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work by the hy, during this siege, and that was to subdue those that had seized on mount Tabor, a place that lies in the middle between the great plain and Scythopolis, whose .top is elevated as high as * thirty furlongs, and is hardly to be ascended on its north side: jts top is a plain of twentysix furlongs, and all encompassed with a wall. Now Josephus erected this so long a wall in forty days time, and furpished it with other materials, and with water from below, for the inhabitants only made use of rain-water: as therefore there was a great multitude of people gotten together upon this mountain. Vespasian sent Placidus, with six hundred horsemen thither. Now as it was impossible for him to ascend the mountaio, he invited many of them to peace, by the offer of his right hand for their security, and of his intercession for them. Accordingly they came down, but with a treacherous design, as well as he had the like treacherous design upon them on the other side ; for Placidus spoke mildly to them, as aiming to take them, when he got them into the plain ; they also came down, as complying with his produsals, but it was in order to fall upon him when he was not aware of it: however, Placidus' stratagem was too hard for theirs; for when the Jews began to fight he pretended to run away, and when they were in pursuit of the Romans, he enticed them a great way along the plain, and then made his horsemen turn back; whereupon he beat them, and slew a great number of them, and cut off the retreat of the rest
• These numbers in Josephus of 30 furlongs ascent to the top of mount Tabor, whether we estimate it by winding and gradual, or by the perpendicular altitude, and of 26 furlongs circumference upon the top, as also the 15 furlongs for this ascent in Polybius, with Gemnius' perpendicular altitude of almost 14 furlongs, here noted by Dr. Hudson, do none of them agree with the authentic testimony of Mr. Maundrel, an eye-witness, page 112, who says, he was not an hour in getting up to the top of this mount Tabor, and that the area of the top is an oval of about two furlongs in length, and one in breadth. So I rather suppose Josephus wrote 3 furlongs for the ascent, or altitude, instead of 30; and 6 furlongs for the circumference at the top, instead of 26. Since a mountain of only 3 furlongs perpendicular altitude may easily require near an hour's ascent, and the circumference of an oval of the foregoing quantity is near 6 furlongs. Nor certainly could such a vast circumference as 26 furlongs, or 3 1.4 miles, at that height be encompassed with a wall, including a trench and other fortifications, perhaps those still remaining, ibid. in the small interval of forty days, as Josephus here says they were by himself.
of the multitude, and bindered their return. So they left Tabor, and fled to Jerusalem, while the people of the Country came to terms with him, for their water failed them; and so they delivered up the moantaid and themselves to Placidus.
9. But of the people of Gamala those that were of the bolder sort fled away and hid theinselves, while the more ipfirm perished by famine; but the men of war sustained the siege till the two and twentieth day of the month Hyperbe. reteus, (Tisri,] when three soldiers of the fifteenth legion, about the morning watch, got under ap high tower that was Dear them, and undermined it, without making any poise ; nor when they either came to it, which was in the night. time, nor when they were under it, did those that guarded it perceive them. These soldiers then upon their coming avoided making a noise, and when they had rolled away five of its strongest stones, they went away hastily; whereupon the tower fell down on a sudden, with a very great noise, and its guard fell headlong with it ; so that those that kept guard at other places were under such disturbance that that fan áway; the Románs also siewo many of those that ventured to oppose them, among whom was Joseph, who was slain by a dart, as he was running away over that part of the wall that was broken down; but as those that were in the city were greatly affrighted at the poise, they ran hither and thither, and a great consternation fell upon them, as though all the enemy had fallen in at once upon them. Then it was that Chares, who was ill, and under the physicians bands, gave up the ghost, the fear he was in greatly contributing to make his distemper fatal to him. But the Romans sq well remembered their former ill success, that they did not enter the city till the three and twentieth day of the forementioned month.
10. At which time Titus, who was now returned, out of the indication he had at the destructions the Romans had undergone while he was absent, took two hundred chosen horsemen, and some footmen with him, and entered without noise into the city. Now as the watch perceived that he was coming, they made a noise, and betook themselves to their arms; and as that his entrance was presently koown to those that were in the city, some of them caught hold of their children and their wives, and drew them after them, and fled away to the citadel, with lamentations and cries, while others of them went to meet Titus, and were killed perpetually ; but so many of them as were hindered from ruonjug up to the citadel, not knowing what in the world to do, tell among the Roman guards, while the groans of those that were killed were prodigiously great every where, and blood ran down over all the lower parts of the city, from the upper. But then Vespasian himself came to his assistance against those that had fled to the citadel, and brought his whole army with him; now this upper part of the city was every way socky, and difficult of ascent, and elevated to a vast altitude, and very full of people on all sides, and encompassed with precipices, whereby the Jews cut off those that came up to them, and did much mischief to others by their darts, and the large stones, which they rolled down upon them, while they were themselves so high that the enemies darts could hardly reach them. However, there arose such a divine storm against them as was instrumental to their destruction; this carried the Roman darts upon them, and made those which they threw return back, and drove them obliquely away from them; nor could the Jews indeed stand upon their precipices, by reason of the violence of the wind, having nothing that was stable to stand upon, por could they see those that were ascending up to them; so the Romans got up and surrounded them, and some they slew before they could defend themselves, and others as they were delivering up themselves; and the remembrance of those that were slain at their former entrance into the city increased their rage against them now: a great number also of those that were surrounded on every side, and despaired of escaping, threw their children and their wives, and themselves also down the precipices, into the valley beneath, which, near the citadel, had been dug hollow to a vast depth; but so it happened that the anger of the Romans appeared not to be so extravagant, as was the madness of those that were now taken, while the Romans slew but four thousand, whereas the num. ber of those that had thrown themselves down was found to be five thousand : nor did any one escape except two women, who were the daughters of Philip, and Philip himself was the son of a certain eminent man called Jasimus, who had been general of king Agrippa's army; and these did therefore escape, because they lay concealed from the rage of the Romans, when the city was taken; for otherwise they spared not so much as the infants, of wbich many were fiung
down by them from the citadel. And thus was Gamala ti ken, ou the three and twentieth day of the month Hyperberetus, [Tisri,) whereas the city bad first revolted on the four and twentieth day of the month Corpieus, (Elul.]
The surrender of Gischala; when John flees away from it to Jerus
salem. $ 1. Now no place of Galilee remained to be taken but the small city of Gischala, the inhabitants of which yet were desirous of peace; for they were generally husbandmen, and always applied themselves to cultivate the fruits of the earth. However, there were a great number that belonged to a band of robbers, that were already corrupted, and had crept in among them, and some of the governing part of the citizens were sick of the same distemper. It was John, the son of a certain man whose name was Levi, that drew them into this Jebellion, and encouraged them in it. He was a cunning knave, and of a temper that could put on various shapes; very rash in expecting great things, and very sagacious in bringing about what he hoped for. It was known to every body that he was fond of war, in order to thrust himself into authority; and the seditious part of the people of Gischala were under his management, by whose means the populace, who seemed ready to send ambassadors in order to surrender, waited for the coming of the Romacs in battle array. Vesa pasian sept against them Titus, with a thousand horsemen, but withdrew the tenth legion to Scythopolis, while he returned to Cæsarea with the two other legions, that he might allow them to refresh themselves after their long and hard campaigo, thinking withal that the plenty which was in thos? cities would improve their bodies and their spirits, against the difficulties they were to go through afterwards; -for he saw there would be occasion for great pains about Jerusalem, which was not yet taken, because it was the royal city, and the principal city of the whole nation, and because those that had run away from the war in other places got all together thither. It was also naturally strong, and the walls that were built round it made liim pot a little concerned about it.. Moreover, he esteemed the men that were in it to be so courageous and bold, that even without the consideration of the walls, it would be hard to subdue them; for which reason
la he took care of, and exercised his soldiers beforehand for
the work, as they do wrestlers before they begin their unders taking. - 2. Now Titus, as he rode up to Gischala, found it would be easy for him to take the city at the first onset; but knew withal, that if he took it by force, the multitude would be destroyed by the soldiers without mercy. (Now he was. already satiated with the shedding of blood, and pitied the major part, who would then perish, without distinction, together with the guilty.) So he was rather desirous the city might be surrendered up to him on terms. Accordingly when he saw the wall full of those men that were of the corrupted party, he said to them, that “ he could not but wonder, “ what it was they depended on, when they alone staid to 66 fight the Romans, after every other city was taken by to them, especially when they have seen cities much better
fortified than theirs is, overthrown by a single attack upor “ them; while as many as have intrusted themselves to the “ security of the Roman's right hands, which he now offers “ to them, without regarding their former insolence, do enjoy “their own possessions in safety; for that while they had " hopes of recovering their liberty, they might be pardoned ; 6 but that their continuance still in their opposition, when ti they saw that to be impossible, was inexcusable : for that, “ if they will not comply with such humane offers, and right “ hands for security, they should have experience of such a 56 war as would spare nobody, and should soon be made sens “sible, that their wall would be but a trifle, when battered by * the Roman machines; in depevding on which, they déia 6 monstrate themselves to be the only Galileans that were no “better than arrogant slaves and captives."
3. Now none of the populace durst not only make a reply,
taken up by the robbers, who were also the guard at the