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seems to me to have put an end to that artificial pretence of regret, which up to this time was daily growing, and which, if it became deeply rooted, I feared might prove dangerous to our tyrannicides. As it is, I entirely agree with your letter and hope for better things : though I cannot stand those people who, while pretending to desire peace, defend unprincipled proceedings : but we can't have everything at once. Things are beginning to go better than I had expected : and of course I will not leave the country till you think I may do so with honour. Brutus certainly I will always be ready to serve at any time or place, and that I should have done, even if there were no ties between us, for the sake of his unparalleled and extraordinary character. I put this whole villa and all that it contains at the service of our dear Pilia, being myself on the point of departing this ist of May for my house at Pompeii. How I wish you could persuade Brutus to stay at Astura

DCCXVIII (A XIV, 16)

TO ATTICUS (AT ROME)

PUTEOLI, 3 MAY

I DESPATCH this letter on the 3rd of May, when on the point of embarking on a rowing boat from the Cluvian pleasure-grounds, after having handed over to Pilia my villa on the Lucrine lake, its servants, and bailiffs. I myself on that day am threatening the cheese-and-sardine dishes of my friend Pætus.? In a very few days I shall go to Pompeii, and afterwards shall return to my domains at Puteoli and Cumæ. What desirable spots in other respects, yet owing to the crowd of visitors almost to be shunned !

taken the side of the murderers and even pretended to have been privy to the plot, but seems gradually to have betrayed sentiments opposite description (App. B. C. iii. 122).

Those inherited from Cluvius of Puteoli. See p. 15. ? I am going to stay with Pætus at Naples. See vol. iii., p. 92.

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But to come to business. What a gallant coup de main of my Dolabella! What a magnificent display! For my part I never cease mingling praise and exhortation in writing to him. Yes, you are quite right in the opinion you express in all your letters about the action as well as the man.

In my opinion our friend Brutus might walk through the forum even with a gold crown on his head. For who would venture to assault him with the fear of the cross and the rock before their eyes ? Especially as this transaction has been so loudly cheered and so heartily approved by the very mob?

Now, my dear Atticus, do make things all right for me. I want, as soon as I have done fully all that Brutus requires of me, to make an excursion into Greece. It is much to my son's interest, or rather to mine, or by heaven to that of us both, that I should drop in upon him in his studies. For in the letter of Leonides? which you forwarded to me, what is there, after all, to give us any great pleasure? I shall never think the boy's report satisfactory while it contains such a phrase as as he is going on at present.” These are not the words of confidence, but rather of anxiety. Moreover, I had charged Herodes; to write to me in detail; but as yet I have not had a line from him. I fear he had nothing to say which he thought would be pleasant for me to know. I am much obliged to you for having written to Xeno.* It concerns my duty as well as my reputation that my son should not be in any way short of means. I hear that Flaminius Flamma' is at Rome. I have written to tell him that I have given you a written commission to speak to him about the business of Montanus. Please see that the letter I have sent him is delivered, and -if quite convenient to yourself-have a personal interview with him. I think, if there is a spark of shame in the man, he will see that the payment is not deferred to my loss. As

As the best way of keeping him up to the mark. Cp. vol. üi., p. 59. ? The tutor of the young Marcus Cicero.

3 One of young Cicero's teachers at Athens. We have already heard of him as undertaking a history of Cicero's consulship (vol. i., p. 67).

* An Epicurean philosopher at Athens (vol. ii., pp. 26, 31). Atticus seems to have employed him to transmit money to young Cicero.

5 C. Flaminius Flamma owed Plancus money and also it seems Cicero. See vol. iii., p. 258.

to Attica you have done me a great kindness in seeing that I knew of her recovery before I knew that she had been unwell.

DCCXIX (A XIV, 17 a AND F IX, 14)

TO P. CORNELIUS DOLABELLA

POMPEII, 3 MAY

THOUGH I am quite content, my dear Dolabella, with the glory you have earned, and feel it to be a source of great exultation and pleasure, yet I cannot help confessing that it adds a finishing stroke to my joy that popular opinion associates my name with your praises. I meet a great many people every day, for large numbers of men of rank are collected in this district for their health, besides a goodly crowd of friends of mine from the country towns. Well, I have met none who did not with one consent praise you to the skies, adding in the same breath a very warm expression of thanks to me. For they say that they have no doubt that it is in obedience to my precepts and advice that you are shewing yourself to be a most eminent citizen and brilliant consul. Though I can answer such men with the most absolute truth that what you are doing you do on your own judgment and your own initiative, and do not need any man's advice, yet I neither admit outright the truth of their remark, lest I should detract from your glory by making it seem to have sprung entirely from my advice, nor do I deny it entirely either. For I am even too covetous of honour. And, after all, it is no disparagement to your dignity—as it was not to that of Agamemnon himself the "king of kings ”—to have some Nestor to assist you in forming your plans. Whereas it redounds to my glory that as still a young man you

should have a brilliant reputation as a consul while being, so to speak, a pupil of my school.”

? That is, below the statutable age for the consulship. Dolabella was only about twenty-five.

* See vol. iii., p. 93, for Dolabella's study of rhetoric under Cicero.

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Lucius Cæsar, for instance, when I visited him on his sick bed at Naples, though racked with pains all over his body, scarcely got the formal words of greeting out of his mouth before he exclaimed : “Oh my dear Cicero, I congratulate you on having an influence with Dolabella, such as if I had had with my sister's son,'

we might now have been safe. Your Dolabella indeed I both congratulate and thank—for he is the only man since your consulship that I can with any truth call a consul.” Then he proceeded to say a great deal about the occurrence, and how you had managed the affair, declaring that no more splendid and brilliant act had ever been done, nor one more beneficial to the state. And this was the observation of everyone.

Now, I beg of you to allow me to accept this quasiinheritance, so to speak, of another man's glory, and to permit me to some extent to be a sharer in your reputation. However, my dear Dolabella—for this is only my jokeit would give me greater pleasure to divert the full stream of my glories, if I may be said to have any, upon you, than to draw off any part of yours. For while I have always had the warm attachment to you which you have had every opportunity of appreciating, by your recent acts I have been so inflamed that nothing can exceed the ardour of my attachment. For there is nothing, believe me, fairer, more beautiful, or more attractive than virtue. I have always, as you know, loved Marcus Brutus for his eminent ability, his very agreeable manners, and unequalled honesty and consistency. Nevertheless, on the Ides of March my affection was so much enhanced, that I was surprised to find an addition possible in what I had looked upon as having long ago reached its height. Who could have thought that any addition was possible to my affection for you? Yet so great an addition has been made that I seem to myself never to have loved before, only to have liked. Wherefore what need to exhort you to support your position and reputation ? Shall I quote to you the examples of illustrious men, as people usually do when exhorting another.

IL. Cæsar's sister Iulia married first. Antonius Creticus, by whom she was the mother of Marcus Antonius, and secondly Lentulus, the Catilinarian conspirator (2 Phil. § 14).

? See, however, vol. ii., p. 137.

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I have none to quote more illustrious than yourself. You must imitate yourself, vie with yourself. It is not even admissible after such great achievements for you to fail to be like yourself.

This being so, exhortation is superfluous. What is called for is rather congratulation. For it has been your good fortune -as I think it has never been anyone else's—to inflict the most severe punishment, not only without exciting ill feeling, but with full popular approval, and to the greatest and most universal satisfaction of aristocrat and plebeian alike. If this were merely a stroke of luck in your case I should have congratulated your good fortune ; but it is in fact the result of a certain largeness of spirit, ability, and prudence. For I read your speech. It was wisdom itself. So well did you feel your way in first approaching and then avoiding the points of the case, that by universal consent the time for striking the blow seemed naturally to arise from the facts. So you have freed the city from danger and the state from terrorism, and not only done a useful service in view of the present emergency, but have set a precedent. Wherefore you ought to understand that the constitution depends on you, and that you are bound not only to protect, but to honour the men who laid the foundation of liberty. But of such matters at greater length when we meet, which I hope will be soon. For you, my dear Dolabella, since you are preserving the Republic and us, take care to guard your own life with every possible precaution.

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Surely party spirit never so perverted a great man as when it induced Cicero to write these words to a dissolute young scoundrel like Dolabella ; and in praise of an act of wholly unconstitutional cruelty. Even the unhappy boys hanged after the Gordon riots were allowed some form of trial.

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