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'Puniceus. It was originally a title, which the Greeks made use of as a provincial name: but it was never admitted as such by the people, to whom it was thus appropriated, till the Greeks were in possession of the country. And even then it was but partially received: for though mention is made of the coast of Phænice, yet we find the natives called Sidonians, Tyrians, and * Canaanites, as late as the days of the Apostles. It was an honorary term, compounded of Anac with the Egyptian prefix; and rendered at times both Phoinic and Poinic. It signified a lord or prince: and was particularly assumed by the sons of Chus and Canaan. The Mysians seem to have kept nearest to the original pronunciation, who gave this title to the God Dionusus, and called him Ph'anac.


Ogygia me Bacchum vocat,
Osirin Ægyptus putat,
Mysi Phanacem.

"In all artient accounts of the Romans the term was expressed Poini, and Poinicus. Poinei stipendia pendunt. Poinei sunt solitei sos sacrificare puellos. Ennius. Annal. vii. Afterwards it was changed to Pænus, and Punicus.

2 Simon the Canaanite. Matth. c. 10. y. 4. Also the woman of Canaan. Matthew. c. 15. v. 22.

3 Ausonius. Epigram. 25. Ph’Anac, the Great Lord.


It was also conferred upon many thivgs, which were esteemed princely and noble. Hence the red, or scarlet, a colour appropriated to great and honourable personages, was styled Phoinic. The palm was also styled Phoinic, Divit: and the antients always speak of it as a stately and noble

It was esteemed an emblem of honour; and made use of as a reward of victory. Plurimarum palmarum homo, was a proverbial expression among the Romans, for a soldier of merit. Pliny speaks of the various species of palms; and of the great repute in which they were held by the Babylonians. He says, that the noblest of them were styled the royal Palms; and supposes that they were so called from their being set apart for the king's use. But they were very early an emblem of royalty : and it is a circumstance included in their original name.

We find from Apuleius, that Mercury, the * Hermes of Egypt, was represented with a palm branch in his hand : and his priests at Hermopolis used to have them stuck in their Ssandals, on the outside. The Goddess Isis


* Apuleius. 1. xi. p. 246.

5 Zachlas adest Ægyptius, propheta primarius, et cum dicto juvenem quempiam linteis amiculis intectum, pedesque palmeis baxeis indutum, et adusque deraso capite, producit in medium. Apuleius. I. 2. p. 39.

• Pedes ambrosios tegebant soleæ, palmæ victricis foliis intextæ. Ibid. l. 11. p. 241.

was thus represented : and we may infer that Hermes had the like ornaments; which the Greeks mistook for feathers, and have in consequence of it added wings to his feet. The Jews used to carry boughs of the same tree at some of their festivals; and particularly at the celebration of their nuptials: and it was thought to have an influence at the birth. Euripides alludes to this in his Ion; where he makes Latona recline herself against a Palm tree, when she is going to produce Apollo and Diana.

7 Φοινικα Παρ' αβρoκoμαν
Ενθα λοχευματα σεμν' ελοχεύσατο



In how great estimation this tree was held of old, we may learn from many passages in the sacred writings. Solomon says to his espoused, how fair and how pleasant art thou, O Love, for delights : thy stature is like a Palm tree. And the Psalmist for an encouragement to holiness, says, 9 that the righteous shall flourish like the Palm tree : for the Palm was supposed to rise under a weight; and to thrive in proportion to its being

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° depressed. There is possibly a farther allusion in this, than may at first appear. The antients had an opinion, that the Palm was immortal : at least, if it did die, it recovered again, and obtained a second life by renewal. Hence the story of the bird, styled the Phænix, is thought to have been borrowed from this tree. Pliny, in describing the species of Palm, styled Syagrus, says, "Mirum de eâ accepimus, cum Phænice Ave, quæ putatur ex hujus Palmæ argumento nomen accepisse, iterum mori, et renasci ex seipsâ. Hence we find it to have been an emblem of immortality among all nations, sacred and prophane. The blessed in heaven are represented in the Apocalypse by St. John, “as standing before the throne in white robes, with branches of Palm in their hands. The notion of this plant being an emblem of royalty prevailed so far, that when our Saviour made his last entrance into Jerusalem, the people took branches of Palm trees, and accosted him as a prince, crying, "3 Hosannablessed is the King of Israel.


" Plutarch Symposiac. I. 8. c. 4.
Adversus pondera resurgit. Gellius. 1. 3. c. 6.
" Pliny. Hist. Nat. I. 13. C. 4.
"legor 'HA18 to Qutor, aynpes to ov. Juliani Imp. Orat. v. p. 330.

"Revelations. c. 7. ν. 9. Περιβεβλημενοι σολας λευκας, και Φοινικες εν ταις χερσιν αυτών.

John. c. 12. v. 13.





The title of Phoinic seems at first to have been given to persons of great stature: but, in of time, it was conferred upon people of power and eminence, like avať and avartes among the Greeks. The Cuthites in Egypt were styled Royal Shepherds, Bacinsis Iosueves, and had therefore the title of Phænices. A colony of them went from thence to Tyre and Syria : hence it is said by many writers that Phænix came from Egypt to Tyre. People, not considering this, have been led to look for the shepherd's origin in Canaan, because they were sometimes called Phænices. They might as well have looked for them in Greece; for they were equally styled "4 'Enamves, Hellenes. Phænicia, which the Greeks called Borvixn, was but a small part of Canaan. It was properly a slip of sea coast, which lay within the jurisdiction of the Tyrians and Sidonians, and signifies Ora Regia ; or, according to the language of the country, the coast of the Anakim. It was a lordly title, and derived from a stately and august people. All the natives of Canaan seem to have assumed to themselves great honour. The Philistines are spoken of as "s Lords, and the mer



14 Εκκαιδεκατη δυναγεια Ποιμενες Ελληνες Βασιλεις.


P. 61.

"S The Lords of the Philistines; and the Priuces of the Philis. tines. Samuel. c. 29. 1. 2, 3, 4.

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