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its water continues always up to its edges, without either siuking or running over. And as this origin of Jordan was formerly not known, it was discovered so to be when Philip was tetrarch of Trachopitis ; for he had chaff thrown into Phalia, and it was found at Panium, where the ancients thought the fountain head of the river was, whither it bad been therelore carried by the waters.) As for Panium itself, its natural beauty had been improved by the royal liberality of Agrippa, and adorned at his expenses. Now Jordan's visible stream arises from this cavern and divides the marshes and feus of the lake Semehopitis; and when it bath run another hundred and twenty furlongs, it first passes by the city Julias, and then passes through the middle of the lake Genpesareth; after which it runs a long way over a desert, and then makes its exit into the lake Asphaltitis.
8. The country also that lies over against this lake hath the same name of Gennesareth ; its nature is wonderful as well as its beauty ; its soil is so fruitful that all sorts of trees can grow upon it, and the inhabitants accordingly plant all sorts of trees there ; for the temper of the air is so well mixed that it agrees very well with those several sorts, particularly walouts which require the coldest air, flourish there in vast plenty; there are palm trees also, which grow best in hot air; fig trees also and olives grow near them, which yet require an air that is more temperate. One may call this place the ambition of nature, where it forces those plants that are naturally enemies to one another to agree together: it is a happy contention of the seasons, as if every one of them laid claim to this country ; for it not only nourishes different sorts of autumnal fruit beyond men's expectation, but preserves them also a great while ; it supplies men with the principal fruits, with grapes, * and figs, continually during ten months of the year, and the rest of the fruits as they be
* It may be worth our while to observe here, that near this lake of Gennesareth grapes and figs hang on the trees ten months of the year. We may observe also, that Cyril of Jerusalem, Cateches: xviii. $ 3. which was delivered not long before Easter, there were no fresh leaves of fig-trees, nor bunches of fresh grapes in Judea , so hat when St. Mark says, ch. xi. ver. 1.. that our Saviour soon after the same time of the year, came and found leaves on a fig tree near Jerusalem, but no figs, because the time of new figs ripening was not yet, he says very true ; nor were they therefore other than old leaves which our Saviour saw and old figs which he expected, and wbich even with us commonly hang on the trees all winter long.
come ripe together through the whole year: for besides the good temperature of the air, it is also watered from a most fertile tountain. The people of the country called it Capharnaum : some have thought it to be a vein of the Nile, because it produces the Coracin fish as well as that lake does which is near to Alexandria. The length of this country extends itself along the banks of this lake that bears the same Dame, for thirty furlongs, and is in breadth twenty. And this is the nature of that place.
9. But now, when the vessels were gotten ready, Ves. pásiau put on ship board as many of the forces as he thought suff cient to be too hard for those that were upon the lake, and set sail after them. Now these which were driven into the lake, could neither fly to the land, where all was in their enemies hand, and in war against them; nor could they fight upon the level by sea, for their ships were small and fitted only for piracy; they were too weak to fight with Vespasian's vessels and the mariners that were in them were so few, that they were afraid to come near the Romans, who attacked them in great numbers. However, as they sailed round about the vessels, and sometimes as they came near them, they threw stones at the Romans, when they were a good way off, or came closer and fought them : yet did they receive the greatest harm themselves in both cases. As for the stones they threw at the Romans, they only made a sound one after another, for they threw them agaiost such as were in their armour, while the Roman darts could reach the Jews themselves; and when they ventured to come near the Romans they became sufferers themselves, before they Gould do any harm to the other, and were drowned, they and their ships together. As for those that endeavoured to come to an actual fight, the Romans ran niany of them through with their long poles. Sometimes the Romans leaped into their ships with swords in their hands, and slew them; but when some of them met the vessels, the Romans caught them by the middle, and destroyed at once their ships, and themselves who were taken in them. And for such as were drowning in the sea, if they lifted their heads up above the water, they were either killed by darts, or caught by the vessels ; but if in the desperate case they were in, they attempted to swim to their enemies, the Romans cut off either their heads or their hands : and indeed they were destroyed after various manners every where, till the rest being put to flight, were forced to get upon the land, wbile the vessels encompassed them about (on the sea :) but as many of these were repulsed when they were getting ashore, they were killed by the darts upon the lake; and the Romans leaped out of their vessels, and destroyed a great many more upon the land: one might then see the lake all bloody, and full of dead bodies, for not one of them escaped. And a terrible stink and a very sad sight there was on the following days 'over that country; for as for the shores they were full of shipwrecks, and dead bodies all swelled; and as the dead bodies were inflamed by the sun, and putrified, they corrupted the air, insomuch that the misery' was not only the object of commiseration to the Jews, but to those that hated them, and had been the authors of that misery. This was the upshot of the sea fight. The number of the slain, including those that were killed in the city before, was six thousand and five hundred.
10. After this fight was over Vespasian sat upon his tribunal at Taricheae, in order to distinguish the foreigners from the old inhabitants; for those foreigners appeared to have begun the war. So he deliberated with the other commanders, whether he 'ought to save those old inhabitants or not. And when those commanders alleged, that the disniission of them would be to his own disadvantage because when they were once set at liberty they would not be at rest, since they would be able to compel such as fled to fight against us; Vespasian acknowledged that they did not deserve to be saved, and that if they had leave given them to fly away they would make use of it against those that gave them that leave. But still hé considered with himself,* after what manner they should be slain ; for if he had them slain there
• This is the most cruel and barbarous action that Vespasian ever did in this whole war, as he did it with great reluctance also. It was done both after public assurance given of sparing the prisoners lives, and when all knew.and confessed that these prisoners were no way guilty of any sedition against the Romans. Nor indeed did Titus now give his consent, so far as appears, nor ever acted of hiinself so barbarously; nay soon after this Titus grew quite weary of shedding of blood, and of punishing the innocent with the guilty, and gave the people of Gischala leave to keep the Jewish Sabbath, B. iv. ch ii. 3.5 in the midst of their siege. Nor was Vespasian disposed to do what he did, till his officers persuaded him, and that from two principal topics, viz that nothing could by unist that was done against the Jews, and that when both calinot lie cob. he suspected the people of the country would thereby become his enemies ; for what to be sure they would never bear it, that so many that had been supplicants to bim should be killed, and to offer violence to them, after he had given them assurances of their lives, he could not himself bear to do it. However, his friends were too hard for him, and pretended that nothing against Jews could be any impiety, and that he ought to prefer what was profitable before what was fit to be dove, where both could not be made consistent. So he gave them an anbiguous liberty to do as they advised, and permitted the prisoners to go along no other road than that which led to Tiberias only. So they readily believed what they desired to be true, and wept along securely, with their effects, the way which was allowed them, while the Romans seized upon all the road that led to Tiberias, thåt none of them might go out of it and shut them up in the city. Then came Vespasian and ordered them all to stand in the stadium, and commanded them to kill the old men, together with the others that were useless, which were in number a thousand and two hundred. Out of the young men he chose six thousand of the strongest, and sent them to Nero, to dig through the Isthmus, and sold the remainder for slayes, being thirty thousand and four hundred, besides such as he made a present of to Agrippa; for as to those that belonged to his kingdom, he gave him leave to do what he pleased with them: however, the king sold these also for slaves; but for the rest of the multitude, who were Tracbonites, and Gaulanites, and of Hippos, and some of Gadara, the greatest part of them were seditious persons, and fugitives, who were of such shameful characters, that they preferred war before peace. These prisoners were taken on the eighth day of the month Gorpieus, [Elul.] sistent, advantage must prevail over Justice. Admirable cours doctrines these?
CONTAINING THE INTERVAL OF ABOUT ONE YEAR.
[From the siege of Gamala, to the coming of
Titus to besiege Jerusalem. ]
The siege and taking of Gamala. $ 1. Now all those Galileans who, after the taking of Jotapata had revolted from the Romans, did, upon the conquest of Taricheæ, deliver themselves up to them again. And the Romans received all the fortresses and the cities, excepto ing Gischala and those that had seized upon mount Tabor; Gamala also, which is a city over against Taricheæ, but on the other side of the lake, conspired with them. This city lay upon the borders of Agrippa's kingdom, as also did Sogana and Seleucia. And these were both parts of Gaulanitis; for Sogana was a part of that called the upper Gaulanitis, as was Gamala of the lower ; while Seleucia was situated at the lake Semechonitis, which lake is thirty furlongs in breadth, and sixty in length; its marshes reach as far as the place Daphne, which, in other respects is a delicious place, and hath such fountains as supply water to what is called Little Jordan, under the temple of the * golden calf, where it is sent into great Jordan Now Agrippa had united Sogana and Seleucia by leagues to himself, at the very beginning of the revolt from the Romans; yet did not Ga. mala accede to them, but relied upon the difficulty of the place, which was greater than than that of Jotapata, for it was situated upon a rough ridge of a high niountain, with a
• Here we have the exact situation of one of Jeroboam's golder calves, at the exit of little Jordan into great Jordan, near a place called Daphne, but of old Dan. See the note on Antiq. B. viii. ch. viji. S 1. vol. ii. But Reland suspects, that even here we should read Dan instead of Daphne, there being no where else any mention of a place called Daphne hereabouts.