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might please him, and thereby became one of his most intimate friends; for both the king and all that were about him, had a great regard for this *Spartan, on account of his country.
2. Now as soon as this fellow perceived the rotten parts of the family, and what quarrels the brothers had one with another, and in what disposition the father was towards each of them, he chose to take his lodging at the first in the house of Antipater, but deluded Alexander with a prelence of friendship to him, and falsely claimed to be an old acquaintance of Archelaus; for which reason he was presently admitted into Alexander's familiarity as a faithful friend. He also soon recommended himself to his brother Aristobulus. And when he had thus made trial of these several persons, he imposed on one of thern by one method, and on another by another. But he was principally hired by Antipater, and so betrayed Alexander, and this by reproaching Antipater, because while he was the eldest son, he overlooked the intrigues of those who stood in the way of his expectations ; and by reproaching Alexander, because he who was born of a queen, and was married to a king's daughter, permitted one that was born of a mean woman to lay claim to the succession, and this when he had Archelaus to support him in the most complete mapper.' Nor was his advice thought to be other thau faithful by the young man, because of his pre. tended friendship with Archelaus ; on which account it was that Alexanderlamented to hiin Antipater's behaviour with regard to bimself, and this without concealing any thing from him; and how it was no wonder if Herod, after he had killed their mother, should deprive them of her kingdom. Upon this Eurycles pretended to commiserate his condition, and to grieve with him. He also, by a bait that he laid for him, procurex! Aristobulus to say the same things. Thus did he inveigle both the brothers to make complaints of their father, and then went to Aptipater, and carried these grand secrets to him. He also added a fiction of his owo, as if his brothers · had laid a plot against him, and were almost ready to come upov bim with their drawn swords. For this intelligence he received a great sum of inoney, and on that account he commended Antipater before his father, and at length undertook the work of bringing Alexander and Aristobulus to their graves, and accused them hefore their father. So he came to Herod and told him, that “ he would save his life, as a re
* See the preceding note.
" quital for the favours he had received from him, and would “ preserve his light [of life] by way of retribution for bis 5 kiud entertainment: for that a sword bad been loog whetted, :56 and Alexander's right hand had been long stretched out " against him ; but that he had laid impediments in his way, - prevented his speed, and that by pretending to assist him “ iu his design: bow Alexander said, that Herod was not " contented to reign in a kingdom that belonged to others, “ and to make dilapidations in their mother's government, " after he had killed her ; but besides all this, that he intro“ duced a spuricus successor, and proposed to give the king“ dom of their ancestors to that pestilent fellow Aotipater : " that he would now appease the ghosts of Hyrcanus and " Mariamne by taking vengeance op him; for that it was not s fit for him to take the succession to the government from “ such a father without bloodshed : that many things happen “ every day to provoke him so to do, insomuch, that he can " say nothing at all, but it affords occasion for calumny 1 against him ; for that, if any mention be made of nobility of " birth, eveo in other cases, he is abused unjustly, while his “ father would say, tijat nobody, to be sure, is of noble birth “ but Alexander, and that his father was inglorious for want " of such nobility. If they be at any time hunting, and he " says nothing, he gives offence ; and if he commends ary • body, they take it in way of jest : that they always find their “: father uomercifully severe, and to have no natural affection 6 for any of them but for Antipater; on which accounts, if " his plot does not take he is very willing to die; but that in “ case he kill his father, he hath sufficient opportunities for 16 saving himself. In the first place, he hath Archelaus his “ father in-law, to whom he can easily fly; and, in the next “ place, he hath Cæsar, who hath never known Herod's. s character to this day; for that he shall not appear then be“ fore him with that dread he used to do, when his father was " there to terrify him; and that he will not then produce the " accusations that concerned himself alone, but would, in the “ first place openly insist on the calamities of their nation, it and how they are taxed to death, and in what ways of lux
ury and wicked practices that wealth is spent, which was “ gotten by bloodshed ; what sort of persons they are that " get our riches, and to whom those cities belong, upon whom “ he bestows his favours : that he would have inquiry made ? what became of his grandfather (Hyrcanus,] and his moth
5 er [Mariampe ; ] and would openly proclaim the gross 6 wickedness that was in the kingdom; on which accounts “ he should not be deemed a parricide.”
3. When Eurycles had made this portentous speech, he greatly commended Antipater, as the only child that had an affection for his father, and on that account was an impediment to the others' plot against him. Hereupon the king, who had hardly repressed his anger upon the former accusations, was exasperated to an incurable degree. At which time Antipater took another occasion to send in other persons to his father to accuse his brethren and to tell him, that they had privately discoursed with Jucundus and Tyrandus, who had once been masters of the horse to the king, but for some offences had been put out of that honourable employ. ment. Herod was in a very great rage at these informations, and presently ordered those men to be tortured: yet did not they confess any thing of what the king had been informed; but a certain letter was produced, as written by Alexander to the governor of the castle, to desire him to receive him and Aristobulus into the castle when he had killed his father, and to give them weapons and what other assistance he could upon that occasion, Alexander said, that this letter was a forgery of Diophantus. This Diophantus was the king's secretary, a bold man, and cunning in counterfeiting any one's hand; and after he had counterfeited a great number, lie was at last put to death for it. Herod did a iso order the goverpor of the castle to be tortured, but got nothing out of him of what the accusations suggested.
4. However, although Herod found the proofs too weak, he gave order to have his sons kept in custody; for till now they had been at liberty. He also called that pest of his family and forger of all this vile accusation, Eurycles, his Saviour, and his Benefactor, and gave him a reward of fifty talents. Upon which he prevented any accurate accounts that could come of what he had done, by going immediately into Cappadocia, and there he got money of Archelaus, having the impudence to pretend, that he had reconciled Herod to Alexander. He thence passed over into Greece, and used what he had thus wickedly gotten to the like wicked purposes. Accordingly he was twice accused before Cæsar, that he had filled Achaia with sedition, and had plundered its cities; and so he was sent into banishment. And thus was he punished for what wicked actions he had been guilty of about Aristobulus and Alexander.
5. But it will be now worth while to put Euratus of Cos in opposition to this Spartan; for as he was one of Alexan. der's most intimate friends, and came to him in his travels at the same time that Eurycles came, so the king put the ques. tion to him, whether those things of which Alexander was accused were true? He assured him upon oath, that he had never heard any such things from the young men : yet did this testimony avail nothing for the clearing of those miserable creatures; for Herod was only disposed and most ready to hearken to what made against them; and every one was must agreeable to him, that would believe they were guilty, and sherred their indiguation at them.
CHAP. XXVII. Herod, by Cæsar's direction, accuses his sons at Berytus. They
are not produced before the court, but yet are condemned : and in a little time they are sent to Sebaste, and strangled therc.
s 1. MOREOVER Salome exasperated Herod's cruelty against his sous; for Aristobulus was desirous to bring her, who fas his mother-in-law, and his aunt, into the like dangers with themselves ; so he sent to her, to take care of her own safety, and told her, that the king was prepariug to put her to death, on account of the accusation that was laid against hier, as if when she formerly endeavoured to marry herself to Sylleus the Arabian, she had discovered the king's grand secrets to him, who was the king's enemy : and this it was that came as the last storm, and entirely sunk the young men when they were in great danger before. For Salome came running to the king, and ioformed him of what admoni. tion had been given her; whereupon he could bear no longer, but commanded boib the young men to be bound, and kept the one asunder from the other. He also sent Volumnius, the general of his army, to Cæsar immediately, as also bis friend Olympus with him, who carried the information in writing along with them. Now as soon as these had sailed to Rome, and delivered the king's letters to Cæsar, Cæsar was mightily troubled at the case of the young men; yet did not he think he ought to take the power from the father of condemning his sons; so he wrote back to him, and appointed him to have the power over his sons; but said witbal, that 6 he would do well to make an examination into this matter
+ of the plot laid agaiust him, in a public court, and to take “ for his assessors his own kindred, and the governors of the “ province. And if those sons be found guilty, to put them “ to death; but if they appear to have thought of no more “than flying away from him, that he should moderate their “punishment.”
2. With these directions Herod complied, and came to Berytus, where Cæsar bad ordered the court to be assembled, and got the judicature together. The presidents sat first, as Cæsar's letters had appointed, who were Saturninus, and Pedaoius, and their lieutenants, that were with them, with whom was the procurator Volumpius also; next to them sat tie king's kinsmen and friends, with Salome also, and Pheroras; after whom sat the principal men of all Syria, excepting Archelaus; for Herod had a suspicion of him, because he was Alexander's father-in-law. Yet did not he produce his sons in open court; and this was done very cunningly, for he knew well enough that had they but appeared only, they would certainly have been pitied; and if withal they had been suffered to speak, Alexander would easily have answered what they were accused of; but they were in custody at Platane, a village of the Sidonians.
3. So the king got up, and inveighed against his sons as if they were present; and as for that part of the accusation that they had plotted against him, he urged it but faintly, because he was destitute of proofs; but he insisted before the assessors on the reproaches, and jests, and injurious carriage, and ten thousand the like offences against him, which were heaa vier than death itself; and when nobody contradicted him, he moved them to pity his case, as though he had been condemned himself now he had gained a bitter victory against his sons. So he asked every one's sentence, which sentence was first of all given by Saturninus, and was this, that he condemned the young men, but not to death; for that it was not fit for him, who had three sons of his owo now present, to give his vote for the destruction of the sons of another. The two lieutenants also gave the like vote ; some others there were also who followed their example; but Volumuius begau to vote on the more melancholy side, and all those that came after him condemned the young men to die, some out of Nattery, and some out of hatred to Herod ; but none out of indignation at their crimes. And now all Syria and Judea was in great expectation, and waited for the last act of this