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United States Government, to the Confederate Government.

March 10.—It is reported at Washington that such word has been received from Major Anderson as to render the evacuation or the reprovisioning of Fort Sumter a necessity. Great excitement exists in consequence. General Scott is willing to assume the responsibility of the withdrawal, considering it impossible to throw in reenforcements and provisions, except at great cost of life.

March 12.--The Southern Commissioners, Messrs. Crawford and Forsythe, communicate their mission to Secretary Seward, pronounce their Government an independency de facto et de jure, and request a day to be named when they may present to the President their credentials.

March 13.-The Georgia Convention turns over all forts, arsenals, arms, &c., seized from the Federal Government, to the Confederate Government.

-The Charleston (South Carolina) Courier of today says the batteries bearing on the ship channel are of the heaviest kind, and that they are now in a high state of preparation, and ready for any force that may be sent against them. It believes the re

enforcement of Fort Sumter an impossibility. It estimates that three thousand highly-disciplined troops are in the various fortifications.

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-By proclamation of General Bragg, all vessels are probibited to furnish supplies to war vessels off Pensacola or to Fort Pickens, under penalty of for

feiture to the Confederation.

-A long list of the Confederate army and navy appointments is published. Nearly all of them were formerly Federal officers.

March 22.-The Missouri Convention adjournshaving passed no ordinance of secession.

-A dispatch from New Orleans says: "The Commissioners of the Confederate States to EuropeMessrs. Yancey, Mann, and Rost-will leave here on the 31st inst. for Havana, and connect with the British steamer of the 7th of April for England."

-Alexander H. Stephens makes a speech at Savannah, (Georgia,) expounding the principles and purposes of the new Confederacy. He argued that negro slavery was the "chief corner-stone of the new edifice." [See History of Rebellion, Vol. I., pages 30, 31.]

March 26.-The South Carolina State Convention reassembles.

March 27.--Colonel Lamon, Mr. Lincoln's special messenger to Fort Sumter returns and reports favorably upon the condition of the garrison, but is fully satisfied that reenforcements cannot be introduced without a serious collision, and that the attempt to Seats of United States Senators from the Se-introduce them would be of doubtful success with ceded States declared vacant, and their names stricken from the roll.

March 15.-Mr. Seward, Secretary of State, answers the cornmunication of the Southern Commissioners, Messrs. Crawford and Forsythe, by a memorandum," without signature, refusing to recognize the agents in any public capacity, &c. This memorandum" was not called for by the Commissioners until April 8th-understanding it to be a refusal of recognition.

the force now at the command of the Administration. He describes the military preparations of the rebels as of great magnitude, and very skilfully made.

April 2.-Gov. Houston sends a message to the Texas Legislature protesting against the Convention, appealing to the Legislature to sustain him, and claiming still to be Governor. The Legislature took not the slightest notice of it.


April 4.-Virginia Legislature adjourns. March 16.-The Montgomery Congress adjourns, Convention still in session. Proceedings are highly to meet again the 2d Monday in May. exciting. The Secessionists evidently have the upper hand.

-The Texas State Convention passes an ordinance declaring, on the refusal of Governor Houston to take the oath under the State Constitution, the office of Governor vacant, and appointing Lieutenant-Governor Clark Governor. The office of Secretary of State is also declared vacant.

-A dispatch from Washington reads: "The Administration has determined to reenforce Fort Pickens, at all hazards. This determination has not yet been officially announced, but there is reason to believe that active measures will be taken at once -A" Convention" of about twenty persons held for the relief of Lieut. Slemmer's command. The a session at Mesilla, in Arizona, and voted that Ter- troops of the Confederate States are rapidly concenritory out of the Union. An election for CongressAn election for Congress-trating at Pensacola, under command of General men to the Confederate Congress was ordered.

March 18.-The Texas Legislature met. The members of the House and Senate took the oath of allegiance to the new Government, a few of them under protest. Governor Houston and the Secretary of State have retired from their offices and surrendered the archives. Governor Houston had issued an appeal to the people denouncing the State Convention. March 20.-The Arkansas Convention adjourns, after having rejected an ordinance of secession. It was decided, however, to take a vote of the people, in August, on the question of" secession” or “no secession."

-The Texas Legislature passes a resolution approving of the Convention act deposing Governor Houston.

March 21.—A resolution passes the Ohio State Legislature, asking Congress to call a National Convention.

Bragg, and preparations are making for a decisive movement. Bragg has nearly four thousand troops under his command, all well armed and in a state of efficiency. Lieut. Slemmer is prepared for the worst, and will sustain the honor of his flag to the last.

April 5-8.-The steamers Atlantic, Baltic, and Illinois, load at New York with Navy stores, munitions, &c. Much excitement prevails as to their destination. The frigate Powhatan is hurriedly put into commission, at New York, and sails south, April 6th. Great activity at the Brooklyn, the Philadelphia, and the Charlestown (Mass.) Navy-yards. Every Government vessel of war, it is understood, is ordered out of ordinary, to be fitted for commission.

April 5.-Kentucky Legislature adjourns. No action taken looking to secession, or resistance to the Federal Government.

April 6.-Great excitement prevails throughout the South in consequence of the great naval move






ments announced. Gen. Beauregard announces to Major Anderson that no further communications will be allowed with the land-thus placing him in a state of siege.

April 8.-A dispatch from Montgomery says: "The Cabinet here have just concluded a protracted session on the course to be pursued in the present serious crisis. Jefferson Davis strongly urged an aggressive policy towards the United States, and it was at length decided to instruct the Commissioners at Washington to present their ultimatum to President Lincoln, and if it should not be accepted, to

declare war.”

-A dispatch from Charleston says: "Vessels have been ordered from the range of fire between Fort Sumter and Sullivan's Island. The floating battery sails at 7 o'clock this evening for a point near Fort Sumter. A house has just been blown up near the five-gun battery. Business has been suspended, and fearful excitement prevails. Gen. Beauregard has ordered out 5,000 more troops. Companies of volunteers are constantly arriving and being put in position in the harbor. New batteries are also being constructed."

-More steamers chartered as transports at New York. Great amounts of stores, arms and munitions are being shipped. The armed revenue-cutter Harriet Lane puts to sea with sealed orders, followed by the steam-tugs Yankee and Uncle Ben. The frigate (steam) Wabash, the sloop Savannah, and the gun-boat Perry, at the Brooklyn Navy-yard, are being rapidly prepared for sea.

Lieutenant Talbot arrives in Charleston, to say that Major Anderson would be supplied with provisions at every hazard. The messenger was denied access to Anderson. Immense preparations were immediately made to repel the reenforcement or supply, come in what shape it might. All Charleston was under arms, and the united defences of the harbor and city placed ready for action.

The State Department at Washington replies

to the Confederate State Commissioners, declin

ing to receive them in their official capacity, but expressing deference for them as gentlemen. The Secretary expresses a peaceful policy on the part of the Government, declaring a purpose to defend only when assailed.

April 9.-Gov. Curtin sends a message to the Pennsylvania Legislature, recommending that the State be, at once, placed on a footing of military efficiency, and readiness. He also stated that Mr. Lincoln had informed him of a design to attack and seize the Capital.

-A dispatch from Washington says the designs of the Government are peaceful--that unarmed ships are to supply United States forts with required provision, troops, &c. If they are assaulted, the responsibility of inaugurating war would rest with the assailants.

-A requisition was made by Jefferson Davis upon the Confederate States for 3,500 troops from each, except Florida, which was required to furnish 1,500, all for immediate service.

-The Steam transports Illinois and Baltic get to sea-the first having 300 and the latter 160 troops on board. The Atlantic steamer sailed April 7th, with 358 troops.

-The Steam Sloop of War Pawnee sails under seal

ed orders from Norfolk. She mounts 10 guns and carries 200 men.

April 10.-Sloop-of-war Jamestown and frigate St. Lawrence at the Philadelphia Navy-yard, ordered to be fitted for sea forthwith.

-Troops mustering in Washington from the militia. Adjutant-General McDowell is organizing them into regiments and preparing them for service. Additional forces of regulars ordered to the Capital: Sherman's Artillery from Fort Ridgely, in Minnesota, and two companies of cavalry ordered to report immediately at Washington. The active preparations are understood to result from the known presence, in the vicinity of Washington, of Colonel Ben McCullough, the Texan Ranger, who, having secured the United States forts in Texas, has hurried to the East to lead an attempt upon the Capital.

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-A dispatch from Charleston says: Troops are pouring in from the interior and all is ready for a collision. Fort Sumter will be attacked without waiting for the Abolition fleet. Eagerness for the conflict is unbounded. Messrs. Wigfall, Chesnut, Roylston, and others, have secured a place on Gen. Beauregard's staff. The floating battery, finished, mounted, and manned, was taken out of the dock last evening and moored in the cove near Sullivan's Isıand. The Convention has just adjourned, subject to the call of its President. A large number of its members, after adjournment, volunteered as privates. About 7,000 troops are in the defences, with as many more in reserve."

-L. P. Walker, Secretary of War of the Confederate States, orders General Beauregard to demand the evacuation of Fort Sumter, which demand he is to enforce by proceeding to reduce the fort.

April 11.-The Southern Commissioners, Messrs. Crawford, Forsythe, and Roman, left Washington today. Before leaving they transmitted [April 9th] to Secretary Seward a rejoinder, setting forth their reasons for departing, and replying to the positions assumed in his answers to their demands. It was very severe in its tone, charging duplicity on the part of the Secretary. They take the ground that they have exhausted every resource for a peaceful solution of the existing difficulties, and that if civil war results, on the head of the Federal Government will rest the responsibility. They charge the Administration with gross perfidy, insisting that under the shelter of the pretext and assertion that Fort Sumter was to be evacuated, an immense armada has been dispatched to provision and reenforce that fort. They repeat they had almost daily indirect assurances from the Administration that Fort Sumter was positively to be abandoned, and that all the Government's efforts were to be directed towards peace. The Commissioners allege that the Government at Montgomery was earnestly desirous of peace; and that, in accordance with its instructions, as well as their own feelings, they left no means unexhausted to secure that much-desired end; but all their efforts having failed, they were now forced to return to an outraged people with the object of their mission unaccomplished; and they express the firm conviction that war is inevitable.

-A formal demand made by General Beauregard, of Major Anderson, for the surrender of Fort Sumter. Anderson refused compliance with this demand.

April 12.-At one o'clock, A. M., a second demand was made, or rather proposition, in which Beau

regard says, if Anderson will name a day for withdrawing, and will not use his guns, he [Beauregard] would abstain from firing on him. Anderson replied that he would evacuate [if means of transport were afforded him] on the 15th, if, in the meantime he was not controlled by instructions from his government, or if additional supplies were not sent him. He agreed not to open his guns if some hostile act was not committed against him.

-Beauregard, by his aids, James Chesnut, Jr., and Stephen D. Lee, at 3. 20 A. M., informed Anderson that the batteries would open fire on him in one hour from that time.

-Fire opened on Sumter from all the rebel batteries, fortifications, and the floating battery-the first gun being fired at 4. 30 A. M. Anderson returned the fire soon after daylight.

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-The bombardment of Fort Sumter. The barracks in the fort on fire three times. Flames suppressed. Firing is furious on both sides.

entered one of the embrasures with a flag of truce. He said Beauregard wished the firing stopped, and asked upon what terms Anderson would evacuate. The answer was, "Upon the terms I proposed, and on those only." Wigfall disappeared with the answer. Soon another deputation from Beauregard came, proposing to treat for terms, when Anderson informed them of Wigfall's proceedings—at which the deputation marveled. Terms finally accepted as Anderson first proposed.

-Three Commissioners from the Virginia State Convention to the President of the United States call upon Mr. Lincoln, and demand to know what are his purposes in regard to the Confederate States. The President replies that if an unprovoked assault has been made on Fort Sumter, he shall hold himself at liberty to repossess it to repel force by force. This the Commissioners [Messrs. Preston, Stuart, and Randolph] report to the State Convention, (December 14th,) when it is regarded as a Declaration of War, and immediate steps are taken to place Virginia in a state of preparation for secession and resistance.

-Walker, Secretary of War, in reply to a serenade in honor of the bombardment then going on, said that, by the 1st of May, the Confederate flag would float over the dome of the Capitol at Wash-son. ington—it might, eventually, float over Faneuil Hall itself.

-The Legislature of Pennsylvania passes a bill for placing the State on a war footing. Five hundred thousand dollars are appropriated for arming and equipping the military.

April 14.—Evacuation of Fort Sumter by AnderThe men all march out with their arms. All individual and company baggage accompanied them. The flag is saluted with a salvo of fifty guns, and is borne away by the troops. The band plays "Yankee Doodle" and "Hail to the Chief" during the debarkation.

-Profound excitement throughout the entire April 13.-The bombardment of Fort Sumter con- country. But one feeling seems to animate the tinued. The barracks again on fire. Flames obtain North-that the Government is right, and shall be control, and the conflagration becomes general in supported to the last extremity. Military compathe fort, consuming all wood-work. Magazine has nies, regiments, individuals, hasten to offer their ser to be closed, and the men are stifled with the in-vices. Governor Sprague, of Rhode Island, offers tense heat and dense smoke. The bombardment | the Marine Artillery and one thousand Infantry for continues with renewed vigor-hot shot and shell instant service, together with his own services. pouring into the fort. The upper service magazine Other Governors were prepared to do likewise, explodes, tearing away the tower and upper por- when the news of a proclamation came. tions of the building. Fire spread to the gates, which were consumed. Fort is fast becoming a mere ruin—the shot and shell from the rebel batter-Seceded States too powerful for suppression by the ies cutting away the walls freely. The flag-staff is shot down, when Lieutenant Hall, rushing through the appalling fire, brought it into the casemates. The flag was nailed to the staff and planted on the ramparts. Seeing the flag down, Wigfall, one of Beauregard's aids, passed over to the fortress and

April 15.-President Lincoln issues a proclamation, announcing a state of insurrection in the Seven

ordinary courts and marshals, and therefore calls out the militia, to the number of seventy-five thousand, to cause the laws to be duly respected. The procla mation also convenes both Houses of Congress, to assemble on the 4th day of July, to consider and determine such measures as the crisis demands.

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THE 4th day of March, 1861, was a day of | dress. His voice was loud, and very clear; painful suspense to the entire country. It his enunciation deliberate, and his manner was to determine the future of the Republic-impressive. If there was danger of assassinto witness the inauguration of a "sectional" ation, he did not betray the slightest apprePresident, upon whose words would hang hension. His entire action betokened the the issues of peace or war, of union or dis- man ready for duty. The crowd was remarkunion. The fears entertained of violence to ably orderly, composed as it was, in a great prevent the installation, and of danger to the degree, of those who had "come to see the President's person, served to intensify the President safely inaugurated.” Though no apprehension of his friends and partisans, recognition was given, in the order of exerwhile the position he should assume on cises, to the Republican "Wide-Awake” soNational affairs rendered the anxiety in the cieties, as such, it was well understood that South especially acute. at least ten thousand "Wide-Awakes" were present, at the ceremony, armed ready for close conflict, should a resort to arms become necessary. A knowledge of this, together with the imposing disposition of the military, under immediate command of Generals Scott and Wool, served to render the order of the occasion exceedingly satisfactory. The President's voice reached to the outermost rim of the immense assembly, so commanding were its tones. The Address, as pronounced, and sent upon the wings of the telegraph to all parts of the country, was as follows:

At a quarter past one the President and President-elect having been ushered into the Senate Chamber-where their appearance was waited for by the Senate, House of Representatives, Foreign Ministers, Judges of the Supreme Court, &c.—the procession immediately formed and passed to the east front of the Capitol. A vast crowd was in attendance, composed of persons gathered from all sections of the country. The President-elect, stepping forward to the prominent position assigned him, delivered his Inaugural Ad


Mr. Lincoln's Inaug

ural Address.

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UNITED STATES: "In compliance with a custom as old as the Government itself, I appear before you to address you briefly, and to take in your presence the oath prescribed by the Constitution of the United States to be taken by the President before he enters on the execution of his office. I do not consider it necessary at present for me to discuss those matters of administration about which there is no special anxiety or excitement.

Apprehension seems to exist among the people of the Southern States that by the accession of a Republican Administration, their property, and their peace and personal security, are to be endangered. There has never been any reasonable cause for such apprehension. Indeed, the most ample evidence to the contrary has all the while existed, and been open to their inspection. It is found in nearly all the published speeches of him who now addresses you. I do but quote from one of those speeches when I declare that 'I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of Slavery in the States where it exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so.' who nominated and elected me did so with a full knowledge that I had made this and many similar declarations, and had never recanted them. And, more than this; they placed in the platform for my acceptance, and as a law to themselves and to me, the clear and emphatic resolution which I now read:


Resolved, That the maintenance inviolate of the rights of the States, and especially the right of each State to order and control its own domestic institutions according to its own judgment exclusively, is essential to that balance of power on which the perfection and endurance of our political fabric depend, and we denounce the lawless invasion by armed force of the soil of any State or Territory, no matter under what pretext, as among the gravest of crimes.'

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"It is scarcely questioned that this provision was intended, by those who made it, for the reclamation of what we call 'fugitive slaves' and the intention of the law-giver is the law. All members of Congress swear their support to the whole Constitution; to this provision as well as any other. To the proposition, then, that slaves whose cases come within the terms of this clause 'shall be delivered up,' their oaths are unanimous. Now, if they would make the effort, in good temper, could they not, with nearly equal unanimity, frame and pass a law by means of which to keep good that unanimous oath? some difference of opinion whether this clause should be enforced by National or by State authority; but, surely, that difference is not a very material one. If the slave is to be surrendered, it can be of but little consequence to him or to others, by which Should any one, in any case, authority it is done.

There is

be content that his oath shall go unkept on a merely unsubstantial controversy as to how it shall be kept?

Again, in any law upon this subject, ought not all the safeguards of liberty known in the civilized and humane jurisprudence to be introduced, so that a free man be not, in any case, surrendered as a slave? And might it not be well, at the same time, to provide by law for the enforcement of that clause in the Constitution which guarantees that 'the citizens of each State shall be entitled to all the privi leges and immunities of citizens in the several States?' I take the official oath to-day with no mental reservations, and with no purpose to construe the Constitution or laws by any hypercritical rules; and, while I do not choose now to specify particular acts of Congress as proper to be enforced, I do suggest that it will be much safer for all, both in official and private stations, to conform to and abide by all those acts which stand unrepealed, than to violate any of them, trusting to find impunity in having them held to be unconstitutional.'

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"I now reiterate these sentiments; and, in doing so, only press upon the public attention the most conclusive evidence of which the case is susceptible, that the property, peace, and security of no section "It is seventy-two years since the first inauguraare to be in any wise endangered by the now incoming Administration. I add, too, that all the protection of a President under our National Constitution. tion which, consistently with the Constitution and the laws, can be given, will be cheerfully given to all the States when lawfully demanded, for whatever cause, as cheerfully to one section as to another.


“There is much controversy about the delivering of fugitives from service or labor. The clause I now read is as plainly written in the Constitution as any other of its provisions:

"No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such

During that period fifteen different and very distinguished citizens have in succession administered the Executive branch of the Government. They have conducted it through many perils, and, generally, with great success. Yet, with all this scope for precedent, I now enter upon the same task for the brief Constitutional term of four years, under great and peculiar difficulty. A disruption of the Federal Union, heretofore only menaced, is now formidably attempted.

"I hold that, in contemplation of universal law

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