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felected as fufficient ground for a profecution; and his Excellency and council published a proclamation, offering 300 1. reward for a difcovery of the author. This proclamation gave the Dean a remarkable opportunity to illuftrate his character. It happened, that his butler, whom he had employed as his amanuenfis, and who alone was trusted with the fecret, went out in the afternoon of the day of the proclamation without leave, and ftaid abroad the whole night, and part of the next day. There was great reason to fufpect that he had made an information; and having received his reward, would never return. The man however came home in the evening; and the Dean was advised by his friends to take no notice of his fault, left he should be provoked to a breach of truft, from the dread of which his return had just delivered them. But the Dean rejected this counfel with the utmost difdain, and commanding the man into his prefence, ordered him immediately to ftrip off his livery, and leave the house. You villain," faid he, know I am in your power; and for that very reafon I will the lefs bear with your infolence or neglect. I fuppofe by this time you are rewarded, or "at least in a fair way of being rewarded for your "treachery."

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THE man in very fubmiffive terms, confeffed that he had been drinking all night, and intreated to be forgiven; but Swift was inexorable. He then begged that he might be confined in fome part of the houfe fo long as the proclamation could intitle him to any reward; left, when he was driven from his fervice, and deftitute of another, the temptation might be too ftrong for his virtue," and his diftrefs might involve him in a crime which he most abhorred. Swift however was ftill inexorable; and the man was difmiffed. During all the time of danger, Swift obftinately refufed to contribute one farthing towards his fupport. nor could he be perfuaded to fee his face; but when the time limited in the proclamation was expired, he was permitted to return to his fervice. Soon afterwards he was called hastily up by the Dean; who without any preface, again ordered him to ftrip off his livery, put on his own cloaths, and then come to him again. The butler ftared with



furprife, wondering for what crime he had deserved to be turned out of his place His maiter obferving this, asked him if he had no cloaths of his own to put on he told him he had. Then go your ways, faid the Doctor, and as foon as you have thrown off your livery, and dreied yourself, come back to me again. The poor fellow, tho he was greatly aftonished at this proceeding, knew Swift too well to expoftulate; and therefore, with whatever reluctance, did as had been commanded. When he returned, the Dean ordered the other fervants to be called up who immediately attended, expecting that the butler was to be dismissed in terrorem, and that they should be warned in very fevere terms of his offence. Swift, as foon as they had ranged themfelves before him, ordered them to take notice, that Robert was no longer his fervant; he is now, faid the Dean, Mr Blakely, the verger of St Patrick's cathedral. a place which I give him as a reward for his fidelity, The value of this place is between thirty and forty pounds a year. However, Robert would not quit his mafter, but continued to be his butler fome years afterwards [D. S. p. 190, 1] In this inftance the Dean exercifed his pride, his fortitude, and his equity, in a manner peculiar to himself; and tho' there are many who would equally have rewarded fuch fidelity, there are few who would have ventured to wait the flue of fo severe and dangerous a probation.47

FROM this time the Dean's influence in Ireland was almoft without bounds. He was confulted in whatever related to domestic policy, and, in particular, to trade. The weavers always confidered him as their patron and legiflator, after his propofal for the use of Irish manufactures, and came frequently in a body to receive his advice in fettling the rates of their ftuffs, and the wages. of their journeymen; and when elections were depending for the city of Dublin, many corporations refused to declare themfelves, till they knew his fentiments and inclinations. Over the populace he was the most abfolute monarch that ever governed men; and he was re


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garded by perfons of every rank with veneration and testeem* *i

IT appears by many of his writings that he lived in great friendship and familiarity with Lord Carteret during his lieutenancy, not ithstanding his Lordship had figned the proclamation to difcover him as the writer of the Drapier's letters Swift indeed remonstrated against this proceeding; and once asked his Lordship, how he could concur in the profecution of a poor honest fellow, who had been guilty of no other crime than that of writing three or four letters for the instruction of his neighbours, and the good of his country? To this question his Excellency elegantly replied, in the words of Virgil,

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He was equally diligent to recommend his friends to Lord Carteret, as he had been to recommend them i Lord Oxford pa and he did it with the fame dignity and freedom. Pray, my Lord, faid he one day, have 60 you the honour to be acquainted with the Grattons ?”



The name of Augustus was not bestowed upon Octavius Cæfar with more universal approbation, than the name of the Drapier was beltowed upon the Dean. He had no fooner affumed

his new cognomen, than he became afdol of the people of Ireland,

to a degree of devotion, that'

fuperftitious country

fcarce any idol ever obtained. Libations to his health, or, in plain English, bumpers, were poured forth to the Drapier, as large and as frequent as to the glorious and immortal memory of KWilliam III. His effigies were painted in every ftreet in Dublia. Acclamations and vows for his profperity attended his footteps where ever he paffed. He was confulted in all points relating to domeftic policy in general, and to the trade of Ireland in particular: 'but he was more immediately looked upon as the legillator of the weavers, who frequently came in a body, confifting of fifty or fixty chieftains of their trade, to receive his advice, in fettling the rates of their manufactures, and the wages of their journeymen. He received their addreffes with lefs majefty than fternnefs, and ranging his fubje&ts in a circle round his parlour, poke as copioufly, and with as little difficulty and heftation, to the feveral points in which they fupplicated his affiftance, as if trade had been the only ftudy and employment of his life. When elections were depending for the city of Dublin, many corporations


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My Lord answered, he had not: "Why then, pray, my "Lord," faid Swift, take care to obtain it; it is of "great confequence: the Grattons, my Lord, can "raife ten thousand men "[7. R. p. 95.] He obtained a living for his friend Dr Sheridan; and he recommended feveral others, of whom he knew nothing, but that they were good men. [vol. 4 p. 231.}+


HE ufed alfo to remonstrate with great freedom againft Such measures as he difapproved; and Lord Carteret having gained the advantage of him in fome difpute concerning the difreffes of Ireland, he cried out in a violent paffion, What the vengeance brought you among us? Get you gone, get you gone; pray God almighty send us our boobies back again,"17. R. p. 25.]; a reply which thewed at once the turn, the ftrength, and the virtue of his mind; as it was a fine compliment to the force of reason, by which he had been juft foiled, and was exprefled with all the vehemence of his temper, and all the peculiarity of his wit.

- He was feveral times in England, on a visit to Mr Pope, after his fettlement at the deanery, particularly in the years 1726 and 1727.

THERE is a paffage in one of his letters to Dr Sheridan [vol. 4. p. 242.] during his vifit in 1726, by which it appears, that he then had fuch an offer of a fettlement, in the midst of his friends, within twelve miles of London, as, if he had been ten years younger, he would gladly have accepted: but I am now," fays he, "too old for new fchemes, and refpecially fuch as would « bridle e me in my freedoms and liberalities." He had alfo an invitation from Lord Bolingbroke to spend a winter with him at his houfe on the banks of the Loire in France; and this he would have accepted, but that he received an account from Ireland, that Mrs Johnson was dangerously ill. [vol. 4. p. 242]


refused to declare themselves, till they had confulted his fentiments and inclinations, which were punctually followed with equal chearfulness and fubmiffion, In this ftate of power, and po pular love and admiration, he remained till he lost his fenfes. 0. let. 6.

MRS Johnfon's conftitution was tender and delicate; and, as the Dean himself fays, the had not the famina ite. In the year 1724, the began vifibly to decay; Land, in the year 1726, was thought to be dying. The Dean received the news with agonies not to be felt but by the tendereft and most ardent friendship, nor conceived but by the most lively imagination, and immediately haftened back into Ireland. [vol. 4. p 243.31


IT happened, however, that Mrs Johnson, contrary to the opinion of her phyfician, recovered a moderate share of health and the Dean, probably to complete fome defign, which in his hafte he had left unfinished, returned again to England in 1727;

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FROM England he was once more about to fet out för France, upon Lord Bolingbroke's invitation, when news arrived of the King's death. [vol. 4. p. 246]:

He had attended the late Queen while the was Princefs, in his former excursions to England; and he had feen her twice in one week by her Royal Highness's command in this. She had always treated the Dean with great civility, and the Dean had treated her with his ufual and peculiar franknefs. The third day after the news of the late King's death, he attended at court, and kiffed the King and the Queen's hand upon their acceffion, and was blamed by his friends for deferring it fo long. [vol. 4 p. 246.)

WHAT profpect he had of a change in public affairs on this event, or of any advantage which fuch a change might produce to himself or his friends, does not appear; but he was earnestly intreated to delay his journey. And when he had again determined to fet out. he was, upson fome new incidents, again prevailed upon not to go, by the vehement perfuafion of fome perfons, whom, he fays, he could not difobey. Many fchemes were propofed, in which the was eagerly folicited to engage; but he received them coldly; not, as it appears, because. he was determined no more to enter into public life, but becaufe the fchemes themfelves were fuch as he did not approve. However, in the fame letter in which he fays, that if the King had lived ten days longer, he fhould not have dated it from London, but Paris, he fays, that his share in the hurry of the time would not


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