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Prof. Mapes.—The owner of the quarry is Mrs. Stuart, who charges fifty cents per ton for the privilege of quarrying it. For agriculturol purposes it is worthless, notwithstanding analysis gives it the same quantity of phosphate as bones. It has been thoroughly tried in England and discarded.

THE POTATO DISEASE. Mr. Martin Metcalf, of Battle Creek, Mich., writes that his father thinks that he has certainly discovered the cause and cure of the potato rot, and wants to know if there is still a prize offered.

Mr. Solon Robinson.-I have written to Mr. Metcalf that if he could satisfy the public that he had discovered a sure remedy for this disease, the prize of $10,000 was sure; and he wants to know if the Club would endorse this assertion. This was fully agreed to.

GROWING TOBACCO. Mr. Joseph McCoy, of Spring Mountain, Ohio, writes for information about growing tobacco.

Prof. Mapes.- I raised tobacco last year. Its cultivation is similar to the cabbage. From an experiment made upon my farm last year by Mr. Quinn, he believes that 1,400 pounds per acre can be produced. It grew upon a heavy soil, five feet high to the flower head, and some of the leaves were ten inches wide; and were soft and silky, which gives value more than weight. To make tobacco valuable requires skill and experience in curing, as if well prepared it never sweats and mildews in store. Firing destroys the value of the tobacco. The stalks are tied together and hung over a wire, so that the leaves get nourishment from the stem, which gives flavor to the leaf. In a damp day the leaves can be removed without breaking; they should be put into a heap and allowed to sweat; a cloth dipped in water and wrung out should be spread over the tobacco, and a dry cloth placed over that to keep the air from it.

SUGAR BEET CULTURE. Mr. Hiram M. Spicer, of Edmiston Centre, Otsego county, N. Y., wants information about the culture of sugar beets.

Prof. Mapes.—There are so many articles from which sugar can be made that are superior to the beet, I should recommend him to grow the Sorghum. If any one desires to grow sugar beet he can get pure French seed of the large seedsmen of this city, and by pursuing the same course that he should with carrots, he will succeed. The great requisite to success is deep tilth, upon a well drained, rich soil.

The Secretary.-By the proceedings of the Illinois Board of Agriculture, it appears that the farmers of that State use the juice of the Imphee for making sugar.

IMPROVED STANCHIONS FOR FASTENING CATTLE. Mr. S. E. Southworth, of Jamestown, Chautauqua county, has made a . great improvement in the mode of building stanchions to fasten cattle. They are hinged at the top, so as to have a motion at the bottom of about

eighteen inches forward, which enables the animal to get up easily; and also a motion sidewise of several inches, giving almost as much freedom to a bullock's head as it would have if tied by a rope.

AUSTRALIAN WHEAT. Mr. Henry Steele presented some specimens of Australian wheat, brought by him from the great Exhibition in London.

WINTER BARLEY. Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter.-I sowed a winter variety of barley last year. This variely produces a very large, long head, and yields abundantlyfrom forty to fifty bushels per acre. I think this barley will be very advantageous to our farmers to raise.

Mr. John G. Bergen said that the greatest fault with Mediterranean wheat upon Long Island is its weakness of straw, and that certainly is not owing to want of silex in the soil.

Prof. Mapes. Having an abundance of sand in the soil will not supply the necessary soluble silicates, as all soils contain several hundred times more silicates than are necessary. If Mr. Bergen would treat his soil with a supply of unleached wood ashes, he will find his wheat stand up.

THE PRICE OF APPLES AND PEARS. Mr. Carpenter stated that the King of Tompkins County apples are worth $3.50 a barrel; and he was offered to-day $40 a barrel, or twelve and a half cents a piece, for Glout Morceau pears.

Mr. Robinson suggested that they had probably cost him that to produce, counting all the expense of nine years to bring them into bearing, and all the failures.

Mr. Fuller said that not more than one barrel of three that the trees of this variety produced are fit for market, and probably not more than one in forty can be preserved by ordinary cultivators to a period when they will bring $40 a barrel; and if Mr. Carpenter has only got one barrel in nine years from all his trees, the crop, even at the priced named, is not a very profitable one.

Mr. Carpenter contended that the pears were nearly all clear gain, as the ground had been cultivated all the time in profitable crops.

Prof. Mapes insisted that land at $500 an acre could be profitably used to grow pears.

Mr. John G. Bergen thought ten will fail where one succeeds in making pear growing profitable upon any land.

Mr. Fuller said that he had rather grow grapes at five cents a pound, and he would not recommend the Glout Morceau as a profitable pear to grow.

Prof. Mapes.-If I were planting only six varieties, I would not include Glout Morceau; and I do not know that I would in twelve sorts, but I certainly would in twenty.

Mr. Porter, whose pump I spoke about a few meetings since, is desirous the Club should appoint a committee to examine his pump.

The following were appointed the committee: Messrs. J. J. Mapes, John G. Bergen and J. V. Henry Nott.

GRAPE PRUNING. At the request of a number of persons who were not present last week, Mr. Fuller addressed the Club upon grape pruning, contending for the single arms and renewal system. He does not manure highly, because by only growing his canes two feet long the quantity of wood is so small that he does not need much manure. If convenient, he would mulch with long stable manure, but never put anything in a crude state near the roots of a vine. It is an object with European vine growers to produce as little wood as possible, and a large amount of fruit. We only want just leaves enough to ripen the fruit. If we grow many more we shall need to furnish food for no profitable purpose. Long vines require long and strong roots, and these must be fed in proportion. It is the greatest error that vine growers commit, to grow too much wood.

Mr. Robinson thought there was one greater error, and that was trying to grow too many varieties.

Mr. Fuller said, that is true, for out of one hundred sorts I can name but three that I can recommend as certainly valuable for everybody to grow. These are Concord, Hartford Prolific, and Delaware.

Prof. Mapes.-For years I have used the phosphates to manure my vines. Some years since I took all the trimmings from my vines and passed them through a straw cutter, placed them in a heap, sprinkled over with wood ashes, then well moistened with water, and covered with dirt. The next year this material was in such a state that I could apply it to my vines. I found that the vines manured in this way produced a large quantity of fruit.

ILLINOIS COFFEE. Mr. A. H. Wetherill, of Hopeville, Iowa, thinks that the Club has condemned this coffee without giving it a trial.

Mr. Hoffman, who introduced the plant, in a letter to Mr. Wetherill last year, says:

“Two years ago last February I received a letter from my son in Australia, containing thirty seeds of coffee, whence was grown my little stock of seed. Directions: Plant on good ground, in drills, eighteen inches apart in the drill; the rows three and a half feet apart, the same as corn, one seed in a hill. When ripe, gather and thresh the same as beans. Plant and cultivate the same as corn. To prepare for use: Brown the same as other coffee: when ground, pour on boiling water, let it stand about five minutes and then pour off. Pour on more water, boil thirty to forty minutes, and it is ready to serve. Those who have prepared it in this way consider it as almost equal to store coffee. I have drank it prepared differently, and called it, as you do, 'poor stuff.”

This coffee, as it is called, grows upon an annual plant or shrub, and will yield about thirty bushels an acre.

Mr. Robinson said that the sample sent him looked like shriveled peas.

Subject for discussion at the next meeting: “Strawberry and Raspberry Culture," and " Pruning Fruit Trees." Adjourned.

JOHN W. CHAMBERS, Secretary.

March 10, 1863.

Mr. N. Hawxhụrst, of New Jersey, in the chair.

LICE ON CATTLE. Prof. Mapes.-Can any member of the Club inform me whether they have tried any of the receipts floating round the country to destroy lice on cattle? Among them I found that oil placed on the coat of the animal was a remedy highly recommended, but I am under the impression that it would be likely to interfere with the healthy endosmose and exosmose functions of the skin. Every pore of the skin is an excretory organ, and if filled with any substance not readily removed, would injure the health of the animal. Another, the application of wood ashes. I am under the impression that the remedy is worse than the disease.

Dr. Trimble.—I have made insects a study. A number of insects breathe from their sides; the application of any oily substance prevents their breathing, so they die. I remember once, when practicing as a young physician, being called on to prescribe to a child who had been playing on some fleeces of wool. A tick from the wool had got into the child's ear, and caused great pain. - I introduced some sweet oil into the ear, and in a little time the tick came to the surface, and was removed with a pair of forceps.

How To PRODUCE OPIUM. A lady in the north part of Vermont writes:

“I want to enter into the business of raising opium, but do not know how or where to get the seed to raise the poppies, and should like to see the manner of its cultivation, etc., discussed by the Farmers' Club."

Prof. Mapes.-Growing poppies for opium has, as a general thing, proved a failure in this country, either owing to frequent rains, which interfere with the production, or else because the plant does not afford opium enough to make it a paying crop. Some persons, however, have made a good business of saving the juice of lettuce, which is used by druggists as a substitute for opium. It possesses soporific qualities, without the narcotic qualities of poppies. The stalks are allowed to run up, but are cut off before seeding, and the juice gathers and dries in a wafer on the top, and is gathered twice a day, making a fresh cut every time. To make it profitable, the work must be done by children, and will then pay better than poppies.

COTTON IN KANSAS. Mr. Wm. Hosford writes from Oskaloosa as follows, in regard to cotton growing in that State:

"I obtained a little seed from fugitives from southern Missouri, and by the Hon. S. C. Pomroy, from Washington, and planted it the 10th of May, in drills three and a half feet apart. The yield was. 343 pounds in the seed, weighed when well dried. In Tennessee 800 pounds per acre is a crop. My seed was mostly the green variety. Some black seeds produced plants ten inches higher, with longer bolls, but did not ripen as early by three weeks. Some of my planting was on low, moist, rich land, that did not want for rain, and averaged three bolls to the branch, and ripened more bolls in good season than the remainder that was planted on dry, poorer soil, which was hindered at least three weeks in growth for want of rain, and equally as much in ripening. I did not pick it until after all crops ought to be harvested. Our fierce Kangas winds did not injure it in the least. A machine for ginping all cotton for domestic use is easily made of two cylinders, sixteen inches in length, five-eighths of an inch in diameter, with rakers two inches in diameter, each driven with a power cylinder seventeen inches in diameter, with crank. That will separate one pound of clean fiber from the seed per hour., From my own experiment, as well as a great many others equally encouraging, I have arrived at the conclusion that if Kansas does not produce cotton next season sufficient for her own use, and the wants of at least two other States, it will be for want of seed; for I feel confident it could be easily done without materially lessening her other agricultural enterprise."

Prof. Mapes.—The mode of cultivating cotton practiced to a great extent at the South, is so different from the mode of cultivation at the North, that I will devote a few minutes in explaining the difference. The cotton at the South grows upon ridges, and after a time part of the ridge is cut down and leaves the plant growing upon small pyramids, but by the application of improved implements I am sure flat culture would produce a bet

ter crop

Mr. John G. Bergen.-In visits I have made to the South it appeared to me that the mode of cultivation pursued was similar to our own, viz., flat culture.

THE ORIENTAL SUGAR Root. Mr. Isaac Martin writes from Marlborough, Chester county, Pa., for information about something advertised by one Wm. B. Marston, Utica, N. Y., as the “Oriental Sugar Root.” Mr. Martin says:

If one-half claimed for it be true, it deserves to be brought to the notice of the public. If it be nothing but a humbug, the confiding public should be apprised of the fact. Hoping that some of your members may be able to give a trustworthy account of the article, I shall be much pleased to see your opinions in the proceedings of your next meeting."

Prof. Mapes.—I suppose the root alluded to is the sugar beet, but as there are many plants from which sugar is made, such as the sorghum and imphee, farmers should be careful in purchasing seeds of roots with names only calculated to mislead.

SEEDS BY MAIL. Mr. Solon Robinson.—Are our farmers aware of the postage law which allows seeds, grafts, cuttings, &c., to be sent by mail at one cent per ounce ? Congress, at its last session, reduced the price to half a cent per ounce, to take effect on the first day of June next.

How To DISSOLVE Bones. Mr. C. C. Shaw, of Milford, N. H., writes to inquire how to dissolve bones.

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