fituation Swift advised his lovely pupil to fettle in Ireland, as the intereft of money was at that time ten per cent. in that kingdom; and confidering the cheapnefs of provifions, her income there would afford her a genteel support, inftead of a mere fubfiftence in England; for the fame reafon alfo he recommended it to Mrs. Dingley to accompany her. This propofal was very agreeable to both the ladies. To the latter, as fhe had fcarce a fufficient income to fubfift on in England, though managed with the utmost frugality; to the former, that fhe might be near her tutor, whofe leffons, however they might dwell on her memory, had funk still deeper into her heart. These ladies, soon after their arrival, took a lodging at Trim, a village near Laracor, which was the place of Swift's refidence. The converfation of this amiable woman, who, by his own account, had the most and finest accomplishments of any perfon he had ever known of either fex, contributed not a little to fweeten his retirement, which otherwise must soon have become burdenfome to fo active a fpirit. But though Stella's beauty was at that time arrayed in all the pride of blooming eighteen,

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eighteen, yet it is certain that he never dropped the leaft hint that might induce her to confider him in the light of a lover. In his whole deportment he still maintained the character of a tutor, a guardian, and a friend; but he fo ftudiously avoided the appearance of any other attachment to her, that he never faw, or converfed with her, but in the presence of fome third perfon. The truth is, that Swift, at that time, knew not what the paffion of love was; his fondnefs for Stella was only that of an affectionate parent to a favourite child; and he had long entertained a diflike to matrimony. He feems to have been under the dominion of a still more powerful paffion, that of ambition: a paffion which, from his boyish days, had taken strong hold, of his mind, and never afterwards forfook him, till all hopes of its being farther gratified had failed.

Urged by this reftlefs fpirit, he every year paid a vifit to England, abfenting himself for fome months from the duties of his parish, and the charming converfation of the amiable Stella, in hopes of finding fome favourable opportunity of distinguishing himself, and pushing his fortune in the world. His first visit to London, from the time he had taken poffeffion of his living, was in the year 1701. At which time he found the publick in a ferment, occafioned by the impeachment of the Earls of Portland and Orford, Lord -Somers, and Lord Hallifax, by the Houfe of Commons. Upon this occafion Swift wrote and published his first political tract, entitled, A Difcourfe of the Contests and Diffentions in Athens and Rome. In which he difplayed great knowledge in ancient hiftory, as well as fkill in the English conftitution, and the ftate of parties. The author of this piece concealed his name with the greatest precaution, nor was he at that time perfonally known to any of the Nobles, in whofe favour it feems

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