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parts above their enemies, the others were soon beaten; nor could they who had only light armour on, sustain the force of them that sought them armed all over; nor wben they were beaten could they escape the enemies' horsemen; insomuch that only some few concealed themselves in certain places hard to be come at, among the mountains, while the rest, above two thousand in number, were slain.
CHAP. XIX. What Cestius did against the Jews ; and how, upon his besieging Je
rusalem, he retreated from the city, without any just occasion in the world. As also what severe calamities he underwent from the Jews in his retreat.
§ 1. And now Gallus seeing nothing more that looked to wards an innovation in Galilee, returned with his army to Cæsarea: but Cestius removed with his whole army, and marched to Antipatris. And when he was informed that there was a great body of Jewish forces gotten together in a certain tower called Aphek, he sent a party before to fight then ; but this party dispersed the Jews by affrighting them, before it came to a battle : so they came, and finding their camp deserted, they burnt it, as well as the villages that lay about it. But when Cestius had marched from Antipatris to Lydda, he found the city empty of its men, for the* whole multitude were gone up to Jerusalem to the feast of
* Here we have an eminent example of that Jewish language, which Dr. Wall truly observes we several times find used in the sacred writings; I mean where the words all or whole multitude, &c. are used for much the greatest part only; but not so as to include every person, without exception ; for when Josephus had said, that thre whole multitude [all the males] of Lydda were gone to the feast of tabernacles, he immediately adds, that bowever, no fewer than fifty of them appeared, and were slain by the Romans. Other examples somewhat like this I have observed elsewhere in Josephus, but as I think, none so remarkable as this. See Wall's Critical Observations on the Old Testament, p. 49, 50.
We liave also in this and the next section, two eminent facts to be observed, viz. the first example, that I remember in Josephus, of the onset of the Jews' enemies upon their country when their males were gone vip to Jerusalem, to one of their three sacred festivals ; which, during the heocracy, God had promised to preserve them from, Exod. xxxiv 24. The second fact is this, the breach of the Sabbath by the seditious Jews in an offensive light, contrary to the universal doctrine and prac ice of their nation in inese ages, and even contrary to what they themselves af erward p'actised in the rest of this war. See the note on Antiq. B. xvi. chiii. § 4. vol. iii. ,
tabernacles; yet did he destroy fisty of those that shewed themselves, and burnt the city, and so marched forwards ; and ascending by Beth horon, he pitched his camp at a certain place called Gabao, fisty furlongs distant from Jerusalem.
2. But as for the Jews, when they saw the war approachjoy to their metropolis, they left the feast, and betook themselves to their arms ; and taking courage greatly from their multitude, went in a sudden and disorderly manner to the fight, with a great noise, and without any consideration had of the rest of the seventh day, although the Sabbath was the play to which they had the greatest regard; but that rage which made them forget the religious observation [of the Sabbath] made them too hard for their enemies in the fight : with such violence therefore did they fall upon the Romans, as to break into their rauks, and to march through the midst of them, making a great slaughter as they went, insomuch that unless the horsemen, and such part of the footmen as were not yet tried in the action, had wheeled round, and succoured that part of the army which was not yet broken, Cestius, with his whole army, had been in danger : however five hundred and fifteen of the Romans were slain, of which Bumber four hundred were footmen, and the rest horsemen, while the Jews lost only twenty-two, of whom the most va. liant were the kinsmen of Monobazus king of Adiabene, and their names were Monobazus and Kenerius; and next to them were Niger of Perea, and Silas of Babylon; who had deserted from king Agrippa to the Jews; for he had former. Jy served in his army. When the front of the Jewish are my had been cut off, the Jews retired into the city ; but stilt Simon, the son of Giora, fell upon the backs of the Romans, as they were ascending up Beth-horon, and put the hindo most of the army into disorder, and carried off many of the beasts that carried the weapons of war, and led them into the eity. But as Cestius tarried there three days, the Jews seized upon the elevated parts of the city, and set watches at the entrances into the city, and appeared openly resolved not to rest. when once the Romans should begin to march.
3. And now when Agrippa observed that even the af. fairs of the Romans were likely to be in danger, while such an immense multitude of their enemies had seized upon the mountains round about, he determined to try what the Jews rould agree to by words, as thinking that he should either
persuade them all to desist from fighting, or, however, that le should cause the sober part of them to separate themselves from the opposite party. So he sent Borceus and Phebus, the persons of his party that were the best knowu to them, and promised them, that Cestius should give them bis rigbt band, to secure them of the Romans entire forgiveness of what they had done amiss, if they would throw away their arms, and come over to them ; but the seditious, fearing lest the whole multitude, in hopes of security to themselves, should go over to Agrippa, resolved immediately to fall upon and kill the ambassadors : accordingly they slew Phebus before he had said a word, but Borceus was only wounded, and so prevented his fate by lying away : and when the people were very augry at this, they had the seditious beaten with stones and clubs, and drove them before them into the city. .
4. But now Cestius, observing that the disturbances that were begun among the Jews afforded him a proper opportunity to attack them, took his whole army along with him, and put the Jews to fight, and pursued them to Jerusalem. IIe then pitched his camp upon the elevation called Scopus, for watch tower,] which was distant seven furlongs from the city ; yet did not he assault them in three days time, out of expectation that those within might perhaps yield a little ; and in the mean time he sent out a great many of his soldiers into the neighbouring villages, to seize upon their corn. And on the fourth day, which was the thirtieth of the month Hyperbereteus (Tisri,] when he had put his army in array, he brought it into the city. Now for the people, they were kept under by the seditious; but the seditious themselves were greatly affrighted at the good order of the Romans, and retired from the suburbs, and retreated into the inper part of the city, and into the temple. But when Cestius was conje into the city, he set the part called Bezetha, which is called Cenopolis, for the new city, on fire; as he had also to the timber market: after which he came into the upper city, and pitched his camp over against the royal palace; and had he but at this very time attempted to get withia the walls by force, he had won the city presently, and the war had been put an end to at once; but Tyrannus Priscus, the muster master of the army, and a great number of the officers of the horse, had been corrupted by Florus, and diverted him from that his attempts and that was the occasion that this war lasta
ed so very long, and thereby the Jews were involved into such incurable calamities.
5. In the mean time many of the principal men of the city were persuaded by Ananus, the son of Jonathan, and invited Cestius into the city, and were about to open the gates for him ; but he overlooked this offer, partly out of his anger at the Jews, and partly because he did not thoroughly believe they were in earnest; whence it was that he delayed the matter so long, that the seditious perceived the treachery, and threw Anapus and those of his party down from the wall, and pelting them with stones, drove them into their houses ; but they stood themselves at proper distances in the towers, and threw their darts at those that were getting over the wall. Thus did the Romans make their attack against the wall for five days, but to no purpose : but on the next day Cestius took a great many of his choicest men, and with them the archers, and attempted to break into the temple at the northero quarter of it ; but the Jews beat them off from the cloisters, and repulsed them several times when they were gotten near to the wall, till at length the niultitude of the darts cut them off, and made them retire : but the first rank of the Romans rested their shields upon the wall, and so did those that were behind them, and the like did those that were still more backward, and guarded themselves with what they called
T'estudo, (the back of a tortoise, upon which the darts that were throwu fell and slided off without doing them' any harm; so the soldiers undermined the wall, without being themselves hurt, and got all things ready for setting fire to the gate of the temple.
6. And now it was that a horrible fear seized upon the seditious, insomuch, that many of them ran out of the city, as though it were to be taken immediately ; but the people upon this took courage, and where the wicked part of the city gave ground, thither did they come, in order to set open the gates, and to admit Cestius as their benefactor, who, had he but continued the siege a little longer, had certainly taken the city; but it was, suppose, owing to the * aversion Cod
* Tlicre may another very important and very providential rea.. son be here assigned, for this strange and foolish retreat of Cestius ; which, if Josephus had been now a. Christian, he might probably have taken notice of also ; and that is, the affording the Jewish Christians in the city an opportunity of calling to mind the predicsion and caution given them by Christ about 33 1-2 years before,
had already at the city, and the sanctuary, that he was higdered from putting an end to the war that very day.
7. It then happened that Cestius was not conscious either how the besieged despaired of success, nor how courageous the people were for hini ; and so he recalled his soldiers from the place, and by despairing of any expectation of takiug it, with out having received any disgrace, he retired from the city, without any reason in the world. But when the robbers perceived this unexpected retreat of his, they resumed their cou. rage, and ran after the hinder parts of his army, and destroyed a considerable number of both their horsemen and footmen; and now Cestius lay all night at the camp which was at Scopus, and as he went off farther next day, he thereby invited the enemy to follow him, who still fell upon the bindmost aud. destroyed them; they also fell upon the flank on each side of the army, and threw darts upon them obliquely, nor durst those that were hindmost turn back upon those who wounded them behind, as imagining that the multitude of those who pursued them was immense : nor did they venture to drive away those that pressed upon them on each side, because they were heavy with their arms, and were afraid of breaking their Banks to pieces, and because they saw that the Jews were light, and ready for making incursions upon them. And this was the reason why the Romans suffered greatly, without be. ing able to revenge themselves upon their enemies; so they were galled all the way, and their ranks were put into disor der, and those that were thus put out of their ranks were s!ain ; ainong whom were. Prisçus, the commander of the sixth legion, and Longinus the tribune, and Emilius Secund. us, the coniniander of a troop of horsemen. So it was not without difficully that they got to Gabao; their former camp, and that not without the loss of a great part of their baggage.
that when they should see the abomination of desolalion, [the idolatrous. Roman armies, with the images of their idols in their ensigns, reac dy to lay Jerusalem desolate) stand where it ought not ; or, in the holy pluce; or when they should'sce Jerusalem compassed with armies, they should then fiee ta the mountains. By complying with which those Jewish Christians fied to the mountains of Perea, and escaped this destruction. See Lit. Accompl. of Proph. page 69,70. Nor was there, perhaps, any one instance of a more unpolitic, but more prova dential conduct, than this retreat of Cesiius visible during this whole siege of Jerusalem ; which was yet providentially such a great tribus lation, as had not been from the beginning of the world to that time ; my, 2007 ever should be. Ibid. page 70, 71.