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* by my own sword, and my own hand: but if they admit of - mercy, and would spare their enemy, how much more s: ought we to have mercy upon ourselves, and to spare our *í ourselves ? for it is certainly a foolish thing to do that - to ourselves which we quarrel with them for doing to us. * I confess freely, that it is a brave thing to die for liberty ; - but still so that it be in war, and done by those who take -- that liberty from us; but in the present case our enemies “ do peither meet us in battle, nor do they kill us. Now, - he is equally a coward who will not die, when he is obliged - to die, and he who will die when he is not obliged so to do. 5. What are we afraid of when we will not go up to the Roci mans? Is it death? If so, what are we afraid of, when we 6 but suspect our enemies will inflict it on us, shall we in“ flict it on ourselves for certain ? But, it may be said, we * must be slaves. And are we then in a clear state of lib

erty at present ? It may also be said, that it is a manly 56 act for a man to kill himself. No certainly, but a most “ unmanly one; as I should esteem that pilot to be ao ar“ rant coward, who, out of fear of a storm, should sink * his ship of his own accord. Now, self-murder is a crime "most remote from the common nature of all animals, and “ an instance of impiety against God our Creator : nor « indeed is there any animal that dies by its own con66 trivance, or by its own means, for the desire of life is a “ law engraven in them all; on which account we deem " those that openly take it away from us to be our enemies, " and those that do it by treachery are punished for so d06 ing. And do not you think that God is very angry wheb “a man does injury to what he hath bestowed on him ? For “ from him it is that we have received our being, and we 4 ought to leave it to his disposal to take that being away, “ from us. The bodies of all men are indeed mortal, and " are created out of corruptible matter ; but the soulis ever im. “mortal, and is a portion of the divinity which inhabits our bo “ dies. Besides, if any one destroys or abuses a depositum he “ hath received from a mere man, he is esteemed a wicked a. " perfidious person; but then if any one cast out of his “ body this divine depositum, can we imagine that he who is " thereby affronted does not know of it ? Moreover, 0111 " law justly ordains that slaves which run away from their “ masters shall be punished, though the masters they ran " away from may have been wicked masters to them. And 6 shall we endeavour to run away from God, who is the .66 best of all masters, and not think ourselves guilty of im" piety? Do not you know, that those who depart out of this “ life according to the law of nature, and pay that debt which " was received from God, when he that lent it us is pleased " to require it back again, enjoy eternal fame; that their 6 houses and their posterity are sure, that their souls are “.pure and obedient, and obtain a most holy place in heaven, s from whence, in the revolutions of ages, they are again sent “ into pure bodies; while the souls of those, whose hands have " acted madly against themselves, are received by the dark“ est place in Hades, and while God, who is their father, 66 punishes those that offend against either of them in their es posterity for which reason God hates such doings, and the “ crime is punished by our most wise legislator. Accord* ingly our laws determine, that the bodies of such as kill « themselves should be exposed till the sun be set, without e burial, although at the same time it be allowed by them to “ be lawful to bury our enemies (sooner), The laws of “ other nations also enjoin such men's hands to be cut off 6 when they are dead, which had been made use of in des. 6 troying themselves when alive, while they reckoned, **s that as the body is alien from the soul, so is the hand alien 6 from the body. It is, therefore, my friends a right thing “ to reason justly, and not add to the calamities which meir “ bring upon us, impiety towards our Creator. If we 66 have a mind to preserve ourselves, let us do it; for to 's be preserved by those our enemies, to whom we have giv. 66 en so many demonstrations of our courage, is no way in. ó glorious; but if we have a miod to die, it is good to die by o the hand of those that have conquered us. For my part, as I will not run over to our enemies quarters, in order to be " a traitor to myself; for certainly I should then be much is more foolish than those that deserted to the enemy, since 66 tliey did it in order to save themselves, and I should do it " for destruction, for my own destruction. Ilowever, I “ heartily wish the Romans may prove treacherous in this - matter; for if, after their offer of their right hand for secu“rity, I he slaid by them, I shall die cheerfully, and carry “ away with with me the sense of their perfidiousness, as a " consolation greater than victory itself.”

6. Now these and many the like motives did Josephus use to these men to prevent their murdering themselves; but



desperation had shut their ears, as having long ago devoted themselves to die, and they were irritated at Josephus. They then ran upon him with their swords in their hands, one from one quarter, and another from another, and called him a coward, and every one of them appeared openly as if he were ready to smite him; but he calling to one of them by name, and looking like a general to another, and taking a third by the hand, and making a fourth ashamed of bimself, by praying him to forbear, and being in this condition distracted with various passions, (as he well might in the great distress he was then in,) he kept off every one of their swords from killing him, and was forced to do like sucb wild beasts as are encompassed about on every side, who always turn themselves against those that last touched them. Nay, some of their right hands were debilitated by the reverence they bare to their general, in these his fatal calamities, and their swords dropped out of their hapds. and not a few of them there were, who, when they aimed to smite him with their swords, they were not thoroughly either willing or able to do it.

7. However, in this extreme distress, he was ont desti tute of his usual sagacity; but trusting himself to the provt dence of God, he put his life into hazard (in the manner fole lowing]: “ And now,” said he, “ since it is resolved among * you that you will die, come on, let us commit our mutual -66 deaths to determination by lot. He whom the lot falls to

« first, let him be killed by him that hath the second lot, and -“ thus fortune shall make its progress through us all; bor

shall any of us perish by his own right hand, for it would 66 be unfair if, when the rest are gone, somebody should re< pent and save himself.” This proposal appeared to them to be very just; and when he had prevailed with them to determine this matter by lots, he drew one of the lots for him. self also. He who had the first lot laid his neck bare to hin that had the next, as supposing that the general would die among them immediately ; for they thought death, if Jose• phus might but die with them, was sweeter than life: yel was he with another left to the last, whether we must say ? bappened so by chance, or whether by the providence of God. And as he was very desirous neither to be condemne ed by the lot, nor, if he had beep left to the last, to imbrue his right hand in the blood of his countryman, he persuaded him to trust his fidelity to him, and to live as well as himselte

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8. Thus Josephus escaped in the war with the Romanis, and in this his owo war with his friends, and was led by Nicanor to Vespasian. But now all the Romans ran together to see him ; and as the multitude pressed one upon another about their general, there was a tunult of a various kind ; while some rejoiced that Josephus was taken, and some threatened him, and some crowded to see him very near; but those that were more remote cried out to have this their enemy put to death, while those that were near called to mind the actions he had done, and a deep concern appeared at the change of his fortune. Nor were there any of the Roman commanders, how much soever they had been enraged at him before, but relented when they came to the sight of him. Above all the rest, Titus' own valour, and Josephus' own patience under his afflictions, made him pity him, as did also the commiseration of his age, when he recalled to mind that but a little while ago he was fighting, but lay now in the hands of his enemies, which made him consider the power of fortune, and how quick is the turn of affairs in war, and how no state of men is sure ; for which reason he then made a great many more to be of the same pitiful temper with himself and inie duced them to commiserate Josephus. He was also of great weight in persuading his father to preserve him. However, Vespasian gave strict orders that he should be kept with great caution, as though he would, in a very little time, send him to Nero.

9. When Josephus heard him give these orders, he said, that he had somewhat in his mind that he would willingly say to himself alone. When therefore they were all ordered to withdraw, excepting Titus and two of their friends, he said, " Thou, O Vespasian, thinkest no more than that thou hast “ taken Josephus himself captive; but I come to thee as a “ messenger of greater tidinys; for had not I been sept by “ God to thee, I knew what was the * law of the Jews in


I do not know where to find the law of Moses here mentioned by Josephus, and afterward by Eleazar, B. vii. $ 7. ch. viii. vol. vi. and almost implied in B. i. ch. xiii. $ 10 vol. v. by Josephus' commendation of Phasaelus for doing so ; I mean whereby Jewish ge. nerals and people were obliged to kill themselves, rather than go into slavery under the heathens. I doubt this would have been no better than self-murder ; and I believe it was rather some vain doca trine, or interpretation of the rigid Pharisees, or Essens, or Herodians, than a just consequence from any law of God delivered by


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w this case, and how it becomes generals to die. Dost thou

send me to Nero ? For why ? Are Nero's successors till " they come to thee still alive? Thou, O Vespasian, art “ Cæsar, and emperor, thou, and this thy sop. Bind me « now still faster, and keep me for thyself, for thou, O Cæ“ sar, art not only lord over me, but over the land and the “ sea, and all mankind; and certainly I deserve to be kept io u closer custody than I now am in, in order to be punished, “ if I rashly affirm any thing of God.” When he had said this, Vespasian at present did not believe him, but supposed that Josephus said this, as a cupning trick, in order to his own preservation; but in a little time he was convinced, and believed what he said to be true, God himself erecting his exa pectations, so as to think of obtaining the empire, and by other signs foreshewing his advancement. He also found Josephus to hare spoken truth on other occasions; for one of those friends that were present at that secret conference, said to Josephus, I cannot but wonder how thou couldest not i foretel to the people of Jotapata, that they should be ta6 ken por couldest foretel this captivity which had happened “ to thyself, unless what thou Dow sayest be a vain thing, in & order to avoid the rage that is risen against thyself." to which Josephus replied, “I did foretel to the people of “ Jotapata, that they would be taken on the forty-seventh 4 day, and that I shonld be caught alive by the Romans.” Now when Vespasian had inquired of the captives privately about these predictions, he found them to be true, and then he began to believe those that concerned himself. Yet did he not set Josephus at liberty from his bands, but bestowed on him suits of clothes, and other precious gifts; be treated him also in a very obliging mapner, and continued so to do. Ti. tus still joining his interest in the hopours that were done hima

CHAP. IX. How Joppa was taken, and Tiberias delivered up. 8 1. Now Vespasian returned to Ptolemais on the fourth day of the month Panemus, [Tamuz,] and from thence he came to Cæsarea, which lay by the sea-side. This was a very great city of Judea, and for the greatest part inhabited by Greeks: the citizens here received both the Roman ar. my and its general, with all sorts of acclamations and rejoicings, and this partly out of the good-will they bore 10

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