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Ver. 19 : “ The Lord shall be unto thee an everlasting light, and thy God thy glory.” Ver. 20: “ The days of thy mourning shall be ended." We may

infer from Heb. viii. 13, that there are but two covenants. “In that he saith a new, he hath made the first old : now that which decayeth and waxeth old, is ready to vanish away.”

1. If there were to be a third covenant, the new covenant would decay and wax old.

2. But the new covenant is everlasting ; therefore it never decayeth or waxeth old, or is ready to vanish away.

Therefore there cannot be a third covenant.

But as some may say, there are more covenants than the two, I will point out the similarity in the condition, extent, and duration of this covenant here spoken of, with the new covenant prophesied of by Jeremiah, and quoted in the Hebrews.

1. In condition. Rom. xi. 27 : “ This is my covenant unto them, when I shall take away

their sins." Heb. viii. 12: “ I will be merciful to their unrighteousness, and their sins and iniquities I will remember no more.”

2. In extent.
Isai. Ix. 21: “The people also shall be all righteous.”

Jer. xxxi. 34: “ They shall all know me, from the least of them to the greatest of them, saith the Lord.”

3. In duration.
Isai. lx. 21 : “ They shall inherit the land for ever."

Jer. xxxi. 35–40: The city “shall not be plucked up nor thrown down FOR EVER.”

Let us now consider what we have arrived at.

There is yet to be a new covenant made with both Israel and Judah,

Perfect in its conditions,
Eternal in its duration,
Universal in its acceptation.
The state in which the world will be at the time,

gross darkness.”

The manner of delivery, “ The Redeemer cometh to Zion."

Lastly, we see the conversion of the Gentiles is not prior, but subsequent to this period : “ The Gentiles shall come to thy light.” (Isai. Ix. 3.)

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I will, lastly, make a few observations on the sign of circumcision. The national sign appears to be the Sabbath, looking to the Millennium ; at which period, and not till then, shall people, nationally and universally, know the Lord. But the Abrahamic individual sign of possessing the land, was circumcision ; suspended during the present dispensation, to be revived

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in the future covenant: not outwardly, in the sign; but inwardly and spiritually, in the flesh. If we consider Acts xv., we must bear in mind, that the whole of the argument was, whether the Gentiles were to be circumcised or not. For this cause the Apostles assembled, and to this their decision relates. Therefore, a correct interpretation of the passage must point out how the arguments bear upon their sentence.

Peter declares, that God had given the inward and spiritual grace, without the outward and visible sign : to which James (ver.14) agrees; pointing out that there is a dispensation, during which time the name of God is to be preserved among the elect of the Gentiles. Which he enforces by alluding to Amos ix. 11, 12: for he does not bring it forward as a literal quotation ; but by it shewing that a time was foretold when the tabernacle of David would be thrown down; that it would be after this Gentile dispensation of the election of grace that the Lord would return and build again the tabernacle of David; and it would be after the rebuilding, that all the Gentiles should come in, and the residue of Edom, &c. So that his sentence was, that during this dispensation the Gentiles were not to be troubled with that sign or seal; but leaving us to draw this inference, that in the future dispensation circumcision would be restored.

I will first examine how Amos bears upon this. I will then see whether other Scriptures have the same truth. And, lastly, I will consider how the arguments of James bear upon circumcision.

My view of Amos ix. is this. Ver. 8: “ I will not utterly destroy the house of Jacob, saith the Lord. For, lo, I will command, and I will sist the house of Israel amongst all nations, like as corn is sifted in a sieve ; yet shall not the least grain fall upon the earth.” It will be observed, connecting the oth verse with the latter clause of verse 8, that I make the figure one of mercy to the Jews. Sifting, is the separating of the precious from the vile, the wheat from the chaff: therefore this is the causing to move from the dispersion, and not the dispersion itself. Ver. 10 marks the destruction of many of the Jews at that period; as is mentioned also in other Scriptures (see Zech. xiv. 1-4). Then comes, “ In that day will I raise ( up the tabernacle of David.” The expression is altered by the inspired Apostle to “after this.” The reason appears evident: Amos looked over this dispensation to the future, and called it “ that day.” Describing its features, James, who speaks during this dispensation, says, fter this ;" namely, in the dispensation immediately succeeding. This view makes the sense of both the Prophet and Apostle to agree; which is necessary to a true interpretation. VOL, 1.-NO, II,

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I will now mention one or two Scriptures, which confirm this interpretation; namely, that there will be a dispensation where circumcision will exist. Ezek. xliv. 9: “ Thus saith the Lord God, No stranger uncircumcised in heart or uncircumcised in flesh shall enter into my sanctuary, of any stranger that is among the children of Israel.” This passage we find, in Witsius, book iv. chap. viii. 27, 28, has been considered as indicative of the revival of the rite, and which he there combats.

Isai. xxv. 7, appears to me to contain the same truth : “ Jehovah-Sabaoth will destroy the covering of the face (or facecovering) cast over all people, and the vail that is spread over all nations." The allusion is to the covering cast over people, when under condemnation, as we see illustrated in Esther vii. 8, 9; or when dead, asJohn xi.44: and the allusion is to death having passed upon all men by original sin. The verses immediately preceding the prophecy of the new covenant, Jer. xxxi. 29, 30, I suppose to contain the same truth : “ In those days they shall say no more, The fathers have eaten a sour grape, and the children's teeth are set on edge ; but every one shall die for his own iniquity: every man that eateth the sour grape, his teeth shall be set on edge." This shews how I suppose circumcision will be established-namely, not in the letter, but in the spirit; not in the type, but in the antitype, by the abolition of birth or (original sin). Now, though types may not be fundative of a doctrine, yet may they be illustrative and confirmative; and as such I cannot forbear mentioning one extraordinary type with respect to circumcision. It was in force when coming up out of Egypt; ceased while in the wilderness, which is answerable to the present period (1 Cor. x., Heb. ir. 7-iv. ll); but was revived upon entering the land (Josh. v. 3–9). The meaning of the type confirms what I mentioned before, that circumcision pointed to possessing the land. And, indeed, this appears involved in the Lord's declaration upon establishing this “ token of the covenant," Gen. xvii. 7-1l: “And I will establish my covenant between me and be a God unto thee....and I will give unto thee the land.... of Canaan .... thou shalt keep my convenant therefore....this is my covenant....every man-child shall be circumcised.” The same truth is enforced by Stephen, Acts vii. 8: “And he gave him the covenant of circumcision; and thus (rather than "so") Abraham begat Isaac, and Isaac begat Jacob,”' &c. “And thus,” that is, in this covenant; referring back to ver. 5, gave

him none inheritance in the land; yet he promised that he would give it him for a possession, and to his seed after him”--the seed begotten in the covenant, the seed of promise.

• To Abraham were the promises made” (he saith not of one, the promise ;' but in the plural, the promises') ver. 15. In Isaac Abraham received the

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promise (Heb. vi. 15); but, though he had received the promise, he did not receive the promises (Heb. xi. 8-10, 13-15), , they including the land and the heavenly Jerusalem. to the Jews pertain the promises and the covenants” (Rom. ix. 4). And circumcision is the typical sign of the new covenant. It therefore ceases during the election out of the Gentiles ; to be fulfilled in the spirit with the Jews in the first place, under the new covenant. And had circumcision been the sign of the old covenant, there had been no need to call a council to decide whether the sign were to continue, if they now were under a new covenant, as most say ; but it was indeed a matter of grave deliberation, whether, under the new dispensation of the same covenant, the sign were to be suspended or not. But, having changed from a typical dispensation to the true testament, circumcision would not be to the Gentiles a sign of typical purity in the flesh; but, as Paul declares to the Galatians, v. 3, “Every man that is circumcised is a debtor to do the whole law.” That, however, is not attainable during the present dispensation : “ But we, through the Spirit, wait for the hope of righteousness by faith” (ver. 5). This, again, accounts for that, to me, otherwise unaccountable speech of James to Paul, Acts xxi. 21:"And they are informed of thee, that thou teachest all the Jews which are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses ; saying, that they ought not to circumcise their children,” &c. And why not? What! most deceitfully allow them to become debtors to the whole law, to remain under the curse! Impossible ! But to the Jews it was the sign of possessing the land.

There are some collateral observations I make to those who have faith in these matters. I feel not so confident, and therefore only throw them out for consideration. Those who attain to the resurrection (as I suppose all who are gathered during the suffering dispensation will) are to be kings and priests, with none inheritance in the land : Ezek. xliv. 28, &c. : the Lord is their portion, heirs of God, &c. “Nor will they marry,” Matt.

“ xxii. 30. But the Jews are to have seed, and seed's seed; and the blessing to them is, that not only they, but their children, are in the covenant, as completely as all mankind were in Adam. So all these shall know the Lord; and in that sense be Christ's seed, born in the covenant, pure and indefectable : also signified by this sign, as before hinted on Acts vii. according to the annexed table.

It appears to me, in few words, that there are two, and but two, covenants.

In the old covenant there are seven dispensations—six of promise ; the seventh, the consummation of the ages, or the dispensation of the last days. The old covenant embraces only the redemption of spirit connected with matter, but in no way

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redeems matter : therefore the saints, who have the first-fruits, are waiting for the redemption of the body.

The new covenant embraces the redemption of all irresponsible matter, together with the bodies of those who have received the benefit of the first covenant.

The old covenant varied in circumstances at divers times.

The new apparently will be diverse in kind to those under it: to wit; The first resurrection will be kings and priests; neither marrying nor having descent, but always having access into the holiest. The Jews will be in the covenant, they and their seed's seed for ever; inheriting the land of their fathers, and being the chief of nations. These two states will be indefectable and immutable. 3dly, Sodom and Samaria are spoken of in a state different from Judea, Ezek. xvi. 61. It appears that the nations of the earth, will be in a state of Adamic purity, preserved also from the temptations of Satan. Possibly some of these may be converted from the supposition of their being able to stand in their own sufficiency, and will be united to Christ, as a head of sustentation ; but others, who stand in their own strength, will display their necessary mutability by immediately falling away upon Satan being loosed.


Prospective Faith, Israel in Mount Sinai
A fæderal

or the Covenant of David

Promise (Eph. ii. Return from Babylon covenant of

12) to Imputed

Righteousness. Retrospective Faith,or the conditions performed in God's

the consummation of the ages (Heb. ix. 26.) Covenants are two:

First Resurrection



A covenant

of Inherent Righteousness.

The Jews

The New Creation


To be continued.)

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