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THE OCCASIONS OF OFFERING SACRIFICE. 9
tion of blessings desired; or for thanks giving, when received; or for the removal of some guilt or uncleanness. Sacrifices under the two first heads are called peaceofferings, Lev. vii. 11, 12, 16. Those on the last account are distinguished into sinofferings and trespass-offerings; otherwise called, in the language of modern divines, piacular or expiatory sacrifices.
6.' The sins and trespasses for which they were offered, were generally sins of ignorance, or ceremonial pollutions. See Lev. iv, 2, 3, 13, 22, 27.-V, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18.xij. 6. xiv. 1, 2, &c.xv. 13, 14, 15. Numb, vi. 11.XV. 22, &c. It is added ver, 30, But the soul that doth ought presumptuously, the same reproacheth the Lord; and that soul shall be cut off from among his people. No sacrifices were to be offered for him that did ought presumptuously, i. e. knowingly and -wilfully. And yet there are three cases which seem to be exceptions from this general rule. (1.) When a person upon his oath before a magistrate did not utter what he had seen or known, Lev. v. i. (2.) When a man dealt fraudulently with his neighbour, Lev. vi. 1, &c. (3.) The vi
tiating of a bond maid, Lev. xix. 20. In the rules for the day of atonement mention is made of all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their transgressions in all their sins, Lev. xvi. 21. But those sins must be excepted which were threatened with excision, or cutting off
7. II. The ceremonies used in offering sacrifices were as follows. The beast, bullock, sheep, or goat, being without blemish, was brought unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, Lev. iv. 4, &c. Where, whether it was burntoffering Lev. i. 4, or peace-offering Lev. iii. 1, 2, 6, 8, 13, or sin-offering Lev. iv. 4, 15, 24, 29, 33, the offerer was to lay his hand upon the head of it. Then having slain it, the priest sprinkled the blood round about the altar; if it was a burnt-offering, or a peace-offering, Lev. i. 5, 11.-iii. 2, 8, 13. But if it was a sin-offering for the high priest, or for the whole congregation; the priest took of the blood, and brought it into the tabernacle of the congregation ; and dipping his finger in it, sprinkled it seven times before the Lord, before the vail of the sanctuary; or before the holy of ho
lies, where the ark and other symbols of the Divine presence were. And moreover, in all sin-offerings he put some of the blood upon the horns of the altar of sweet incense ; and lastly, poured out all the rest at the bottom of the altar of the burnt-offering, which was at the door of the tabernacle, Lev. iv. 5, 6, 7, 16, 17, 18, 25, 30. -v. 9.
8. In burnt-offerings, after the blood was sprinkled, the head, inwards, and legs were separated from the carcass; the inwards and legs washed in water, and, together with the head and the fat, laid upon the fire on the altar ; then the whole body of the sacrifice ; and all were burnt on the altar, Lev. i. 7, 8, 9, 12, 13.
9. In peace or sin-offerings, all the fat upon the inwards, the two kidneys, and the fat upon them, which is by the flanks, and the caul above the liver, were separated from the body, and burnt on the altar, upon the [daily] burnt-offering, Lev. iii. 3, 4, &c. -iv. 8, 9, 10, 19, 20, 35. Moreover, in peace-offerings the breast, and the right shoulder were also to be taken off, and being first waved, or heaved to and fro, were given to the priests to be eaten by them; and the rest of the sacri. fice was eaten by the offerer, his family, and friends, Lev. vii. 15, 16, 30, 32, 33, 34.-X. 14, 15.
:10. In those sin-offerings, where the blood was brought into the tabernacle, the carcass of the beast was carried out of the camp* (afterwards out of Jerusalem, the city being supposed to be the camp) unto a clean place, and there was burnt. (Lev. iv. 12, 21.–Vi. 30.-xvi. 27.) And he, who burnt it, was obliged to wash his clothes, and bathe his flesh, before he returned into the camp, as being unclean. But when the blood was not brought into the tabernacle, all the beast (excepting the parts burnt upon the altar), fell to the priests; and was to be eaten by no other persons, and in no other place, but in the sanctuary, Numb. xviii. 9, 10. · 11. In Lev. xvi. 1, &c. are described the ceremonies observed on the annual day of atonement; when, for himself and family, the high priest offered a bullock for a sin offering. For the whole congregation of the people two goats were provided, and lots cast upon them; and according as the
* Heb. xiii: 11, 12, 13.
lot fell, the one was for a sin-offering, the other reserved alive for another use. When the sin-offerings were slain, the high priest took a censer of burning coals from the altar, and a handful of incense; and entering, with the greatest solemnity, through the vail, into the holy of holies he set the censer down before the ark of the covenant, and poured the incense upon the coals, that the smoke of it might cover, orobscure, the mercy-seat. Then he fetched the blood of the sin-offerings, and sprinkled it upon, and before the mercy-seat seven times. This done, he took the goat, which by lot was exempted from being sacrificed, and presented it alive before the Lord; laying both his hands upon its head, and confessing over it all the iniquities of the children of Israel, putting them upon the head of the goat; and so sent it away by the hand of a fit man into the wilderness, to be let loose in a desert, uninhabited land. Which man, by attending the goat, was rendered unclean; and therefore commanded to wash his clothes, and bathe his flesh, before he returned into the camp.