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on the first day, instead of being of scripture, are called • Angels of created immediately after the heav- the Lord, which do his will.' ens, they were created before them this sense is to be understood the for Moses states expressly, that the expression of the Psalmist, [Ps. civ. heavens were created on the second 4.)' who maketh his Angels spirits, day. Gen. i. 6, 7, 8. “ And God and his ministers a Aame of fire ; said let there be a firmament in the i. e. who maketh winds his an. midst of the waters ; and let it di- gels, and lightnings his messengers. vide the waters from the waters ; Moreover, the scriptures call (or, according to these literati, let dream, a vision, a voice from heaven, it be a habitation for the angels) a plague, a burning wind, · Angels of and God made the firmament, and God;' and whatsoever God is pleasdivided the waters, which were un- ed to do by them, is said to be done der the firmament, from the waters by an • Angel of the Lord;" for which were above the firmament; whatever declares God's will, or and it was so, and God called the performs his pleasure, is ' his An.. firmament heaven ; (or, according gel.” to the original, heavens) and the Upon this statement, our Ameri. evening and the morning were the can literati remark, second day.” The English editor proceeds to

“ Whatever may have been the 'con

current opinion of the Hebrew and Sastate, that “ the scriptore uses the maritan schools' which, we know, wero, term Angel, to denote other beings, in many respects, most profoundly ignoor agents, besides those spirits, that rant of the true sense of the sacred ora. occupy a rank and dignity, superi- cles, it seems strange, that any christian, wbt Accordingly, (he

has studied them with care, should be capa

ble of entertaining the extraordinary nosays) it has been the concurrent

tions, contained in this section. An atopinion of the Hebrew and Samari. tempt is made indeed, to force to their aid tan schools, that the word Angel, a passage of the 104th Psalm. But this does not only mean a spirit, but some- is done by giving that passage not only a times also all sorts of powers

NEW, but a most unwarrantable Trans

LATION; a translation which divine austruments, which God is pleased to

tbority stamps with falschood, in Heb. use, and by means of which he acts.' i. 7 ; where if this rendering he introSo that the elements of the world, duced in place of the genuine reading, fire, air, winds, and storms, in par

which is given verbatim from the Greek, ticular vision,* and, in the language

our to


or in.

the sacred penman will appear to have

written the GROSSEST NONSENSE." There is here an errour of the press

Upon the assertion of these literain the English edition, which the Amer

ti, that this is not only a new, but a ican editors have neglected to correct. In the edition of Lowman's Tracts, pub

most unwarrantableTrANSLATION OF lished at London, A.D. 1756, from which the 4th verse of the 104th Psalm, this sentence is taken, it stands thus at we have to remark, that in Junius'

" So that the elements of and Tremellius' Latin translation of the world, fire and air, winds and storms, in particular visions, in the language of

the Bible, published A. D. 1580, the scriptures, are called Angels of the

and also in Piscator's of Aw, 1684, Lord, which do his will.” Perhaps, also this passage is rendered, “qui facit it may not be amiss to state here, that a considerable part of this article in the

sentiments, which the American editors English edition is compiled from these

declare to be new and unwarrantable, tracts, and particularly, that, some of the

may be found in them.

page 25, 26.


angelos suos ventos, ministros suos being Jehovah's agents or ministers, ignem flammantam,” i. e. who mak- and cites among other passages, eth winds his angels, and lightning, which it it to be understood in this or flaming fire, his ministers or mes- sense, this 4th verse of the 104th sengers. Likewise, in the French Psalm. protestant bible, published A. D. Farmer, in his Treatise on Mira. 1710, it is rendered, “ Il fait des cles, at page 148, 9, makes the folvents ses anges, et du feu brûlant ses lowing observations. “ The word serviteurs," i. e. he maketh the Angel or messenger denotes only winds his angels, and the burning one employed in the execution of fire his ministers.

some commission. Hence it is apIn Schindler's Pentaglot Lexi- plied not merely to intelligent becon, edit. 1612, under the root 7777 ings acting by the order of God, but part of this passage is cited, even to the inanimate parts of the and rendered, faciens angelos suos creation, which he employs as the ventos, i. e. making winds his An- instruments of his government. The gels.

Psalmist, when celebrating the emIn Cocceius Hebrew Lexicon, un- pire of God over the material world, der the root 7717 part of this pas- says, “ he maketh the winds his ansage is likewise noticed, and render- gels, or messengers, and lightnings ed “faciens ventos nuncios suos,” his ministers.” In a note subjoined, i.e. making the winds his messen- he says, “ This is the true rendering gers. In the same Lexicon, under of Psalm civ. 4. (compare Exod. the root 783 from which is derived ix. 25, 24. Psalm lxxviii

. 48, 49) the word 72 Angel, this passage Nor is it certain that the words are is rendered, “qui facit angelos su- applied, Heb. i. 7. to intelligent be. os ventos," i. e. who maketh winds ings; as the apostle seems to have his Angels, and, it is added, “ ventis had no other view in citing them, utitur ut legatis suis,” i. e. who em- than to observe, that the very name ploys the winds as his legates or am- of angel, (however applied) imbassadours.

ported ministry and subjection ; · Parkhurst, in his Hebrew Lexi. whereas that of son implied authorcon, gives as the primary significity and dominion. Very probably cation of the root 7797

« air in the scripture may represent the motion, a breeze, breath, wind; most active powers of nature as and cites among other passages in God's angels, in opposition to the which it is to be thus understood, heathen, who considered them as this 4th verse of the 104th Psalm. Deities.

Under the root 7x3 he defines These authorities, we think, are the word 7x52 to mean “one sentor amply sufficient to show, that the employed by another, a messenger, a translation of the 4th verse of legate, an agent,” and he adds“ 10th Psalm, which is contended St. Austin says of an aprinos in for by the English editor, is by no Greek, so we may truly say of Tana means a new one ; and also that in Hebrew, “ Nomen non naturæ sed it is far from certain, that it is an officii,”i.e, it is a name not of nature, unwarrantable one. We confess but of office. It is applied, he says, ourselves unable to conceive, how sometimes to the created agents of Heb. i. 7, (which is merely a verbal nature, or powers of the heavens, as quotation of the septuagint transla

Vol. v. No. IV. 2 C


tion of the Hebreworiginal, “stamps cited from Farmer, will be inclined this translation with falsehood by die to assent to it. vine authority.

That there is a way, however, in which the meaning

“ And the various texts or portions of of a passage may be stamped by die scripture, which are afterwards referred

to, are all of them, as casily explained, vine authority, we are by no means

and some of them incomparably more so, disposed to deny ; and, in order by adopting the generally received opinto show how we conceive it may be, ion, (i.c. the opinion of these literati) and, in fact, has been done, we will relative to angelick power and agency, here adduce and compare Exodus than by the help of this singular system, ix. 23, 24, with Psalm lxxviii. 48,

which supposes that “all sorts of pow49. And Moses stretched forth ed to use, and by means of which he

ers or instruments, which God is pleashis rod towards heaven, and the acts, are, in the language of the bible, Lord sent thunder and hail, and the denominated angels." fire ran along the ground, and the Lord rained hail upon all the land

This assertion, we take to be of Egypt. So there was hail and

as well founded, as the charge, fire mingled with the hail

, very of having given a new translation

exhibited against the English editor, grievous, such as there was none like it in all the land of Egypt, since of the 4th verse, of the 104th Psalm. it became a nation.” The Psalm.

“Of this system, the direct tendency, ist, when referring to this transac- if not the real design, appears to be, to tion, says : “ He gave up their cat. represent the language of scripture, as so tle also to the hail, and iheir flocks vague and equivocal, that it may receive to hot thunderbolts. He cast up

any construction whatever, and to deon them the fierceness of his anger, stroy the belief, that there are any such wrath, and indignation, by sending who possess a separate existence, extra

beings as angels, considered as spirits, evil angels among them.” Here we

ordinary powers, and an important agenthink the word Angels in the Psalm cy in the events and concerns of this is “ stamped by divine authority," world.” to mean something different from intelligent beings : at any rate if

Really, gentlemen, we are unacthese “ literati” will produce any quainted with any species of logick, passage, or passages from the scrip- by which it can be shown, that a tures, which will show as clearly, system, which represents a word of that the word angel is never used any book, as being used primarily in them, to signify any thing be. to signify a being, or thing, of a sides an intelligent being, as these

certain description, by allowing, do, that it is sometimes applied to

that it is likewise sometimes employthe inanimate powers of nature, we

ed to designate some other being or will give up all pretensions to thing, has a tendency to destroy the any knowledge of biblical lite belief of the existence of the being rature. With respect to the asser- or thing, which it is said primarily tion, that “ if this reading be intro

to signify. If there be such a speduced, the sacred penman

cies of logick, we suppose it must pear to have written the grossest

be some new invented .

"patent lo. NONSENSE,” we shall only observe, gick,” which, for ought we know, that we doubt whether any persons may bestiled logickof

American literati, of candour, who take into consider- and, according to the rules of which, ation the passage, which we have it may be proved to be very uncer

will ap

tain, whether there be in America doctrines of Deuils." The same such a place as the city of Philadel- Greek word, which in the English phia. Thus, the word Philadelphia, translation is here rendered Devils, was primarily used, in America, to in Acts xvii. 18. is translated designate a city in the state of Penn. “Gods ;' and means, in both passasylvania ; but it has likewise been ges, that kind of deities, which the used to designate several other pla- heathen worshipped under the name ces; and, this has rendered the lan- of Demons, and who were formerly guage of geography “so vague and men. equivocal,as to destroy the belief,

“So much for this subject in general, that there “is any such place as which it seemed necessary a little to disthe city of Philadelphia, in Penạ. cuss, and for which this appeared as prosylvania.” We will here close our per a place as any. Since, indeed, it has remarks upon the first American sec

been determined, that nothing which aption of this article, by observing, that pears in Rees' New Cyclopædia,' shall

henceforth be omitted in the American “ it seems strange to us, that any edition of the work, we thought it inchristian, who has studied them (the cumbent to avow, and we have accordscriptures) with care, should be ca- ingly here avowed the principles, which pable of entertaining the extraordi- will govern us in remarking on the mo

ral and theological opinions, which it nary notions contained in it."

exhibits. We are sensible, that this is an În the next American section of arduous, an important, and a delicate this article, these “ literati," have duty. We have approached it, not manifested a wonderful quantity of without undissembled diffidence in our zeal and satisfaction, in their endea- abilities to discharge it worthily. In its

execution we believe we can promise vours to support the doctrine and belief of the fall of angels; and, deavour not to transgress the prescrip

diligence and vigilance; and we shall en. not a little of bitterness towards tions of decorum, the laws of candour, those, who do not think quite so nor the demands of christian meekness. highly of the influence of this invinci. With all this, however, we believe it to ble power as they do. If, however, be matter of little consequence to us, in

be perfectly consistent to say, that it will they had proceeded according to the what class of living literary merit the principles, by which they have pro- name may be enrolled, or in what niche fessed to be governed ; and had resort. of the temple of fame the statue may be ed to the original of the New Testa- found, of him, who has touched irreventment, instead of the English trans- ly the hallowed depository of God's re

vealed will. In the best manner we can, lation of it ; and, had “not brought we will withstand his audacity, expose to the study of it, a system, already bis impiety, and invest him with his proformed in their own minds, and per character: for we believe, with fortified by prejudice ;" they would Young, that with the talents of an Anprobably have discovered, that all gel, a man may be a fool. Those, who the

sympathise with hereticks and infidels, passages, which they have cited,

will, in vain, endeavour to turn us from were not exactly to their purpose.

our purpose. Our work is sacred, and We will mention one, which we we dare not slight it ; our responsibility think has no more relation to fall is not only to man but to God." en Angels,” than it has to these

“Our responsibility is not only gentlemen themselves. It is that

to man but to God.” Doubtless, which they have cited from 1 Timo- gentlemen, this is very true, and thy, iv. 1. where the apostle says, are not the English editors, precisely “that in the later times some shall de in the same predicament ? or, is this part from the faith, giving heed to meant as an insinuation, that they


“ fear not God, neither regard

that there is any sort of evidence,

what the character of such a being “ Our work is sacred, and we would be. If they meant, here, to dare not slight it.” This, also, looks give it as their opinion, that the Ansomewhat like hinting, that the gels themselves might behave like English editors do not consider fools, we think they might have their work to be sacred, and that cited higher authority to support it, they, probably, intend to slight it. for Job declares, “his Angels he We doubt whether it be very po. [God) charged with folly !" Chap. litick, to throw out such insinuations iv. 18. as these, for those, that set them. “ It will be matter of little im. selves up to be better than their portance to us, in what class of liv. neighbours, are generally suspected, ing literary merit, or in what niche of by other people, not to be quite the temple of fame the statue may 80 fair and good as they ought to be found of him, who has touched irbe.

reverently the hallowed depository of “Those, who sympathize with God's revealed will. In the best hereticks and infidels, will, in vain, manner we can, we will withstand endeavour to turn us from our pur- bis audacity, expose his impiety, and pose.”

That is to say, these liter- invest him with his proper character.". ati have “ all wisdom and all know. We are disposed highly to commend ledge,” and are infallible judges of this resolution, and we would hint the meaning of the scriptures, and to these “literati,” that they had those who differ from them in better commence their chastisement, opinion, are either hereticks, or in- where charity is usually said to befidels, and must expect to be treat. gin, that is, at home ; for we are of ed accordingly: or as Lord Peter opinion, that they have themselves, did

poor Martin and Jack, who had « touched irreverently the hallowed not senses enough to discern, that a depository of God's revealed will,” crust of bread was a shoulder of by asserting that if Heb. i. 7, is to mutton ; “ Look you, gentlemen," be understood in a sense, different cries Peter, in a rage, “to convince from that in which they understand you

what a couple of blind, positive, it, “the sacred penman will appear ignorant, wilful puppies you are, to have written the grossest non. I will use but this plain argument sense.with you. By G- it is true, good, natural mutton, as any in Leaden

« We shall endeavour not to transgress hall market; and G- confound

the prescriptions of decorum, the laws

of candour, nor the demands of chrisyou both eternally, if you offer to

tian meekness.” believe otherwise."

“We believe with Young, that These gentlemen have shown a with the talents of an Angel a man competent degree of prudence and may be a fool.” This seems to us we commend them for it ; for we very much like believing without think that persons, who possess such evidence, for we are confident that a bigotted temper, as has been man. these gentlemen themselves, will not ifested in this article, should never pretend, that there ever was a man, promise absolutely not to transwho had the talents of an Angel, gress the prescriptions of decorum. (in their sense of this word) or, A promise to “endeavour" not to

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