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were in time of war, which is the reason why they bear the fatigue of battles so easily: for neither can any disorder remove them from their usual regularity, nor can fear affright them out of it, por can labour tire them : which firmness of conduct makes them always to overcome those that have not the same firmness; nor would he be mistaken that should call those their exercises unbloody battles, and their battles bloody exercises. Nor can their enemies easily surprise them with the suddepness of their incursions ; for as soon as they have marched into an enemy's land, they do not begin to fight till they have walled their camp about ; nor is the fence they raise rashly made, or uneven ; por do they all abide in it, nor do those that are in it take their places at random; but if it happens that the ground is uneven, it is first levelled; their camp is also four square by measure, and carpenters are ready in great oumbers, with their tools, to érect their buildings for them. * - 2. As for what is within the camp it is set apart for tents, but the outward circumference hath the resemblance to a wall, and is adorned with towers at equal distances, where between the towers stand the engines for throwing arrows, and darts, and for slinging stones, and where they lay all other engines that can annoy the enemy, all ready for their several operations. They also erect four gates, one at every side of the circumference, and those large enough for the entrance of the beasts, and wide enough for making excursions, if occasion should require. They divide the camp within into streets, very conveniently, and place the tents of the commanders in the middle, but in the very midst of all is the general's own tent, in the nature of a temple, insomuch that it appears to be a city built on the sudden, with its market place, and place for handicraft trades, and with seats for the officers superior and inferior, where, if
* This description of the exact symmetry and regularity of the Roman army, and of the Roman encampments, with the sounding their trumpets, &c and order of war described in this and the next chapter, is so very like to the symmetry and regularity of the people of Israel in the wilderness, (see description of the temples, ch. ix.) that one cannot well avoid the supposal, that the one was the ulti. mate pattern of the other, and that the tactics of the ancients were taken from the rules given by God to Moses. And it is thought by some skilful in those matters, that these accounts of Josephus, as to the Roman camp and armour, and conduct in war, are preferable to those in the Roman authors themselves.
any differences arise, their causes are heard and determined. The camp, and all that is in it, is encompassed with a wall round about, and that sooner than one would imagine, and this by the multitude and the skill of the labourers; and, if occasion require, a trench is drawn round the whole whose depth is four cubits, and its breadth equal.
3. When they have thus secured themselves, they live together by companies, with quietness and decency, as are all their other affairs managed with good order and security. Each company hath also their wood, and their corn, and their water brought them when they stand in need of them; for they neither sup nor dine as they please themselves sivgly but altogether. Their times also for sleeping and watching and rising, are notified beforehand by the sound of trumpets, nor is any thing done without such a signal; and in the morning the soldiery go every one to their centurions, and these centurions to their tribunes, to salute them; withı whom all the superior officers go to the general of the wholearmy, who then gives them of course the watch word, and other orders, to be by them carried to all that are under their command; which is also observed when they go to fight, and thereby they turn themselves about on the sudden, when there is occasion for making sallies, as they come back when they are recalled in crowds also.
4. Now when they are to go out of their camp, the trumpet gives a sound, at which time nobody lies still, but at the first intimation they take down their tents, and all is made ready for their going out; then do do the trumpets sound again, to order them to get ready for the march; then do they lay their bag. gage suddenly upon their mules, and other beasts of burthen, and stand, as at the place of starting, ready to march; when also they set fire to their camp, and this they do because it will be easy for them to erect another camp, and that it may not ever be of use to their enemies. Then do the trumpets give a sound the third time, that they are to go out, in order to excite those that, on any account, are a little tardy, that so no one may be out of bis rank when the army marches. Then does the crier stand at the general's right hand, and asks them thrice in their own tongur, whether they be now ready to go out to war or not? To which they reply as often with a loud and cheerful voice, saying, We are ready. And this they do almost before the question is asked them : they
do this as filled with a kind of martial fury, and the same time that they so cry out, they lift up their right hands also.
5. When, after this, they are gone out of their camp, they all march without noise, and in a decent manner, and every one keeps his own rank, as if they were going to war.The footmen are armed with breast-plates, and head-pieces, and have swords on each side; but the sword which is on their left side is much longer than the other, for that on the right side is not longer than a span. Those footmen also that are chosen out from the rest to be about the general himself, have a lance and a buckler, but the rest of the foot soldiers have a spear, and a long buckler, besides a saw and a basket, a pick-axe and an axe, a thong of leather and a hook, with provisions for three days; so that a footman hath no great need of a mule to carry his burdens. The horsemen have a long sword on their right sides, and a long pole in their hand; a shield also lies by them obliquely on one side of, their horses, with three or more darts that are borne in their quivers, having broad points, and not smaller than spears.They have also head.pieces, and breast-plates, in like mans ner as have all the footmen. And for those'that are chosen to be about the general, their armour no way differs from that of the horsemen belonging to other troops; and he always leads the legions forth to whom the lot assigns that employment.
6. This is the manner of the marching and resting of the Romans, as also these are the several sorts of weapons they use. But when they are to fight, they leave nothing without forecast, nor to be done off hand, but counsel is ever first taken before any work is begun, and what bath been there resolved upon is put into execution presently; for which reason they seldom commit any errors, and if they have been mistaken at any time, they easily correct those mistakes.
They also esteem any errors they commit upon taking counsel before-hand, to be better than such rash success as is owing to fortune only ; because such a fortuitous advantage tempts them to be inconsiderate, while consultation, though it may sometimes fail of success, hath this good in it, that it makes men more careful hereafter; but for the advantages that arise from chance, they are not owing to him that gains them ; and as to what melancholy accidents happen unexpectedly, there is this comfort in them, that they had, however, taken the best consultations they could to prevent them,
7. Now they so manage their preparatory exercises of their weapons, that not the body of the soldiers oply, but their souls may also become stronger; they are moreover hardened for war by fear, for their laws inflict capital punishments, not only for soldiers runcing away from their ranks, but for slothfulness and inactivity, though it be in a lesser degree; as are their generals more severe than their laws, for they prevent any imputation of cruelty towards those under condemnation, by the great rewards they bestow on the valiant soldiers; and the readiness of obeying their commanders is so great, that it is very ornamental in peace; but when they come to a battle, the whole army is but one body, so well coupled together are their ranks, so sudden are their turnings about, so sharp their hearing as to what orders are given them, so quick their sight of the ensigns, and so nimble are their hands when they set to work; whereby it comes to pass, that what they do is done quickly, and what they suffer they bear with the greatest patience. Nor can we find any examples where they have been conquered in battle, when they came to close fight, either by the multitude of the enemies, or by their stratagems, or by the difficulties in the places they were in, no nor by fortune neither, for their victories have been surer to them thap fortune could have granted them. In a case, therefore, where counsel still goes before action, and where, after taking the best advice, that ad. vice is followed by so active an army, what wonder is it that Euphrates on the east, the ocean on the west, the most fertile regions of Libya on the south, and the Danube and the Rhine on the north, are the limits of this empire ? One might well say, that the Roman possessions are inferior to the Romans themselves.
8. This account I have given the reader, not so much with the intention of commending the Romans, as of comforting those that bave been conquered by them, and for the deter. ring others from attempting innovations under their government. This discourse of the Roman military conduct may also perhaps be of use to such of the curious as are ignorant of it, and yet have a mind to know it. I return now from this digression.
CIIAP. VI. Placidus attempts to take Jotapata, and is beaten off. Vespasian
marches into Galilee. § 1. And now Vespasian with his son Titus, had tarried some time at Ptolemais, and had put his army in order. But Wien Placidus, who had over-run Galilee, and had besides plain a number of those whom lie had caught, (which were only the weaker part of the Galileans, and such as were of timorous souls,) saw that the warrior ran always to those cities whose walls had been built by Josephus, he marched furiously against Jotapata, which was of them all the strongest, as supposing he should easily take it by a sudden surprise, and that he should thereby obtain great honour to himself among the commanders, and bring a great advantage to them in their future campaign; because if this strongest place of them all were once taken, tlie rest would be so affrighted as to surrender themselves. But he was mightily mistaken in Hris undertaking; for the men of Jotapata were apprized of his coming to attack them, and came out of the city, and expected him there. So they fought the Romans briskly, when they least expected it, being both many in number, and prepared for fighting, and of great alacrity, as esteeming their country, their wives and their children to be in danger, and casily put the Romans to flight, and wounded many of them, and slew *seven of them ; because their retreat was not made in a disorderly manner because the strokes only touched the surface of their bodies, which were covered with their almour in all parts, and because the Jews did rather throw their weapons upon them from a great distance, than venture to come hand to hand with them, and had ouly light armour on, while the others were completely armed. However, three
* I cannot but here observe an eastern way of speaking, frequent among them, but not usual among us, where the word only or alone is not set down, but perhaps some way supplied in the pronunciation. Thus Josephus here says, that ibose of Jotapata slew seven of the Romans, as they were marching off, because the Romans' re. treat was regular, their bodies were covered over with their armour, and the Jews fought at some distance: his meaning is clear, that these were the reasons why they slew only, or no more than seven. I have met with many the like examples in the scriptures, in Jose. phus, &c. but did not note down the particular places. This ob. sérvation ought to be borne in mind upon many occasions.