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As it is of some consequence to show that Knox's Liturgy held its place in the esteem of the Church down to the time of adopting the Westminster Directory, we give a few of the parallel passages referred to in the text, indicating the frequent and special use that was made of that Liturgy in the Assembly's production.

From the Thanksgiving after Baptism:

Knox's LITURGY.

DIRECTORY.

We give Thee most humble Acknowledging with all thankthanks for Thine infinite goodness, fulness ... that He is good and grawhich hast not only numbered us cious, not only that He numbereth us amongst Thy saints, but also of Thy among His saints, but is pleased also free mercy dost call our children unto to bestow upon our children this sinThee, marking them with this Sacra- gular token and badge of His love ment, as a singular token and seal in Christ. of Thy love, ...

That Thou wilt confirm this ... and daily confirm more and Thy favour more and more towards more this His unspeakable favour : us, and take this infant into Thy that He would receive the infant now tuition and defence. ...

baptized ... into His fatherly tuition and defence. ..

From the Exhortation at the Lord's Supper:
I separate from this Table all

He is in the name of Christ... blasphemers, etc. charging them to warn all such ... that they pre

that they presume not to profane sume not to come to that holy Table. this most holy Table. Neither yet is this pronounced

Invite all that desire to reach against such as aspire to a greater out unto a greater progress in grace perfection than they can in this pre- than they can yet attain unto. sent life attain.

From the Consecrating Prayer:

Knox's LITURGY.

DIRECTORY.

From the bondage whereof ... From which neither man or neither man nor angel was able to angel was able to deliver us. make us free. ...

To declare and witness before ... To profess that there is none the world, that by Him alone we have other name under heaven by which received liberty and life;

we can be saved, but the name of by Him alone we hare entrance to Jesus Christ; by whom alone we rethe throne of Thy grace; that by ceive liberty and life, have access to Him alone we are possessed in our the throne of grace, are admitted to spiritual kingdom, to eat and drink eat and drink at His own Table, at His Table, etc.

etc.

... that

THE TABLE OF PORTIONS OF SCRIPTURE.

The orderly reading of Scripture in the public services of the Sanctuary, has always been enjoined and practised among the Reformed Churches. Not only one portion or chapter from each Testament, as prescribed by the Westminster Directory of Worship, but generally several chapters, are appointed in the French, Swiss, and Waldensian Churches, for the ordinary service of the Lord's Day. These lessons are read, not by the officiating ministers, but by a clerk, immediately before the commencement of the public prayers; and the reading is always concluded with the Ten Commandments. The early editions of the Scottish Liturgy, or Book of Common Order, contain this direction : "Upon the days appointed for the preaching of the Word, when a convenient number of the Congregation have come together, that they may make fruit of their presence till the assembly be full, one, appointed by the Eldership, shall read some chapters of the Canonical Books of Scripture, singing Psalms between at his discretion: and this reading to be in order, as the books and chapters follow, that so from time to time the Holy Scriptures may be read through. But upon special occasion, special chapters may be appointed.” The same provision, in words very similar, was made a century later by the Divines of Westminster: who, however, judiciously transferred this part of divine worship to a more central location in the service. In the selection of portions of Scripture here given, it is not contemplated that any should strictly confine themselves to a consecutive course of reading, as it will frequently appear advisable to select passages more suitable to the time or theme of discourse. But, on ordinary occasions, this, or some similar order, will be found convenient and profitable.

THE ORDER OF DIVINE SERVICE ON THE LORD'S DAY.

MORNING SERVICE. The first of the Opening Sentences constitutes the invariable exordium of all the Reformed liturgies. Other sentences have been added, with a view to variety.

The Invitation, which is here put in Scriptural words, reads in the Calvinistic formularies, thus: “ Brethren, let each of you present himself before the Lord, to make an humble confession of his sins, following in heart these words."

The Confession of Sin, composed by Calvin, occupies this place in all the Reformed liturgies, and the variations are but slight and merely verbal.

The Declaration of Forgiveness, in the form of a recital of Gospel assurances of pardon to the penitent, was used by the early Reformed churches in France and elsewhere, at the express recommendation of Calvin; who, however, for reasons thus stated by him, did not introduce this feature into the liturgy of Geneva. “There is none of us,” says he, but must acknowledge it to be very useful that, after the general confession, some striking promise of Scripture should follow, whereby sinners might be raised to hopes of pardon and reconciliation. And I would have introduced this custom from the beginning; but some fearing that the novelty of it would give offence, I was over easy in yielding to them.” The custom was, however, adopted in the church of Strasburg, from whose liturgy, prepared under Calvin's auspices, it was imitated, together with the preceding Sentences, Invitation, and Confession, by the compilers of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer.

The Supplication is Calvin's Prayer before Sermon; and the Thanksgiving which follows it, is by Knox. With this latter exception, all the forms of this Morning Service are from the liturgy of the Genevan Reformer.

OTHER FORMS, for the Morning Service. The Beatitudes, and the Summary of our Lord's Precepts, are here given as appropriate for occasional use instead of the Decalogue. The succeeding forms for the Confession of Sin, are those of Baxter, Knox, and Bucer. Of the forms of Thanksgiving, the first is from Baxter, the second from the American revision of the Directory of Worship (A. D. 1787), and the third from the Liturgy of the Waldensian Church. The forms of Intercession are those of Knox, Baxter, and the Liturgy of Neuchatel (prepared by the Reformed theologian Ostervald).

EVENING SERVICE, The Presbyterian formularies of worship impose no special order for the second service on the Lord's Day. That service was originally devoted to the catechetical instruction of the young; and the Minister in conducting it was left to entire freedom of selection or composition. The prayers here furnished are taken from the various Reformed liturgies. The Invocation is Calvin's. The Litany, though modelled upon the ancient litanies, was prepared, as it here stands, by the Reformer Bucer, from whose “Reformation of Doctrine and Worship" it is translated. From this form the Litany of the English Prayer-Book is mainly borrowed. The Closing Prayer is by Knox.

OTHER Forms, for the Evening Service. Baxter is the author of both the alternate forms of Invocation here given. It is from the Reformed liturgy prepared by that divine, that the several prayers attributed to him in this volume are taken. The General Prayers which follow, are respectively by Knox and Calvin ; first and fourth by the former, the second and third by the latter. Of the Closing Prayers, one is from Knox's Liturgy, another from the Waldensian, and a third from the Reformed Dutch liturgy.

the

THE MANNER OF CELEBRATING THE LORD'S SUPPER.

This form of service, established by Calvin, is substantially the same with that used at the present day in all the continental branches of the Reformed Church. The Consecrating Prayer is taken from the present Liturgy of Geneva. The directions for the administration are quoted from the Directory of Worship of the Presbyterian Church. The sentences of Scripture to be repeated

during the participation, are such as it is customary to pronounce on that occasion, in the French and Swiss Churches.

Of the other forms for this Celebration, the first is from Knox's liturgy, the second from Baxter's, and the third from the liturgy of the Reformed Dutch Church.

THE FORM OF ADMINISTERING BAPTISM.

This is Calvin's formulary, completed by the insertion of the questions and covenant engagements required by the Directory of Worship; and by the addition of the closing Thanksgiving, which was composed by Knox.

The other forms of administering this Ordinance, are Knox's, Baxter's, and that of the Reformed Dutch Church. From the last source is also taken the succeeding Form of Baptizing Adult Persons.

The Form of Admitting Baptized Persons to the Lord's Table, is from the Waldensian Liturgy; the Preface being added from Is. xliv. The Benediction, as here given, occurs in the Neuchatel service for the same occasion. It forms part of the ordinary form of blessing appointed in the Book of Common Prayer; but is original with Bucer, in his “Reformation," etc.

The Reformed Churches recognize no mode of admission to church membership, other than by the administration of baptism. In the case of adults who have received that rite in infancy, the confirmation of their baptismal vows is ordinarily performed in public before the congregation.

OCCASIONAL OFFICES. ORDER OF SERVICE FOR A DAY OF HUMILIATION, FASTING, AND PRAYER. The directions as to this service are quoted, as in all other instances so marked, from the Directory of Worship of the Presbyterian Church. The selection of Scripture forming the Preface, is taken from the French and Genevan Liturgies. The passages indicated for the First and Second Readings, are those given in the Waldensian Liturgy for the same occasion. A selection somewhat

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