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In its references to the manners and habits of the people, the Prem Sagur shews how unchanging they have been amidst the numberless revolutions which have passed over the nation. The herdsmen still “ drive their flocks a field ;” the children still tend them as they did of yore when Krishna gamboled with the enamoured Gopis on the sacred buns. To be sure, poetic fiction has clothed them with attributes which cannot now be found, for we should scarcely now recognize the descendants of the beauteous Radha and Jasuda in the dirty ragged maidens we meet belaboring thick skinned buffaloes with respectable cudgels; but still, there they are, and the village cattle in their charge going to graze ; their habits as unchanged as the course of the Jumna, along whose banks they roam. In spite of the iron grasp of conquerors, the Brahmans have retained the sway over their deluded votaries; and their customs, unlike those of every conquered nation (the Jews alone excepted) have undergone little or no change by the admixture of the habits of their conquerors.

This immutability, however, in the metropolis appears to be giving way; the bulwarks of Hinduism are tottering under the assaults of science ; and there is little doubt but that ere many generations have passed away, Hinduism will be numbered among by-gone superstitions. A spirit of enquiry and infidelity has been raised by education, which cannot be repressed; and the endeavours of the Orthodox, by establishing a College of their own, in which European sciences and Brahmanical tenets are to be inculcated, will only assist the forward movement. A sad phase, however, appears to be in prospect for the educated class thus produced : their old faith and restraints will be removed and no other check substituted. We know how slow the growth of practical personal Christianity is with ourselves under all the advantages of early tuition and the restraints of a Christian country. What then can we expect from a race emancipated from Hinduism, as this class is fast becoming, and restrained by no moral or superstitious checks, their natural bad dispositions inflamed by new and exciting food, and their minds puffed up by the vanity of learning!

Such, however, appears to be a natural step in the history of the Hindus : yet must we not believe that in time (and that perhaps less distant than we imagine) Brahmanism, like the “elegant mythology" of the Greeks, must quail before the brighter lights of the Christian faith? The spirit of enquiry which is now abroad, must do its work; through its means Christianity will find its way into the villages and hamlets; paganism will recoil before it, and hereafter we may see the word restored to its original meaning. Time doubtless must elapse before this consummation can be effected; but in the end the caves of Elora, the temples of Muttra, and all the host of Hindu fanes will share the fate of Diana's temple at Ephesus, or Apollo's shrine at Delphi.

The age in which the Prem Sagur was written is not well ascertained. Ward considers the Hindu literature to have attained its height about two hundred years before the Christain era; the Prem Sagur would most probably be included in the writings of the classic era; but there are many points in it that appear to have originated in traditions derived from the Christian scriptures, which would point out a later date for its origin. We may instance the murder of the tribe of Gud by Kun's order, in the hope of destroying the child by whom (before its birth) it was prophesied that he should fall, and the flight of Bisdeo and the child to Gokul, as in all probability owing their origin to the massacre of the innocents at Bethlehem and our Saviour's flight into Egypt. Krishna's contest with the nag (snake) in the Jumna, his victory over him, and his dancing on his head and leaving the foot mark conspicuous there may appear to point to that most ancient of all prophecies, “He shall bruise his head," as its source; but we content ourselves with throwing out the suggestion for the consideration of others who have more leisure to pursue the task.

The Sakontala or fatal ring has been introduced in an English garb by Sir W. Jones, but the Urdu translation (as far as we recollect, and we are writing from memory not having perused either for many years) differs considerably from it. It occupies a considerable space in the selections-its simplicity and natural descriptions are similar to those in the Prem Sagur—the picture of Draputtee among her maidens tending the shrubs and flowers and playing with the deer-her form pliant as the “ willow of Mujnoon”-is exceedingly poetical and pretty ; but the story, as it may have been the standard, partakes of the uniformity of Hindu tales. In most, a Prince rides out to hunt, and, in the ardour of the chase outstripping his followers, finds himself involved in a thick forest, ignorant of the way to extricate himself; he wanders on till he meets some beauteous maiden, ward or daughter of some holy man dwelling in the deepest shades of the forest-mutual love at first sight, a too yielding fair one and a faithless swain form the next scenes : desertion, shame, flight from home and adventures in her wanderings fill up the next act ; and the story generally concludes by a re-union and happiness to all parties.

Their stories are in general puerile, the events improbable and the catastrophes lamely brought about; and in perusing them we feel much as a person does on reading the Arabian Nights in after life. There is a feeling of utter disappointment in the stories and a wonder how they could possibly have delighted us in childhood—but if the story is put out of mind, and they are read for instruction in the manners of the people, in their tastes and habits of life—then they are full of interest. ing matter. Songs and tales generally give a more faithful picture of the every-day philosophy and habits of a people than the most elaborate description. As the idioms of a language are more visible in the unstudied conversation of the inhabitants than in the writings of the learned, so the habits of thinking and acting peculiar to any people come out more strongly in the easy form of songs and stories than in the formal restraint of a set dissertation.

Our article would run to too great a length were we to add any remarks on the Uclak-i-Hindi, the wars of the birds of the earth and of the waters, or of the Beetal Pucheelee and other extracts contained in these volumes; they will be found amusing and good practice in reading when fluency has been obtained—the eye gets familiarised with the character by reading aloud pages of such stories, and it forms a relaxation from the more laborious process of translating into a foreign language, which we recommend as the main portion of study. We shall conclude the desultory remarks we have made, and which perhaps are already thought too long, with expressing our conviction that the study of the languages introduced by the Government Orders has been of incalculable value to the officers of the army, not only by greatly increasing the amount of knowledge of that kind extant in the profession; but as giving an object of employment to the younger men which has effected a great change in their habits. The habit of application induced by this study has been carried into other branches of knowledge; for a man accustomed to a number of hours and regular employment daily, becomes miserable under prolonged idleness. For his own comfort, therefore he seeks for other studies when he has passed the examination, or perhaps if his fancy takes that turn, pushes on his studies into a familiar acquaintance with more recondite branches of oriental literature. Often it leads him to re-commence his own education, and the long confinement of an Indian day is profitably spent in obtaining an acquaintance with our own standard authors, of whose works he might probably from idleness have lived in ignorance, had it not been for the stimulus given by the study of the Native languages ; and thus to many the “ black classics” have proved the source of introduction to their western brethren of a fairer hue.

The Romanizing and Hellenizing systems : 1. Suggestions for the preparation of a Glossary of Indian

Techanical terms, &c., by M. Crow, uncovenanted Deputy

Collector, fc. Calcutta, 1845. 2. The Bengal Hurkaru, in which are embodied the Bengal

Herald and Calcutta Literary Gazette, May, June, July,

and August, 1845. In the 6th No. of this work, p. 287, we were led, in a note, to remark on the mode of representing oriental terms in Roman letters, as follows :—“ About ten or eleven years ago, an immense discussion was raised in our local press on this very subject. Some of the more elaborate papers, with others on kindred topics, were collected and published in a distinct volume at Serampore. With a few slight modifications the system of Sir W. Jones was all but unanimously adopted in preference to all others ; and the few and unimportant differences which subsequently arose in practice have since been satisfactorily settled, as may be seen, by referring to the Calcutta Christian Observer for August 1842; so that, on this side of India, the question, with most disputants, has been conclusively determined."

Little did we dream, when these sentences were penned, that a disturber of the general peace of ten or eleven years was crouching at the very door. But so it turned out to be. A pamphlet from the pen of Mr. Crow suddenly and unexpectedly made its appearance. In its tone it was altogether belligerent. It bade defiance to all previously existing systems of Romanizing ; it resolved, vi et armis, as it were, to sweep them all away, and substitute itself in their room. A Herculean task this, beyond all debate; and were the execution equal to the intention, long ere now would Mr. Crow's system be standing “alone in its glory” on the evacuated battle field. But this is not the only instance in which the result has proved that blustering is not the same with valour, and that big words are very different from heavy blows. After the fuss and noise of a valorous championship, the author has amply succeeded in proving that innovation is not reform in the sense of improvement-amply succeeded too, by the contrast which he has furnished, in satisfying the advocates of the old system, of the vast superiority of their own over that now proposed to be substituted in its place.

It is not our purpose, on the present occasion, to enter into a detailed comparison of the merits of any of the Romanizing systems. Our sole object is to record historically the leading facts connected with Mr. Crow's recent movement.

In the Bengal Hurkaru of Tuesday, 27th May, appeared a letter, republished from the Catholic Herald, which Mr. Crow had addressed to the Head of his church in Bengal. The letter is well written as to style, and contains many sensible and important remarks. It is however greatly disfigured by being interlarded with sundry inanities and tinctures of Romanism. The whole letter is too long for extraction. The following will suffice as a specimen :To His Grace the Most Reverend the Archbishop, Vicar Apostolic of Bengal,

&c., &c., &c. MY LORD,—Permit me the honour and the pleasure of presenting your Grace with four copies of a pamphlet which contains the substance of some Official Reports submitted by me to the Supreme Government of India, and approved by that high authority for transmission to the Honourable the Court of Directors. Those reports contained certain remarks on the manner of expressing Indian languages in Roman characters—a theme which has engaged the attention of many eminent Orientalists, no less than it has been worked upon by some of the worthy Missionaries employed under the jurisdiction of your Grace. It is therefore a subject in which your Grace cannot but feel a lively interest. But there are other considerations of a more important character and more intimately connected with the sacred ministry of your Grace which must heighten the interest likely to be created by the consideration of this subject.

The great mass of Catholics spread throughout India, to which body numbers are being daily added, is composed principally of people and of nations who understand not the European languages, and to whom religious instruction must necessarily be conveyed in the Vernacular tongue of each Province. The Missionaries employed among these people, although acquainted with the colloquial language of the place, are for the most part unable to read and write with facility in the various Vernacular characters used throughout India. Whilst this is the case with regard to the vernacular characters of India, there is one character, viz. the Roman, no less than one language, viz. the Latin, which is well understood by every Catholic Missionary, be he of whatever nation or located in whatever part of the world. Hence it is evident that the printing of Vernacular Catechisms and other standard rudimental works of Catholic Theology in one universal character must be attended with those great advantages of unity, uniformity, &c., which result from the preservation of our liturgy in one universal language. Most of the arguments used in support of the use of the Latin tongue in the Catholic Church, appear to me to apply with equal force in support of the use of the Roman character for the expression not only of all the Indian languages, but also of every language in the world. This view of the subject is no less extensive than the attempt to reduce it to practice is worthy of the exalted dignity, the influence, the persevering zeal, and the universal desire of doing good, with which Providence has so pentifully blessed your Grace.

The Roman character is now the universal character in which all the languages of Europe, of America, and of all the colonies throughout the world, are expressed. It is, in fact, the grand depository of all modern learning, as well as of Christian Theology. Why then should not the Asiatic languages as well as all other languages pay their tribute to this universal emporium of all modern theology, science, and religion. The work, at least so far as India is concerned, is not impracticable when placed in the hands of the Supreme Government of the country on the one side, and of the head of the Catholic Church of the leading presidency of that Government on the other. The Supreme Government of India has already taken up the cause, and, as it will be seen by Mr. Secretary Davidson's letter, inserted in the introduction of my pamphlet, intends to address the Honorable the Court of Directors on the subject. I have also sent copies of the pamphlet with letters to Mr. Mangles, M. P., to whom I am well known, as well as to several other authorities, who will no doubt cordially support the views it advocates. But in a catholic matter like this, the influence of the Government of India and of some of the authorities in England, must rank as much below the influence of the head of the Catholic Church of Bengal as the efforts of the British Government must fall short of the influence of the Supreme Head of the whole Catholic Church. It is therefore that I solicit the continuance and support of your Grace to the gigantic effort of ultimately diffusing the use of the Roman characters for the expression of all Asiatic languages to the same extent as those characters are now used for the expression of all European languages. The character of all Europe being now the same, how easy it is to translate information from any one of the European languages to another; and were the same Roman characters to be used by the Asiatic nations, would it not be equally easy to remove many of the deep-rooted prejudices which these nations entertain against the Christian Religion and its Ministers? The Roman character having once become familiar to these people as the vehicle of their Vernacular literature, the reading, if not the knowledge of the Latin tongue, the legitimate language of the Catholic Church diffused throughout the world, would naturally follow and command their respect and veneration. This would certainly be a great step in the advancement of these people towards Catholic Faith. It is a circumstance worthy of consideration that, whilst the Roman Religion is the only religion which can lay claim to Catholieity, the Roman character should already be the universal character of at least three-fourths of the civilized world. It is also remarkable that this Roman Catholic character should receive the suf

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