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“ but even to treat of peace also; and that even the Romans * were not ignorant how the period of the seventh day was “ among them a cessation from all labours; and that he who “ should compel them to transgress the law about that day 6 would be equally guilty with those that were com" pelied to transgress it : and that this delay could be of no “ disadvantage to him; for why should any body think of “ doing any thing in the night, unless it was to fly away ?
which he might prevent by placing his camp round about * them; and that they should think it a great point gained, “ if they might not be obliged to transgress the laws of their “ country; and that it would be a right thing for him, who “ designed to grant them peace, without their expectation of < such a favour, to preserve the laws of those they saved in. ☆ violable.” Thus did this man put a trick upon Titus, not so much out of regard to the seventh day as to his owo preservation for he was afraid lest he should be quite deserted, if the city should be taken, and had his hopes of life in that night, and in his flight therein. Now this was the work of God, who therefore preserved this John, that he might bring on the destruction of Jerusalem; as also it was his work that Titus was prevailed with by this pretence for a delay and that he pitched his camp farther off the city at Cydessa. This Cydessa was a strong Mediterranean village of the Tyrians, which always hated, and made war against the Jews; it had also a great number of inhabitants and was well fortified, which made it a proper place for such as were enemies to the Jewish nation.
4. Now, in the night-time, when John saw that there was no Roman guard about the city, he seized the opportunity directly, and taking with him not only the armed men that were about him, but a considerable number of those that had little to do, together with their families, he fled to Jerusalem. And indeed, though the man was making paste to get away, and was tormented with fears of being a captive, or of losing his life yet did he prevail with himself to take out of the city along with him a multitude of women and children, as far as twenty furlongs; but there left them as he proceeded farther on his jourvey, where those that were left behind made sad lamentations; for the farther every one of them was come from his own people the nearer they thought themselves to be to their enemies. They also affrighted themselves with this thought, that those who would carry them into captivity
were just at hand, and still turned themselves back at the mere noise they made themselves in this their hasty flight, as if those from whom they fled were just upon them. Many also of them missed their ways, and the earnestness of such as aimed to outgo the rest threw down many of them. And indeed there was a miserable destruction made of the women, and children; while some of them look the courage to call their husbands and kinsmen back, and to beseech them with the bitterest lamentations, to stay for them ; but John's eshortation, who cried out to them to save themselves, and fly away, prevailed. He said also that if the Romabs should seize upon those whom they left behind they would be re
venged on them for it. So this multitude that rau thus away S was dispersed abroad, according as each of them was able to 1 run, one faster or slower than another.
5. Now on the next day Titus came to the wall, to make 'the agreement, whereupon the people opened their gates to him, and came out to him, with their children and wives, and made acclamations of joy to him, as to one that had been their benefactor, and had delivered the city out o custody; they also informed him of Joliu's flight, anci besought him to spare them, and to come in, and to bring the rest of those that were for innovations to punishment. But
Titus, not so much regarding the supplications of the people, sept part of his horsemen to pursue after John but they could not overtake him, for he was gotten to Jerusalem before ; they also slew six thousand of the women and children who went out with him ; but returned back and brought with them almost three thousand. However, Titus was greatly displeased that he had not been able to bring this John, who had deluded him, to punishment; yet he had captives enough as well as the corrupted part of the city, to satisfy his anger, when it missed of John. So he entered the city in the midst of acclamations of joy; and when he had given orders to the soldiers to pull down a small part of the wall, as of a city taken in war, he repressed those that had disturbed the city rather by threatenings than by executions; for he thought that many would accuse innocent persons, out of their own private animositics and quarrels, if he should attempt to distinguish those that were worthy of punishment from the rest; and that it was better to let a guilty person alone in his fears, than to destroy with him any one that did Bot deserve it; for that probably such a one might be taught prudence, by the fear of the punishment he had deserved, and have a shame upon him for his former offences, when he had been forgiven; but that the punishment of such as bare been once put to death could never be retrieved. However, he placed a garrison in the city for its security, by which means he should restrain those that were for innovations, and should leave those that were peaceably disposed in greater security. And thas was all Galilee taken, but this pot till after it had cost the Romans much pains before it could be aken by them.
CHAP. III. Concerning John of Gischala. Concerning the zealots, and the hinh
priest Ananus : as also how the Jews raised seditions one agist another (in Jerusalem.)
§ 1. Now, upon John's entry into Jerusalem, the whole body of the people were in an uproar, and ten thousand of them crowded about every one of the fugitives that were come to them, and inquired of them what miseries had happened abroad, when their breath was so short, and hot, and quick, that of itself it declared the great distress they were in; yet did they talk big under their misfortunes, and pretended to say, that tbey had not fled away from the Romans, but came thither in order to fight them with less hazard ; for that it would be an unreasonable and fruitless thing for them to ex. pose themselves to desperate hazards about Gischala, and such weak cities, whereas they ought to lay up their weapons and their zeal, and reserve it for their metropolis. But when they related to them the taking of Gischala, and their decent departure, as they pretended, from that place, many of the people understood it to be no better than a flight; and especially when the people were told of those that were made captives, they were in great confusion, and guessed those things to be plain indications that they should be taken also. But for John, he was very little concerned for those whom he had left behind him, but went about among all the people, and persuaded them to go to war, by the hopes he gave them. He affirmed that the affairs of the Romans were in a weak condition, and extolled his owu power. He also jestedt upon the ignorance of the unskilful, as if those Romans, though they should take to themselves wings, could never fly over the wall of Jerusalem, who found such great difficulties in taking the villages of Galilee, and had broken their engines of war against their walls.
2. These harangues of Joho's corrupted a great part of the young men, aud puffed them up for war; but as to the more prudent part, and those in years, there was not a man of them but foresaw what was coming, and made lamentation on that account, as if the city was already undone : and in this confusion were the people. But then it must be observed, that the multitude that came out of the country were at discord before the Jerusalem sedition began; for Titus went from Gischala to Cæsarea, and Vespasian from Cæsarea to Jampia and Azotus, and took them both; and when he had put garrisons into them he came back with a great number of the people, who were come over to him,upon his giving them his right hand for their preservation. There were besides disorders and civil wars in every city, and all those that were at quiet from the Romans turned their hands one against another. There was also a bitter contest between those that were fond of war, and those that were desirous of peace. At the first this quarrelsome temper caught hold of private fa-. milies, who could pot agree among themselves; after which those people that were the dearest to one another brake through all restraints with regard to each other, and every one asso. ciated with those of his own opinion, and began already to stand in opposition one to another; so that seditions arose every where, while those that were for innovations, and were desirous of war, by their youth and boldness were too hard for the aged and the prudent men. And, in the first place, all the people of every place betook themselves to ra. pine; after which they got together in bodies, in order to rob the people of the country, insomuch that for barbarity and iniquity those of the same pation did no way differ from the Romans; nay, it seemed to be a much lighter thing to be ruined by the Romans than by themselves.
3. Now the Roman garrisons, which guarded the cities, partly out of their uneasiness to take such trouble upon them, and partly out of the hatred they bare to the Jewish nation, did little or nothing towards the relieving the miserable, till the captains of these troops of robbers being satiated with rapipes in the country, got all together from all parts, and became a band of wickedness, and all together crept into Jerusalem, which was now become a city without a governor, and, as the ancient custom was, received without distinction all that belonged to their nation, and these they then received, because all men supposed that those who came so fast into
the city, came out of kindness, and for their assistance, although these very men, besides the sedition they raised, were otherwise the direct cause of the city's destruction also; for as they were an unprofitable and a useless multitude, they spept those provisions beforehand which might otherwise have been sufficient for the fighting men. Moreover, besides the bringing ou of the war, they were the occasions of sedition and famine therein.
4. There were besides these other robbers that came out of the country, and came into the city, and joining to them those that were worse than themselves, omitted no kind of barbarity ; for they did not measure their courage by their rapines and plunderings only, but proceeded as far as murdering men; and this not in the night time or privately, or with regard to ordinary men, but did it openly in the day time, and began with the most eminent persons in the city; for the first man they meddled with was Antipas, one of royal lineage, and the most potent man in the whole city, insomuch that the public treasures were committed to his care : him they took and confined, as they did in the next place to Levias a person of great note, with Sophas the son of Ra. guel ; both which were of royal lineage also. And besides these they did the same to the principal men of the country, This caused a terrible consternation among the people, and every one contented himself with taking care of his own safety, as they would do if the city had been taken in war.
5. But these were not satisfied with the bonds into which they had put the men forementioned ; nor did they think it safe for them to keep them thus in custody long, since they were men very powerful, and bad numerous families of their own that were able to avenge them. Nay, they thought the very people would perhaps be so moved at these unjust proceedings, as to rise in a body against them: it was therefore resolved to have them slain. Accordingly they sent one John, who was the most bloody minded of them all, to do that execution : this man was also called the son of * Dorcas, in the language of our country. Ten more pen' went along
* This name Dorcas in Greek, was Tabitha in llebrew or Syriac, as Acts is. 36. Accordingly some of the manuscripts set it down fiere Tabetha, or Tabeta. Kor can the context in Josephus be made out but by supposing the reading to have been this, the son of T:bitha, which in the language of our country denotes Dorcas, (or a dne.)