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PLAN. The reigne of Philip, king of Macedon, and Alexander his

son, contain the space of 36 years ; the reign of the foriner including 24, and that of the latter 12. They extend from the first year of the 105th Olympiad, or the year of the world 3644, to the first year of the 114th Olympiad,

which answers to the year of the world 3650. · The kings who reigned during that time in Persia were

Artaxerxes, Ochus, Arses, and Darius Codomanus. The Persian Empire exfiired with the last. We knoro not any thing concerning the transactions of the

Jews during these 36 years, except what we are told by Josephus, book xi. chap 7. and 8 of his antiquities of the Jews, under the high priests John, or Johanon, and Jaddus. These will be mentioned in the course of this his

tory, with which that of the Jews is intermixed. The above-mentioned space of 36 years, with respect to the

Roman history, extends from the 393d to the 429th year from the foundation of Rome. The great men who made the most conspicuous figure among the Romans during that space of time, were Apfius Claudius, the dictator, T. Quinctius Capitotimus, lit. Manlius Torquatus, L. Pafiirius Cursor, M. Valerius Corvinus, Q. Fabius Max. imus, and the two Decii, who devoted themsclves to death for the sake of their country.


CONQUESTS. THE BIRTH OF ALEXANDER, ACEDON was an hereditary kingdom, situated in an

on tains of Thessaly : on the east by Baotia and Pieria, on the west by the Lyncestes, and on the north by Mygdonia and Pelagonia ; but after Philip had conquered part of Thrace and Illyrium, this kingdom extended from the Adriatic sea


to the river Strymon. Edessa was at first the capital of it but afterwards resigned that honour to Pella, famous for giving birth to Philip and Alexander.

Philip, whose history we are going to write, was the son of Amyntas II. who is reckoned the 16th king of Macedon from Caranus, who had founded that kingdom about 4.30 years before, that is, Anno Mundi 3212, and before Christ 794. The history of all these monarchis is sufficiently obscure, and includes little more than several wars with the IIyrians, the Thracians, and cther neighbouring people.

The kings of Macedon pretended to descend from Hercu. les, by Caranus, and consequently to have been Greeks originally. Notwithstanding this, Demosthenes often styles them barbarians, especially in his invectives against Philip. The Greeks indeed gave this name to all other nations, without excepting the Macedonians. *Alexander king of Macedon, in the reign of Xerxes, was excluded, upon pretence of his being a barbarian, from the Olympic games; and was not ad. mitted to share in them till after having proved his being orig. inally descended from Argos. The above-mentioned Alex ander, when he went over from the Persian camp to that of the Greeks, in order to acquaint the latter that Mardonius was determined to charge them by surprise at day-break, justified his perfidy by his

ancient descent, which he decları ed to be from the Greeks.

The ancient kings of Macedon did not think it beneath themselves to live at different times under the protection of the Athenians, Thebans, and Spartans, changing their alliances as it suited their interest. Of this we have several instances in Thucydides. One of them named Perdiccas, with whom the Athenians were dissatisfied, became their tributary; which continued from their settling a colony in Amphipolis, under Agnon, the son of Nicias, about 48 years before the Peloponnesian war, till Brašidas, the Lacedemo nian general, about the fifth or sixth yeal of that war, raised that whole province against them, and drove them from the frontiers of Macedon.

We shall soon see this Macedon, which formerly had paid tribute to Athens, become under Philip the Arbiter of Greece ; and triumph under Alexander, over all the forces of Asia,

Amyntast, father of Philip, began to reign the third year of the 96th Olympiad. Having, the very year after, been warmly attacked by the Illyrians, and dispossesed of a great

Herod. 1. v. c. 22.

+ Idem. I. ix. c. 44. * A. M, 3806, Ant. l. C. 398. Diod, 1. siv. p. 307. 341.

part of his kingdom, which he thought it scarce possible for him ever to recover again, he addressed himself to the Olynthians ; and in order to engage them the more firmly in his interest, he had given up to them a considerable tract of land in the neighborhood of their city. Accoruling to some authors, Argæus, who was of the blood royal, being supported by the Athenians, and taking advantage of the troubles which broke out in Macedonia, reigned there two years.* Amyntas was restored to the throne by the Thessa. lians, upon which he was desirous of resuming the possession of the lands, which nothing but the ill situation of his affairs had obliged him to resign to the Olynthians. This occasioned a war; but Amynthas not being strong enough to make head singly against so powerful a people, the Greeks, and theAthenians in particular,sent

him succours,and enabled him to weaken the power of the Olynthians, who threaten. ed him with a total and impending ruin. It was then that Amyntas, in an assembly of the Greeks, to which he had sent a deputation, engaged to unite with them to enable the Athenians to possess themselves of Amphipolis, declaring that this city belonged to the last mentioned people. This strong alliance was continued after his death with queen Eurydice, his widow, as we shall soon see.

Philip, one of the sons of Amyntas, was born the same year this monarch declared war against the Olynthians. This Philip was father of Alexander the Great; for we cannot distinguish him better, than by calling him the father of such a son, as $Cicero observes of the father of Cato of Utica,

||Amyntas died, after having reigned 24 years. He left three legitimate children, whom Eurydice had brought him, viz. Alexander, Perdiccas, and Philip, and a natural son named Ptolemy.

Alexander succeeded his father as eldest son, In the very beginning of his reign he was engaged in a sharp war against the Illyrians, neighbors to, and pepetual enemies of Macedonia. Concluding afterwards a peace with them, he put Philip, his younger brother, an infant, into their hands, by way of hostage, who was soon sent back to him. Alex. ander reigned but one year.

* A. M. 3621. Ant. J. C. 383. + Æschin. de Fals. Legat. p. 400. | A.M. 3521. Ant. J. C. 383.

M. Cato sententiam dixit bujus nostri Catonis pater, Ut enim cæteri cx patribus, sic hic, qui lumen illud progenuit, ex filio est nominandus. De Offic. 1. iii. n. 66.

A. M. 3629. Ant J. C. 375. Diod. p. 373. Justin. I. vii. c iv.

* The crown now belonged by right to Perdiccas his brother, who was become eldest by his death ; but Pausanias, a prince of the blood royal, who had been exiled, disputed it with him, and was supported by a great number of Macedonians. He began by seizing some fortresses. Happily for the new king, Iplrcrates was then in that country, whither the Athenians had sent him with a small fleet; not to besiege Amphipolis as yet, but only to take a view of the place and make the necessary preparations for besieging it. Eurydice hearing of his arrival, desired to see him, intending to request his assistance against Pausanias. When he was come into the palace, and had seated himself, the afflicted queen, the better to excite his compassion, takes her two children, Perdiccas and Philipt, and sets the former in the arms, and the latter on the knees of Iphicrates ; she then spoke thus to him : “Remember, Iphicrates, that Amyntas, «the father of these unhappy orphans, had always a love * for your country, and adopted you for his son. This “ double tie lays you under a double obligation. The amity 6 which that king entertained for Athens, requires that you " should acknowledge us publicly for your friends ; and the " tenderness which that father had for your person, claims “ from you the heart of a brother to these children." Ipha icrates, moved with this sight and discourse, expelled the usurper, and restored the lawful sovereign.

Perdiccas & did not long continue in tranquillity. A new enemy, more formidable than the first, soon invaded his repose : this was Ptolemy his brother, natural son of Amyntas, as was before observed. He might possibly be the eldest son, and claim the crown as such. The two brothers referred the decision of their claim to Pelopidas, general of the Thebans, more revered for his probity than his valour. Pelopidas determined in favour of Perdiccas; and having judged it necessary to take pledges on both sides, in order to oblige the two competitors to observe the articles of the treaty accepted by them among other hostages, he carried Philip with hiin to 'Thebes,|| where he resided several years. He was then ten years of age. Eurydice, at hier leaving this much loved son, earnestly besouglit Pelopidas to precure him an education worthy of his birth, and of the city to which he was going an hostage. Pelopidas placed him with Epaminondas, who had a celebrated Pythagorean philosepher in his house for the education of his son. Philip improved greatly by the instructions of his preceptor, and much more by those of Epaminondas, under whom he undoubtedly made some campaigns, though no mention is made of this, He could not possibly have had a more excellent master, whether for war or the conduct of life ; for this illustrious Theban was at the same time a great philosopher, that is to say, a wise and virtuous man, and a great commander, as well as a great statesman. Philip was very proud of being his pupil, and proposed him as a model to himself ; most happy could he have copied him periect. ly ! Perhaps t.e borrowed from Epaminondas hus activity in war, and his promptitude in improving occasions, which however formed but a very inconsiderable part of the merit of this illustrious personage : but with regard to his temperance, his justice, his disinterestedness, his sincerity, his magnanimity, his clemency, which rendered him truly great, these were virtues which Philip had not received fron nature, and did not acquire by imitation.

* A. M. 3630. Ant. J. C. 375. Esch. de Fals. Legat, p. 399, 4001 † Philip was not then less than nine years old.

Plutarch in Pelop. p. 292.

Plutarch supposes that it was with Alexander that Ptolemy disputed the empire, which cannot be made to agree with the relation of Æschines, who, being his cotemporary, is more worthy of credit. I therefore thought pro. per to substitute Perdiccas instead of Alexander.

9 Thebis trienn'o obses habitus, prima pueritiæ rudimenta in urbe scvcritstix antiqua, et in domo Epaminondæ summi et philosophi et imperatoris, de posuit. Justin. I. vii. 6. S. Pivilis lived in 'Thebes not only three, but niac or ten years

The Thebans did not know tha: they were then forming and educating the most dangerous enemy of Greece. *lin ter Philip had spent nine or ten years in their city, the news of a revolution in Macedon made him resolve to leave Thebes clandestinely. Accordingly he steals a way, makes the utmost expedition, and finds the Macedonians greatly surprised at having lost their king Perdiccas, who had been killed in a great battle by the Illyrians, but much more so to find they had as many enemies as neighbours. The Illv- rians were on the point of returning into the kingdom with a greater force ; the Peonians infested it with perpetual iacursions ; the Thracians were determined to plače Pausanias on the throne, who had not abandoned his pretensions ; and the Athenians were bringing Argæns, whom Mantias their general was ordered to support with a strong fleet and a considerable body of troops. Macedonia at that time want. ed a prince of years to govern, and had only a child, Amyntas, the son of Perdiccas, and lawful heir of the crown. Philip governed the kingdom for some time by the title of guarda jan to the prince ; but the subjects, justly alarmed, deposed the vephew in favour of the uncle ;, and instead of the heir

* Divd. 1, svi, P, 407. Justin. 1, vii, c, 5,

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