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putting bodies that were like theirs in their places. This man deceived the Jews that were at Crete, and got a great deal of money from them for travelling in splendour; and theúce sailed to Melos, where he was thought so certainly genuine, that he got a great deal more money, and prevailed with those that had treated him to sail along with him to Rome. So he landed at Dicearchia, Puteoli,) and got very large presents from the Jews who dwelt there, and was conducted by his father's friends, as if he were a king; nay, the resemblance in his countenance procured him so much credit, that those who had seen Alexander, and had known him very well, would take their oaths that he was the very same person, Accordingly the whole body of the Jews that were at Rome, ran out in crowds to see him, and an innumerable multitude there was which stood in the narrow places, through which he was carried; for those of Melos were so far distracted, that they carried him in a sedan, and maintained a royal attendance for him at their own proper charges.
2. But Cæsar, who knew perfectly well the lineaments of Alexanders' face, because he had been accused by Herod before him, discerned the fallacy in his countenance, even be. fore he saw the man. However, he suffered the agreeable fame that went of him to have some weight with him, and sent Celadus one who well knew Alexander, and orilered him to bring the young man to him. But when Cæsar saw him, he immediately discerned a difference in his countenance, and when he had discovered that his whole body was of a more robust texture, and like that of a slave, he understood the whole was a contrivance. But the impudence of what ne said greatly provoked him to be angry at him; for when he was asked about Aristobulus, he said that “ he was also preserved “ alive, and was left on purpose at Cyprus, for fear of treado chery, because it would be harder for plotters to get them s both into their power while they were separate.” Then did Cæsar take him by himself privately, and said to him, “ I 66 will give thee thy life, if thou wilt discover who it was that 6 persuaded thee to forge such stories.” So he said that he would discover him, and followed Cæsar, and pointed to that Jew who had abused the resemblance of his face to get money; for that he had received more presents in every city than ever Alexander dir when he was alive. Cæsar laughed at the contrivance, and put this spurious Alexander among his rowers, on account of the strength of his body, but ordered him that persuaded him to be put to death. But for the people of Melos, they bad been sufficiently punished for their folly, by the expenses they had been at on his ac. count.
3. And now Archelaus took possession of his ethnarchy, and used not the Jews oply, but the Samaritans also barbarously ; and this out of his resentment of their old quarrels with him. Whereupon they both of them sent ambassadors against him to Cæsar, and in the ninth year of his government he was banished to Vienna, a city of Gall, and his effects were put into Cæsar's treasury. But the report goes, that before he was sent for by Cæsar, he seemed to see pine ears of corn, full and large, but devoured by oxen. When, therefore, he had sent for the diviners, and some of the Chaldeaps, and inquired of them what they thought it portended, and when one of them had one interpretation, and another had another, Simou, one of the sect of the Essens, said, that “ he thought the ears of corn denoted years, and the « oxen denoted a mutation of things, because by their plough“ing they made an alteration of the country. That there"fore he should reigo as many years as there were ears of “coro, and after he had passed through various alterations of “ fortune, should die.” Now five days after Archelaus bad heard this interpretation, he was caited to his trial.
4. I cannot also but think it worthy to be recorded, what dream Glaphyra, the daughter of Archelaus, king of Cappadocia, had, who had at first been wife to Alexander, who was the brother of 'Archelaus, concerning whom we have been discoursing. This Alexander was the son of Herod the king, by whom he was put to death, as we have already related.
This Glaphyra was married, after his death, to Juba, king of Lybia, and after his death, was returned hone, and lived a Widow with her father. Then it was that Archelaus, the ethnarch, sa v her, and fell so deeply in love with her, that he divorced Mariampe, who was then his wife, and married her. When, therefore, she was come into Judea, and had been there for a little while, she thought she saw Alexander stand by her, and that he said to her, “ Tly marriage with the s king of Lybia, might have been sufficient for thee; but " thou wast not contented with him, but art returned again to “my family, to a third husband, and him, thou impudent 6 woman, hast thou chosen for thine husband, who is my bro.. as ther. However, I shall not overlook the injury thou hast
soffered me; I shall [soon] have thee again, whether thou “ wilt or no.” Now Głaphyra hardly survived the narration of this dream of hers two days.
CHAP. VIII. Archelaus' ethnarchy is reduced to a [Roman) province. The sedi.
tion of Judas of Galilee. The ihree sects of the Jews. Ô ]. And now Archelaus' part of Judea was reduced into a province, and Coponius, one of the equestrian order among the Romans, was sent as a procurator, having the poter of [life and death put into his hands by Cæsar. Un. der his administration it was, that a certain Galilean, whose wame was Judas, prevailed with his countrymen to revolt, and said they were cowards, if they would endure to pay a tax to the Romans, and would, after God, submit to mortal men as their lords. This man was teacher of a peculiar sect of his own, and was not at all like the rest of those their leaders.
2. For there are three philosophical sects among the Jews. The followers of the first of which ara ihe Pharisees, of ilie second the Sadducees, and the third sect, which pretends to a severer discipline, are called Essens. These last are Jews hy birth, and seem to have a greatesoft.alio... far one another than the other sects have. These Essens reject pleasures as an evil, but esteem continence, and the conquest over our passions to be virtue. They neglect wedlock, but choose out other persons children while they are pliable, and fit for learring, and esteem them to be of their kindred, and form them according to their own manners. They do not absolutely deny the fitness of marriage, and the succession of mankind thereby continued; but tliey guard against the lascivious behaviour of women, and are persuaded that none of them preserve their fidelity to one man.
3. These men are despisers of riches, and so very communicative as raises our admiration. Nor is there any ope to be found among them who hath more than another; for it was a law among them, that those who come to them must let what they have be common to the whole order, insomuch that among them all there is no appearance of poverty, or excess of riches, but every one's possessions are interniingled with every other's possessions, and so there is, as it were one patrimony among all the brethren. They think that oil is a
defilement; and if any of them be anointed, without his own approbation, it is wiped off his body ; for they think to be sweaty is a good thing, as they do also to be clothed in white garments. They also have stewards appointed, to take care of their common affairs, who every one of them have no separate business for any, but what is for the uses of them all.
4. They have no one certain city, but many of them dwell in every city; and if any of their sect come from other places, what they have lies open for thein, just as if it were their own, and they go into such as they never knew before, as if they had been ever so long acquainted with them. For which reason they carry nothing at all with them when they travel into remote parts, though still they take their wea. pods with them, for fear of thieves. Accordingly there is, in every city where they live, one appointed particularly to take care of strangers, and to provide garments and other necessaries for them. But the habit and management of their bodies is such as children use who are in fear of their mas. ters. Nor do they allow the change of garments, or of shoes, till they be first entirely torn to pieces, or worn out by time, Nor do they either buy or sell any thing to one another, but every one of them gives what he hath to him that wanteth it, and receives froin him again in lieu of it what may be convenient for himself; and although there be no requital made, they are fully allowed to take what they want of whomsoever they please.
5. And as for their piety towards God, it is very extraordinary : for before sun rising they speak not a word about profane matters, but put up certain prayers, which they have received from their forefathers, as if they made a supplication for its rising. After this every one of them are sent away by their curators to exercise some of those arts wherein they are skilled, in which they labour with great dili. gence till the fifth hour. After which they assemble themselves together again into one place, and when they have clothed themselves in white veils, they then bathe their bodies in cold water. And after this purification is over, they every one meet together in an apartment of their own, into which it is not permitted to any one of another sect to enter; while they go, after a pure manner, into the diningroom, as into a certain holy temple, and quietly set themselves down; upon which the baker lays them loaves in order; the cook also brings a single plate of one sort of food, and sets it be. fore every one of them; but a priest says grace before meat, and it isunlawful for any one to taste of the food before grace be said. The same priest, wheu he hath dined, says grace again after meat; and when they begin, and when they end, they praise God, as he that bestows their food upon them; after which they lay aside their white garments, and betake themselves to their labours again till the evening; then they return home to supper, after the same manner, and if there be any strangers there, they sit down with them. Nor is there ever any clamour or disturbance to pollute their house, but they give every one leave to speak in their turn; which silence thus kept in their house appears to foreigners like some tremendous mystery; the cause of which is that per. petual sobriety they exercise, and the same settled measure of meat and drink that is allotted them, and that such as is abundantly sufficient for them.
0. And truly, as for other things, they do nothing but ac. cording to the injunctions of their curators; only these two things are done among them at everyone's own free will, which are to assist those that want it, and to shew mercy; for they are permitted of their own accord to afford succour to such as deserve it, when they stand in need of it, and to bestow food on those that are in distress; but they cannot give any thing to their kindred without the curators. They dispense their anger after a just manner and restrain their passion. They are eminent for fidelity, and are the ministers of peace; whatsoever they say also is firmer than an oath ; but swearing is avoided by them, and they esteen it * worse than perjury; for they say, that he wlio cannot be believed, without (swearing by] God, is already condemned. They also take great pains in studying the writings of the ancients, and choose out of them what is most for the advantage of their soul and body, and they inquire after such roots and medicinal stones as may cure their distempers.
* This practice of the Essens, in refusing to swear. and esteeming swearing on ordinary occasions, worse than perjury, is delivered here in general words, as are the parallel injunctions of our Saviour, Matt. v 34 xxiii 26. and of St. James, v 12. but all admit of parti. oular exceptions, for solemn causes, and on great and necessary oc. casions. Thus these very Essens, who here do so zealously avoid: swearing, are related in the very next section, to admit none till they take tremendous oaths to perform their several duties to God, and to their neighbour, without supposing they thereby brcak this