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to that of the prophecies, fulfilled or unfulfilled, of the Old and New Testaments.
Nor do those prophecies which, being presented to the mind of the seer in dreams and visions of the night, are necessarily given by symbols and images taken from the kingdom of nature, form any exception to this rule. The language is that of simple narration, whose meaning cannot be misunderstood, which tells us (Dan. vii
. 2) that the Prophet “saw in his vision by night, and, behold, the four winds of the heaven strove upon the great sea; and four great beasts came up from the sea, divers, one from another.” And the words are not more obscure in which the angel (verse 17) instructs Daniel, that “ these great beasts, which are four, are four kings, which shall arise out of the earth.” In like manner, when it is said, in Rev. i. 12, that St. John "saw seven golden candlesticks,
i and in the midst of the seven candlesticks one like unto the Son of Man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about the paps with a golden girdle: his head and his hairs were white, like wool, as white as snow; and his eyes were as a flame of fire; and his feet like unto fine brass, as if they burned in a furnace; and his voice as the sound of many waters; and he had in his right hand seven stars; and out of his mouth went a sharp two-edged sword; and his countenance was as the sun shineth in his strength ;" every reader will have a perfect idea of the magnificent vision which the favoured Apostle saw. But what the golden candlesticks mean; what is the mystery of the seven stars; and who He is, the Mighty, who was like unto the son of man,” must be learned from higher authority than that of human ingenuity : Verse 17, “ And he laid his hand upon me, saying unto me, Fear not: I am the First and the Last; I am he that liveth and was dead, and, behold, I am alive for evermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death .... The mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in my right hand, and the seven golden candlesticks: The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches, and the seven candlesticks which thou sawest are the seven churches.” There is, therefore, no insurmountable difficulty in the language of prophetic holy Seripture, the meaning of which may be ascertained by the same means which enable us to explain the words of any other book.
But prophecy speaks of God, whose being is incomprehensible, and whose perfections are infinite : it treats of his ways, which are unsearchable ; and of his judgments, which are past finding out. It traces the workings of his great designs in the histories of human greatness and of human desolation. It guides the mind through the chequered history of this world, from the time of its original lapse till that of its glorious restitution, when the mystery of God shall be finished, sin and Satan for ever conquered, and the last enemy destroyed ; when the providence of the all-bountiful and all-just One shall stand forth fair and mighty, the admiration of the universe; when, in the creature redeemed and in the creature unfallen alike, God shall be proved to be all in all. And therefore prophecy is a revelation to faith, and not to understanding—as indeed is every word of Nature and Scripture which speaks of the mysterious things of God-and every attempt of man to approach this mighty subject armed with the “hows ?” and the “ wherefores ?” of the self-conceited philosopher, is Infidelity, pure and unqualified Infidelity. But as we proceed in this investigation-which I shall continue, if the Editor of this work permit me, in several papers to come-we shall find that the spiritual
interpretation of prophecy (which I have above defined) is founded wholly and entirely on such opposition of the human understanding to the simple declarations of God's word, and therefore is also of Infidelity.
P. BORTHWICK. Cambridge, June 1829.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE MORNING WATCH.
Sir, I enclose a Jewish prophecy which may prove interesting
-I to your readers. The learned Rabbi, from whom I received it, read it in manuscript at Posen in the year 1807. It was made by Rabbi Samson of Oster Poli, who was a victim of the persecution against the Jews which raged about 300 years ago. The author was a great Cabalist. The original is said to be now in the possession of the Rabbi of the synagogue at Berlin. It may be as well to remind your readers, that the fulfilment, being fixed for A. M.5601, occurs in eleven years from this time, since we are now in the year 5590. Another prophecy, computed in Jubilees from the birth of Jacob and Esau, puts an end to the supremacy
of the latter at the same time. I have placed the English words under the Hebrew. You will observe that it is written in columns from right to left, each word commencing with a letter corresponding with one in the word above it, and following in regular succession, in the ordinary mode of Cabalistic writings *.
I am, sir, your obedient servant, Sept. 1, 1829.
* The translation of the prophecy therefore reads thus :
And the country of France will kill their king-exceedingly they will prosper their ways—the crown of their glory will be great exceedingly-and they will rise upon them their conquerors and destroy them— Germany, Spain, and the kingdom of Russia—and then a humble one will be called and shull rule-over children of Russia—and then shall seize their kingdom-5601-the Jews free shall be called then shall come David.
and they will the crown of exceedingly and the country rise
ANSWER TO THE QUESTION, WHAT WAS THE REFORMATION ?
Introductory Essay: Some of the causes which united to produce or modify that complicated and wide-spread system of events styled The Reformation of the sixteenth century, were by no means fitted to originate unmixed good : and to their influence it is not hard to trace much evil which is upon us at this day:
Let not an inquiry into the cause of that in the visible church which we lament, be mistaken for a sign that we would seek further cause of evil in man than the corruption of the human soul, ensnared and subdued by the father of lies; or a further cause of any good in man, than the direct interfering agency of the Father of lights. Were it in question, simply, why the good or why the evil exists, the answer must be short, and must carry us in one little step to the limits of our knowledge : but when we inquire, why the good or the evil wears a particular form, we are at once brought to deal with that many-linked chain of history, whose connections the eye of man may follow, and the finger of man may trace to his fellows. Our purpose will be attained by beginning somewhat more than three centuries back, and pursuing onward, from about the time of the Reformation, the influence, direct or indirect, of those events whose combination has determined the present state of the religious public. Of the Reformation, Heaven's best gift to earth during seventeen centuries, we shall speak the less unworthily, and the less weary with a hackneyed topic, and hazard the less the sinking of our minds below that reverent and admiring apprehension of it which the object of this essay makes it so desirable we should sustain, by using the words of one who, of uninspired authors, interposes least of human obscurity and littleness in exhibiting the great works of God.
“Amidst those deep and retired thoughts, which with every man christianly instructed ought to be most frequent, of God, and of his miraculous ways and works amongst men, and of our religion, and works to be performed to him; after the story of our Saviour Christ suffering to the lowest bent of weakness in the flesh, and presently triumphing to the highest pitch of glory in the spirit, which drew up his body also, till we in both be united to him in the revelation of his kingdom, I do not know of any thing more worthy to take up the whole passion of pity on the one side and joy on the other, than to consider, first, the foul and sudden corruption, and then, after many a tedious age, the
long-deferred but much more wonderful and happy Reformation of the church in these latter days. Sad it is to think, how that doctrine of the Gospel, planted by teachers divinely inspired, and by them winnowed and sifted from the chaff of overdated ceremonies, and refined to such a spiritual height and temper of purity, and knowledge of the Creator, that the body, with all the circumstances of time and place, were purified by the affections of the regenerate soul, and nothing left impure but sin; faith needing not the weak and fallible office of the senses to be either the ushers or interpreters of heavenly mysteries, save where our Lord himself in his sacraments ordained ;—that such a doctrine should, through the grossness and blindness of her professors, and the fraud of deceivable traditions, drag so downwards, as to backslide one way into the Jewish beggary of old cast rudiments, and stumble forward another way into the newvomited paganism of sensual idolatry, attributing purity or impurity to things indifferent, that they might bring the inward acts of the spirit to the outward and customary eye-service of the body, as if they could make God earthly and fleshly, because they could not make themselves heavenly and spiritual. They began to draw down all the divine intercourse betwixt God and the soul; yea, the very shape of God himself into an exterior and bodily form, urgently pretending a necessity and obligement of joining the body in a formal reverence, and worship circumscribed ; they hallowed it, they fumed it, they sprinkled it, they bedecked it, not in robes of pure innocency, but of pure linen, with other deformed and fantastic dresses, in palls and mitres, gold, and gewgaws fetched from Aaron's old wardrobe, or the Flamin's vestry. Then was the priest set to con his motions and his postures, his liturgies and his lurries, till the soul by this means of over-bodying herself, given up justly to fleshly delights, bated her wing apace downward : and finding the ease she had from her visible and sensuous colleage the body, in performance of religious duties, her pinions now broken and flagging, shifted off from herself the labour of high soaring any more, forgot her heavenly flight, and left the dull and droiling carcase to plod on in the old road, and drudging trade of outward conformity. And here out of question, from her perverse conceiting of God and holy things, she had fallen to believe no God at all, had not custom and the worm of conscience nipped her incredulity: hence to all the duties of evangelical grace, instead of the adoptive and cheerful boldness which our new alliance with God requires, came servile and thral-like fear: for in very deed the superstitious man by his good will is an atheist; but being scared from thence by the pangs and gripes of a boiling conscience, all in a pudder shuffles up to himself such a VOL. J.-NO. IV.