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at law, gentlemen whofe characters are excellent in the highest degree t.

Such was the fate of Vaneffa. And, surely, those whom pit could not refrain from being diligent to load ter memory with reproach, to construe appearances' in the worft fenfe, to aggravate folly into vice, and diftrefs into infamy, have not much exalted their own character, or strengthened their claim to the candour of others. If Vanessa, by her fondness for the gaieties of life,

encouraged by the example, and perhaps influenced by the authority of a mother, leffened her fortune at an age when few have been discreet; it cannot be denied, that the retrieved it by prudence and economy, at an age when many have continued diffolute; and was frugal, after the habit of expence had made frugality difficult. If she could not fubdue a paffion which has tyraħnized over the strongest and purest minds, the does not appear to have known that it was criminal, or to have defired that it might be unlawfully gratified. She pressed a person whom the believed fingle, to marry her but it does not therefore follow, that he was his concubine; much less that the desired to be reputed fo, and was then solicitoas to incur the infamy which has been fince thrown upon her. It cannot furely be believed, that the shameless and reputed concubine, even of Swift, would have been visited by ladies of credit and fashion, or solicited in marriage by two clergymen of eminence and for tune, to whom her story and character must have been well known." Befdes, Dr Berkeley, after having carefully perused all the letters that passed between them, which Vanessa directed to be published," with the poem, found, that they contained nothing that could bring the least difgrace upon the Dean. Hers, indeed, were full of passionate declarations of her love; his contained only complimerits, excuses, apologies, and thanks for trifling presents. There was not in either the least trace of a criminal commerce ; which, if there had been any fuch, it would, in so long an intercourse, have been extremely difficult to avoid, and if the defiVOL. I.



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Sec vol. 6. p. 12. 13.


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red to be reputed his concubine, it cannot be fuppos. fed that the concealed any letter which would have proz ved that she was fo, especially as it would have gratified her resentment against him, for refusing to make her his wife. (J. R. p. 121, 122, 123.)

If it appears, therefore, that there was no criminal commerce between them, and that she did not desire the world thould believe there had been any; it follows, from her directing the publication of the poem, of which perhaps the possessed the only copy, that, in her sense of the verses, none of them implied a fact which would dishonour her memory. And this appears also to have been the opinion of her executors, who, tho they suppressed the letters, because they contained nothing that could do her honour, yet published the poem; by which it must therefore be supposed they did not think the would be disgråced. (Z. R. P. 123-]

It has indeed been said, that Vanessa, from the time the was deserted, “ devoted herself, like Ariadne, to *** Bacchus,” (7, R. p. 123-1: and perhaps it is true, that, in the anguis of disappointed defire, the had recourfe to that dreadful opiate, which never fails to complicate disease with trouble, to leave the sufferer more wretched. when its operation is at an end; to divide life into frenzy and despair, and at once to haften the approach. and increase the terrors of death. But it cannot be thought, that when she made her will, she was either intoxicated or delirious, because the perfect exercise of reason is el. sential to the validity of the act. No particular of her distress, therefore, can weaken the arguments drawn from the direction in her will to publish the poem and the letters, of which the gratification of her vanity was so evidently the motive, that it is difficult to conceive how it could be overlooked.

From 1716 10 1720 is a chasm in the Dean's life, which it has been found difficult to fill up. That he had no need to repeat his college.exercises, has been Thewn already, and that, in this interval, he went thro' a voluminous coarfe of ecclefiaftical history (3. R. p. 101.), seems farther improbable, by a letter to Lord Bolingbroke, dated April 56 1729 (vol. 4. p. 91.); in

Sce vol; 6. p. 18.

which it appears, that he was then reading Baronius,
and Baronius was the only piece of church-hiftory that
was found in his library. Lord Ofrery thinks, with
great reafon, that he employed this time upon Gulliver's
Travels. To let. 16.)
-IThe author of the Observations indeed fuppofes the
Delan's gemus to be verging towards a decline in the
year 11 z3; and that Gulliver's Travels were written af
per that time, but in both these suppositions he is pro-
bably miftaken ; tho' in the former he seems to be fa-
voured by a passage in a letter written by the Dean
himself to Mr Pope, dared Sept. 20. 1723. (vol 4. P.

40 }
- THAT his genius was not declining in 1723, appears
by the Drapiery Letters, which were not written till
1924 ; and of these the Observator himself fays," bis

genius never thone out in greater strength than on " that and the subsequent occafions" a truth which is universally acknowledged. That Gulliver's Travels were written before that time, is equally evident : for Swift went into the north of Ireland early in the spring of 1725; and, in a letter to Dr Sheridan, during his re:fidence there, he puts him in mind of his defcription of the Yahoos (vol. 4.. 234.).' So that Sheridan 'must have seen the Travels in manuscript, at least in the year : 1724. The Dean, also, in a letter to Mr Pope, dated

Sept. 29. 1725 (vol. 4. p. 45.}y says, " oh! if the !« world had but a dozen of Arbuthnots in it, I would

* burn my Travels." It may reasonably be concluded, , therefore, that his Travels were then all written, and that at this time he was reviewing and retouching them for the press; especially as they were published in 1726; and as he was otherwise employed in 1724; they must have been written at least before 1723

Upon the whole, perhaps, it is not an extravagant conje&ure, that having, according to his own account, * wholly neglected his Itudies for the first three years of his residence at the deanery, and indulged the refentmeht which his disappointments' had produced, till it could be contained no longer, he conceived the first ng tion of exprefling it in fuch a manner as might correst the enormities which he exposed; and with this view


bio immediately

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immediately began his Travels, of which the first copy was probably, finished before the year 1720.

ABOUT this time, the Dean, who had already acquised the character of a humourist and a wit, was first cegarded with general kindness, as the patriot of Ireland. He wrote a proposal for the universal yfę of Irish, manufactures (vol. 3. P. 3.); a tract which as

it was appa: sently calculated for the service of Ireland, and zealously condemned a facrifice of interest to England, made -him very popular *. But this service would not perhaps have been fo long and fo zealously remembered, if a profecution had not been commenced against the printer. As soon as this measure was taken, the importance of the work was eftimated by the diligence of the gøyerniment to fupprefs it; and the zeal and integrity of the writer were measured by the danger he had incurred. No poblic notice, however, was taken of the Dean on this occafion; and Waters, the printer, after having been tong haraffed and imprisoned, at length obtained a Noli profequi.


In the year 1720, Swift began to reallume, in fome degree, the character of a political-writer. A small pamphlet in defence of the Iris manufactures, was, I believe, his first clay, in Ireland, in that kind of writing ; and to that pamphlet he owed the turn of the popular tide in his favour. His sayings of wit and humour had been handed about, and repeated from time to time among the people. They had the effect of an artful preface, and had pre-engagediali readers in his favour. They were adapted to the understanding, and pleased the imagination of the-vulgar and he was now looked upon

in a new light, and distinguished by the title of The Dean The fux-and reflux of popular love and hatred are equally violept. They are often owing to accidents, but sometimes to the return of season, which, unafifted by education, may not be able to guide the lower class of people into the right grack at the beginning, but will de fufficient to keep them in it, when experience has pointed out the road. The pamphlet proposing the universal ufe of Irish mahufactures within the kingdom, had captivated all hearts, Somnc little pieces of poetry to the fame purpose were no less acceptable and engaging. The attachment, which the Dean bore to the true interest of Ireland, was no longer doubted. His patriotilim was as manifeft as his wit. He was looked upon with pleasure and respect, i as he passed thro' the streets: and he had attained so high a degree of popularity, as to become an arbitrator in the disputes of property among his neighbours; nor did any man dare to appeal from his opinion, or to murmur af his decrces. 0. let. 6.

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1 The Dean did not again appear in his political character till the year 1724. A patent having been iniquitoufly procured by one Wood to coin 180,000 lm in copper for the use of Ireland, by which he would have ac. quired exorbitant-gain, and proportionably impoverished the nation, the Dean, in the character of a Drapier, wrote a series of letters to the people, urging them not to receive this copper money. Thefe letters united the

whole nation in his praife, filled every ftreet with his >efagies, and every voice with acclamations ; and Wood, tho he was long fupported by those who prostituted the higbeft delegated authority to the vileft purposes, wàs at length compelled to withdraw his patent, and tris *money was totally fuppreffed **

UPON. the arrival of Lord Carteret, foon after the pablication of the fourth letter, several passages were



* *

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* The popular affection which the Dean had hitherto acquired, may be said not to have been universal, till the publication of the Drapier's letters, which made all ranks and all professions unani. mous in his applause. The oceasion of those letters was a scarcity of copper coin in Ireland, to so great a degree, that for some time paft the chief manufacturers throughout the kingdom were

obliged to pay their work men in pieces of tin, or in other tokens z of fuppóliticions value.' : Such a method was very difadvantageous : to the lower parts of traffick, and was in general an impediment to the commerce of the state. To remedy this evil the late King

a patent to William Wond, to coin, during the term of fourteen years, farthings and halfpence in England for the'ufe of Ireland; to the value of a certain fum fpecified. These halfpente and farthings were to be received by those perfons who would volantarily accept them. But the patent was thought of such dan gerous conkquenee to the public, and of fach exerbitant advantage

patentee, that the Dean, under the character of M. B. Drapier, wrote a letter to the people, warning thent not to accept 9 Wood's halfpenee and farthings as current coits. This first letter

was faceteded by several others to the fame purpose; all which are inserted in his works-At the found of the Drapier's trumpet, &c. [ree vol, 3. p. 23. ip the potes) This is the most fuccinct account that can be given of an affair, which alarnet tħe whole Irishi nation to a degree, that in a lefs loyal Kingdom must have fomented-a rebellion but the hedfast loyalty of the Trilh, and their true devotion to the prefent royal family, is immoveables and althoi this unfortunate nation may not hitherto have found many distinguishing marks of favour and indulgence from the

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throne, yet it is to be hoped in time they may meet with this reward. 0. let. 6...

25 &.


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