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Thy son, and his, ere that, may die,
And Time some uncouth heir supply,

Who shall for nothing else be known
But spoiling all that thou hast done.

Who set the twigs shall he remember
That is in haste to sell the timber?

And what shall of thy woods remain,

Except the box that threw the main ?

Nay, may not Time and Death remove
The near relations whom I love?
And my coz Tom, or his coz Mary,

“Ο Βίος γάρ δνομ' έχει, πόνος δ' έργφ πέλει. (Who hold the plow, or skim the dairy.)

EURIP. My favorite books and pictures sell

Siquis Deus mihi largiatur, ut ex hac ætate repuerascam, et in To Smart, or Doiley, by the ell ?

cunis vagiam, valde recusem.--CIC. de Senect. Kindly throw in a little figure, And set the price upon the bigger?

The bewailing of man's miseries has been elegantly and copiThose who could never read the grammar, ously set forth by many in the writings as well of philosoWhen my dear volumes touch the hammer, phers as divines ; and is both a pleasant and a profitable conMay think books best, as richest bound;

My copper medals by the pound
May be with learned justice weigh'd ;
To turn the balance, Otho's head
May be thrown in; and, for the metal,

The coin may mend a tinker's kettle-
“Tir'd with these thoughts”—“ Less tir'd

Texts chiefly alluded to in Book I than I,"

“The words of the Preacher the son of David, king of Quoth Dick, “ with your philosophy

Jerusalem.”—Eccles. chap. i. ver. 1.
Thai people live and die, I knew
An hour ago, as well as you.

“Vanity of vanities, says the Preacher, vanity of vanities, And, if Fate spins us longer years,

all is vanity."-Ver. 2. Or is in haste to take the shears,

“I communed with mine own heart, saying, Lo, I am I know we must both fortunes try,

come to great estate, and have gotten more wisdom And bear our evils, wet or dry.

than all they that have been before me in Jerusalem : Yet, let the goddess smile or frown,

yea, my heart had great experience of wisdom and Bread we shall eat, or white or brown;

knowledge."-Ver. 16. And in a cottage, or a court, Drink fine champaigne, or muddled port.

" He spake of trees, from the cedar-tree that is in Leba. What need of books these truths to tell,

non, even unto the hyssop that springeth out of the Which folks perceive who cannot spell ?

wall: he spake also of beasts, and of fowl, and of And must we spectacles apply,

creeping things, and of tishes."–1 Kings, chap. iv. rer.

33. To view what hurts our naked eye! “Sir, if it be your wisdom's aim

“I know, that whatsoever God doeth, it shall be for ever; To make me merrier than I am,

nothing can be put to it, nor any thing taken from it; I'll be all night at your devotion

and God doeth it, that men should fear before him."Come on, friend, broach the pleasing notion ;

Eccles. chap. iii. ver. 14. But, if you would depress my thought,

“He hath made every thing beautiful in his time: also Your system is not worth a groal

he hath set the world in their heart, so that no man " For Plato's fancies what care I ?

can find out the work that God maketh from the beI hope you would not have me die,

ginning to the end."-Ver. 11. Like simple Cato in the play,

“For in much wisdom is much grief: and he that in. For any thing that he can say:

creaseth knowledge, increaseth sorrow."--ch. i. ver. 18. E'en let him of ideas speak To heathens in his native Greek.

" And further, by these, my son, be admonished: of

making many books there is no end: and much study If to be sad is to be wise,

is a weariness of the flesh."--ch. xii. ver. 12. I do most heartily despise Whatever Socrates has said,

THE ARGUMENT. Or Tully writ, or Wanley read. " Dear Drift,* to set our matters right,

SOLOMON, seeking happiness from knowledge, conRemove these papers from my sight;

venes the learned men of his kingdom ; requires Burn Mat's Des-cart, and Aristotle :

them to explain to him the various operations Here! Jonathan, your master's bottle."

and effects of Nature; discourses of vegetables, animals, and man; proposes some questions

concerning the origin and situation of the habi. * Mr. Prior's secretary and executor.

table Earth ; proceeds to examine the system of the visible Heaven; doubts if there may not be a plurality of worlds ; inquires into the nature of spirits and angels; and wishes to be more

fully informed as to the attributes of the Supreme Wanting the Sun, why does the caltha fade ?
Being. He is imperfectly answered by the rab- Why does the cypress flourish in the shade ?
bins and doctors; blames his own curiosity; and The fig and date, why love they to remain
concludes, that, as to human science, All is In middle station, and an even plain :

While in the lower marsh the gourd is found,

And while the hill with olive shade is crown d ? Ye sons of men, with just regard attend,

Why does one climate and one soil endue Observe the preacher, and believe the friend, The blushing poppy with a crimson hue, Whose serious Muse inspires him to explain, Yet leave the lily pale, and tinge the violet blue? That all we act, and all we think, is vain; Why does the fond carnation love to shoot That, in this pilgrimage of seventy years,

A various color from one parent root ; O'er rocks of perils, and through vales of tears, While the fantastic tulip strives to break Destin'd to march, our doubtful steps we tend, In twofold beauty, and a parted streak ? Tir'd with the toil, yet fearful of its end :

The twining jasmine and the blushing rose, That from the womb we take our fatal shares With lavish grace, their morning scents disclose : Of follies, passions, labors, tumults, cares ; The smelling tuberose and jonquil declare And, at approach of Death, shall only know The stronger impulse of an evening air. The truth, which from these pensive numbers flow, Whence has the tree (resolve me), or the flower, That we pursue false joy, and suffer real woe. A various instinct, or a different power?

Happiness, object of that waking dream, Why should one earth, one clime, one stream, one Which we call life, mistaking: fugitive theme

breath, Of my pursuing verse, ideal shade,

Raise this to strength, and sicken that to death? Notional good, by fancy only made,

“Whence does it happen, that the plant, which And by tradition nurs’d, fallacious fire,

well Whose dancing beams mislead our fond desire, We name the Sensitive, should move and feel ? Cause of our care, and error of our mind ; Whence know her leaves to answer her command, Oh! hadst thou ever been by Heaven design'd And with quick horror fly the neighboring hand? To Adam, and his mortal race; the boon

“ Along the sunny bank, or watery mead, Entire had been reserv'd for Solomon:

Ten thousand stalks the various blossoms spread On me the partial lot had been bestow'd,

Peaceful and lowly in their native soil,
And in my cup the golden draught had flow'd. They neither know to spin, nor care to toil ;

But 0! ere yet original man was made, Yet with confess'd magnificence deride
Ere the foundations of this Earth were laid, Our vile attire, and impotence of pride.
It was, opponent to our search, ordain'd

The cowslip smiles, in brighter yellow dressid That joy, still sought, should never be attain'd. Than that which veils the nubile virgin's breast : This sad experience cites me to reveal,

A fairer red stands blushing in the rose And what I dictate is from what I feel.

Than that which on the bridegroom's vestment Born, as I was, great David's favorite son,

Dear to my people, on the Hebrew throne, Take but the humblest lily of the field,
Sublime my court, with Ophir's treasures blest, And, if our pride will to our reason yield,
My name extended to the farthest east,

It must, hy sure comparison, be shown
My body cloth'd with every outward grace, That on the regal seat great David's son,
Strength in my limbs, and beauty in my face, Array'd in all his robes and types of power,
My shining thought with fruitful notions crown'd, Shines with less glory than that simple flower.
Quick my invention, and my judgment sound: “Of fishes next, my friends, I would inquire.
Ho Arise,” I commun'd with myself, “ arise ; How the mute race engender, or respire,
Think, to be happy ; to be great, be wise : From the small fry that glide on Jordan's stream,
Content of spirit must from science flow,

Unmark'd, a multitude without a name, For 'tis a godlike attribute to know.”

To that Leviathan, who o'er the seas I said ; and sent my edict through the land : Immense rolls onward his impetuous ways, Around my throne the letter'd rabbins stand; And mocks the wind, and in the tempest plays ? Historic leaves revolve, long volumes spread, How they in warlike bands march greatly forth The old discoursing as the younger read : From freezing waters and the colder north, Attent I heard, propos'd my doubts, and said : To southern climes directing their career,

“ The vegetable world, each plant and tree, Their station changing with th' inverted year? Its seed, its name, its nature, its degree,

How all with careful knowledge are endued, I am allow'd, as Fame reports, to know

To choose their proper bed, and wave, and food ; From the fair cedar on the craggy brow

To guard their spawn, and educate their brood ? Of Lebanon, nodding supremely tall,

“Of birds, how each, according to her kind, To creeping moss and hyssop on the wall: Proper materials for her nest can find, Yet, just and conscious to myself, I find

And build a frame, which deepest thought in man A thousand doubts oppose the searching mind. Would or amend or imitate in vain ?

" I know not why the beech delights the glade How in small flights they know to try their young, With boughs extended, and a rounder shade; And teach the callow child her parent's song? Whilst towering firs in conic forms arise,

Why these frequent the plain, and those the wood ? And with a pointed spear divide the skies : Why every land has her specific brood ? Nor why again the changing oak should shed Where the tall crane, or winding swallow, goes, The yearly honor of his stately head;

Fearful of gathering winds and falling snows, Whilst the distinguish'd yew is ever seen, If into rocks, or hollow trees, they creep, Unchang'd his branch, and permanent his green. In temporary death confin'd to sleep;


Or, conscious of the coming evil, fly

For the kind gifts of water and of food To milder regions, and a southern sky ?

Ungrateful, and returning ill for good, “Of beasts and creeping insects shall we trace He seeks his keeper's flesh, and thirsts his blood : The wondrous nature, and the various race; While the strong camel, and the generous horse, Or wild or tame, or friend to man or foe,

Restrain’d and aw'd by man's inferior force, Of us what they, or what of them we know? Do to the rider's will their rage submit,

“Tell me, ye studious, who pretend to see And answer to the spur, and own the bit; Far into Nature's bosom, whence the bee Stretch their glad mouths to meet the feeder's hand, Was first inform’d her venturous flight to steer Pleas'd with his weight, and proud of his command Through trackless paths, and an abyss of air ? “ Again: the lonely fox roams far abroad, Whence she avoids the slimy marsh, and knows On secret rapine bent, and midnight fraud; The fertile hills, where sweeter herbage grows, Now haunts the cliff, now traverses the lawn, And honey-making flowers their opening buds dis- And flies the hated neighborhood of man: close ?

While the kind spaniel and the faithful hound, How from the thicken'd mist, and setting sun, Likest that fox in shape and species fouud, Finds she the labor of her day is done ?

Refuses through these cliffs and lawns to roam, Who taught her against winds and rains to strive, Pursues the noted path, and covets home, To bring her burthen to the certain hive; Does with kind joy domestic faces meet, And through the liquid fields again to pass, Takes what the glutted child denies to eat, Duteous, and hearkening to the sounding brass ? And, dying, licks his long-lov'd master's feet.

“And, O thou sluggard, tell me why the ant, “By what immediate cause they are inclin'd, 'Midst summer's plenty, thinks of winter's want, In many acts, 'tis hard, I own, to find. By constant journeys careful to prepare

I see in others, or I think I see, Her stores; and, bringing home the corny ear, That strict their principles and ours agree. By what instruction does she bite the grain, Evil like us they shun, and covet good ; Lest, hid in earth, and taking root again, Abhor the poison, and receive the food. It might elude the foresight of her care! Like us they love or hate; like us they know Distinct in either insect's deed appear

To joy the friend, or grapple with the foe. The marks of thought, contrivance, hope, and fear. With seeming thought their action they intend ; “Fix thy corporeal and internal eye

And use the means proportion'd to the end.
On the young gnat, or new-engender'd fly; Then vainly the philosopher avers,
On the vile worm that yesterday began

That reason guides our deed, and instinct theirs.
To crawl; thy fellow-creatures, abject man! [see, How can we justly different causes frame,
Like thee they breathe, they move, they taste, they When the effects entirely are the same?
They show their passions by their acts, like thee: Instinct and reason how can we divide ?
Darting their stings, they previously declare "Tis the fool's ignorance, and the pedant's pride.
Design'd revenge, and fierce intent of war : “With the same folly, sure, man vaunts his sway
Laying their eggs, they evidently prove

If the brute beast refuses to obey.
The genial power, and full effect of love. For tell me, when the empty boaster's word
Each then has organs to digest his food,

Proclaims himself the universal lord,
One to beget, and one receive the brood ; Does he not tremble, lest the lion's paw
Has limbs and sinews, blood and heart, and brain, Should join his plea against the fancied law?
Life and her proper functions to sustain,

Would not the learned coward leave the chair, Though the whole fabric smaller than a grain. If in the schools or porches should appear What more can our penurious reason grant The fierce hyena, or the foaming bear? To the large whale, or castled elephant;

“The combatant too late the field declines, To those enormous terrors of the Nile,

When now the sword is girded to his loins. The crested snake, and long-tail'd crocodile : When the swift vessel flies before the wind, Than that all differ but in shape and name, Too late the sailor views the land behind. Each destin'd to a less or larger frame?

And 'tis too late now back again to bring
"For potent Nature loves a various act, Inquiry, rais'd and towering on the wing:
Prone to enlarge, or studious to contract;

Forward she strives, averse to be withheld
Now forms her work too small, now too immense, From nobler objects, and a larger field.
And scorns the measures of our feeble sense. “Consider with me this ethereal space,
The object, spread too far, or rais'd too high, Yielding to earth and sea the middle place.
Denies its real image to the eye ;

Anxious I ask you, how the pensile ball
Too little, it eludes the dazzled sight,

Should never strive to rise, nor fear to fall ? Becomes mixt blackness, or unparted light. When I reflect how the revolving Sun Water and air the varied form confound; Does round our globe his crooked journeys run, The straight looks crooked, and the square grows I doubt of many lands, if they contain round.

Or herd of beast, or colony of man; “ Thus, while with fruitless hope and weary pain, If any națion pass their destin'd days We seek great Nature's power, but seek in vain, Beneath the neighboring Son's directer rays ; Safe sits the goddess in her dark retreat;

If any suffer on the polar coast
Around her myriads of ideas wait,

The rage of Arctos and eternal frost.
And endless shapes, which the mysterious queen " May not the pleasure of Omnipotence
Can take or quit, can alter or retain,

To each of these some secret good dispense? As from our lost pursuit she wills, to hide Those who amidst the torrid regions live, Her close decrees, and chasten human pride. May they not gales unknown to us receive?

“ Untam'd and fierce the tiger still remains, See daily showers rejoice the thirsty earth, He tires his life in biting on his chains :

And bless the flowery buds' succeeding birth


May they not pity us, condemn'd to bear Or could they think the new-discover'd isle
The various heaven of an obliquer sphere; Pleas'd to receive a pregnant crocodile ?
While by fix'd laws, and with a just return,

“And, since the savage lineage we must trace They feel twelve hours that shade, for twelve that From Noah sav'd, and his distinguish'd race;

How should their fathers happen to forget And praise the neighboring Sun, whose constant The arts which Noah taught, the rules he set, flame

To sow the glebe, to plant the generous vine, Enlightens them with seasons still the same! And load with grateful flames the holy shrine ; And may not those, whose distant lot is cast While the great sire's unhappy sons are found, North beyond Tartary's extended waste ;

Unpress'd their vintage, and untillid their ground, Where through the plains of one continual day Straggling o'er dale and hill in quest of food, Six shining months pursue their even way, And rude of arts, of virtue, and of God? And six succeeding urge their dusky flight,

“ How shall we next o'er earth and seas pursue Obscur'd with vapors, and o'erwhelm'd in night? The varied forms of every thing we view; May not, I ask, the natives of these climes That all is chang'd, though all is still the same, (As annals may inform succeeding times) Fluid the parts, yet durable the frame? To our quotidian change of heaven prefer Of those materials, which have been confess'd Their own vicissitude, and equal share

The pristine springs and parents of the rest, of day and night, disparted through the year? Each becomes other. Water stopp'd gives birth May they not scorn our Sun's repeated race, To grass and plants, and thickens into earth: To narrow bounds prescrib'd, and little space, Diffus'd, it rises in a higher sphere, Hastening from morn, and headlong driven from Dilates its drops, and softens into air : noon,

Those finer parts of air again aspire, Half of our daily toil yet scarcely done?

Move into warmth, and brighten into fire : May they not justly to our climes upbraid The fire, once more by thicker air o'ercome, Shortness of night, and penury of shade; And downward forc'd, in Earth's capacious womb That, ere our wearied limbs are justly blest Alters its particles; is fire no more, With wholesome sleep, and necessary rest, But lies resplendent dust, and shining ore ; Another Sun demands return of care,

Or, running through the mighty mother's veins, The remnant toil of yesterday to bear?

Changes its shape, puts off its old remains; Whilst, when the solar beams salute their sight, With watery parts its lessen'd force divides, Bold and secure in half a year of light,

Flows into waves, and rises into tides. Uninterrupted voyages they take

" Disparted streams shall from their channels fly, To the remotest wood, and farthest lake;

And, deep surcharg'd, by sandy mountains lie, Manage the fishing, and pursue the course Obscurely sepulchred. By beating rain, With more extended nerves, and more continued And furious wind, down to the distant plain, force?

The hill, that hides his head above the skies, And, when declining day forsakes their sky, Shall fall; the plain, by slow degrees, shall rise When gathering clouds speak gloomy winter nigh; Higher than erst had stood the summit-hill; With plenty for the coming season blest,

For Time must Nature's great behest fulfil. Six solid months (an age) they live, releas'd

“Thus, by a length of years and change of fate, From all the labor, process, clamor, woe,

All things are light or heavy, small or great:
Which our sad scenes of daily action know: Thus Jordan's waves shall future clouds appear,
They light the shining lamp, prepare the feast, And Egypt's pyramids refine to air :
And with full mirth receive the welcome guest; Thus later age shall ask for Pison's flood,
Or tell their tender loves (the only care

And travellers inquire where Babel stood.
Which now they suffer) to the listening fair; Now where we see these changes often fall
And, rais'd in pleasure, or repos'd in ease, Sedate we pass them by as natural ;
(Grateful alternate of substantial peace)

Where to our eye more rarely they appear,
They bless the long nocturnal influence shed The pompous name of prodigy they bear.
On the crown'd goblet, and the genial bed. Let active thought these close meanders trace;

“ In foreign isles, which our discoverers find, Let human wit their dubious boundaries place : Far from this length of continent disjoin'd, Are all things miracle, or nothing such ? The rugged bear's, or spotted lynx's brood, And prove we not too litile, or too much? Frighten the valleys, and infest the wood;

“For, that a branch cut off, a wither'd rod, The hungry crocodile, and hissing snake, Should, at a word pronounc'd, revive and bud; Lurk in the troubled stream and fenny brake; Is this more strange, than that the mountain's brow, And man, untaught and ravenous as the beast, Stripp'd by December's frost, and white with snow, Does valley, wood, and brake, and stream, infest : Should push in spring ten thousand thousand buds, Deriv'd these men and animals their birth And boast returning leaves, and blooming woods ? From trunk of oak, or pregnant womb of Earth? That each successive night, from opening Heaven, Whence then the old belief, that all began The food of angels should to man be given; In Eden's shade, and one created man?

Is this more strange, than that with common bread Or, grant this progeny was wafted o'er,

Our fainting bodies every day are fed ? By coasting boats, from next adjacent shore; Than that each grain and seed, consum'd in earth, Would those, from whom we will suppose they Raises its store, and multiplies its birth, spring,

And from the handful, which the tiller sows, Slaughter to harmless lands and poison bring? The labor'd fields rejoice, and future harvest flows Would they on board or bears or lynxes take,

Then, from whale'er we can to sense produce Feed the she-adder, and the brooding snake ? Common and plain, or wondrous and abstruse.


From Nature's constant or eccentric laws, of airy columns every moment broke,
The thoughtful soul this general inference draws, or circling whirlpools, and of spheres of smoke :
That an effect must presuppose a cause :

Yet this solution but once more atlords
And, while she does her upward fight sustain, New change of terms, and scaffolding of words
Touching each link of the continued chain, In other garb my question I receive,
At length she is oblig'd and forc'd to see

And take the doubt the very same I gave. A First, a Source, a Life, a Deity,

“Lo! as a giant strong, the lusty Sun What has for ever been, and must for ever be. Multiplied rounds in one great round does run

“ This great Existence, thus by reason found, Twofold his course, yet constant his career, Blest by all power, with all perfection crown'd; Changing the day, and finishing the year. How can we bind or limit his decree,

Again, when his descending orb retires, By what our ear has heard, or eye may see? And Earth perceives the absence of his fires ; Say then, is all in heaps of water lost,

The Moon affords us her alternate ray, Beyond the islands, and the midland coast ? And with kind beams distributes fainter day, Or has that God, who gave our world its birth, Yet keeps the stages of her monthly race ; Sever'd those waters by some other earth, Various her bearns, and changeable her face. Countries by future plowshares to be torn, Each planet, shining in his proper sphere, And cities rais'd by nations yet unborn!

Does with just speed his radiant voyage steer; Ere the progressive course of restless age Each sees his lamp with different lustre crownd; Performs three thousand times its annual stage, Each knows his course with different periods bound; May not our power and learning be supprest, And, in his passage through the liquid space, And arts and empire learn to travel west? Nor hastens, nor retards, his neighbor's race.

“Where, by the strength of this idea charm’d; Now, shine these planels with substantial rays? Lighten'd with glory, and with rapture warmd, Does innale lustre gild their measur'd days? Ascends my soul? what sees she white and great Or do they (as your schemes, I think, have shown) Amidst subjected seas? An isle, the seat

Dart furtive beams and glory not their own, of power and plenty ; her imperial throne, All servants to that source of light, the Sun ? For justice and for mercy sought and known; Again I see ten thousand thousand stars, Virtues sublime, great attributes of Heaven, Nor cast in lines, in circles, nor in squares, From thence to this distinguish'd nation given. (Poor rules, with which our bounded mind is fillid, Yet farther west the western Isle extends

When we would plant, or cultivate, or build,) Her happy fame; her armed fleet she sends But shining with such vast, such various light, To climates folded yet from human eye,

As speaks the hand, that form'd them, infinite. And lands, which we imagine wave and sky. How mean the order and perfection sought, From pole to pole she hears her acts resound, In the best product of the human thought, And rules an empire by no ocean bound ; Compar'd to the great harmony that reigns Knows her ships anchor'd, and her sails unfurl’d, In what the Spirit of the world ordains ! In other Indies, and a second world.

Now if the Sun to Earth transmits his ray, " Long shall Britannia (that must be her name) Yet does not scorch us with too fierce a day! Be first in conquest, and preside in fame : How small a portion of his power is given Long shall her favor'd monarchy engage

To orbs more distant, and remoter Heaven? The teeth of Envy, and the force of Age :

And of those stars, which our imperfect eye Rever'd and happy she shall long remain,

Has doom'd and fix'd to one eternal sky, Of human things least changeable, least vain. Each, by a native stock of honor great, Yet all must with the general doom comply, May dart strong influence, and diffuse kind heat, And this great glorious power, tho' last, must die. (Itself a sun) and with transmissive light

“ Now let us leave this Earth, and lift our eye Enliven worlds denied to human sight. To the large convex of yon azure sky:

Around the circles of their ambient skies Behold it like an ample curtain spread,

New moons may grow or wane, may set or rise, Now streak’d and glowing with the morning red; And other stars may to those suns be earths, Anon at noon in flaming yellow bright,

Give their own elements their proper births, And choosing sable for the peaceful night. Divide their climes, or elevate their pole, Ask Reason now, whence light and shade were given, See their lands flourish, and their oceans roll: And whence this great variety of Heaven. Yet these great orbs, thus radically bright, Reason, our guide, what can she more reply, Primitive founts, and origins of light, Than that the Sun illuminates the sky;

May each to other (as their different sphere Than that night rises from his absent ray,

Makes or their distance or their light appear) And his returning lustre kindles day?

Be seen a nobler or inferior star, “ But we expect the morning-red in vain: And, in that space which we call air and sky, Tis hid in vapors, or obscur'd by rain.

Myriads of earths, and moons, and suns, may lie The noontide yellow we in vain require :

Unmeasur'd and unknown by human eye. "Tis black in storm, or red in lightning fire.

"In vain we measure this amazing sphere, Pitchy and dark the night sometimes appears, And find and fix its centre here or there ; Friend to our woe, and parent of our fears : Whilst its circumference, scorning to be bronght Our joy and wonder sometimes she excites, Ev'n into fancied space, eludes our vanquish'd With stars unnumber'd, and eternal lights.

thought. Send forth, ye wise, send forth your laboring Where then are all the radiant monsters driven, thought;

With which your guesses fillid the frighten'd Let it return with emply notions fraught,


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