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eminence; not to mention that the flower of the Persian horse were drawn together in this place ; and that Memnon, in concert with his sots, commanded there. The Macedonians therefore, at first gave ground, after having lost the first ranks, which made a vigorous defence. Alexander, who had followed them close, and reinforced them with his Best troops, heads them himself, animates them by his presence, pushes tlre Persians; and routs them ;, upon which the whole army follow after, cross the river, and attack the enemy on all sides.
Alexander first charged the thickest part of the enemy's horse, in which the generals fought. He himself was para ticularly conspicuous by his shield, and the plunue of feathers that overshadowed his helmet, or the two sides, of which there rose two wings, as it were, of a great length, and so vastly white; that they dazzled the eyes of the beholder, The charge was very furious about his person ; and thoughi only horse engaged, they fought like foot, man to man, with, out giving way on either side, every one striving to repulse his adversary, and gain ground of him.“ Spithrobates, lieu tenant-governor of Topia, and son-in-law to Darius, distin guished
himself above the restof the generals by his superior bravery. Being surrounded by forty, Persian lords, all of then his relations; of experienced valour, and who never moved from his side, he carried terror wherever he moved. Alexander; observing in how gallant a mánner he signalised himself, clapped, spurs to his horse; and advanred towards him. Immediately they engage, and each having thrown a javelin; woimded the other slightly. Spitħrobates falts furiously sword in hand upon Alexander, who being prepared for him, thrusts his pike into his face, md laid him dead at his feet? At that very moment, Rosaces, brother to that nobleman, charginig bim on the sicke, gives him so furious a blow on the head with his battle-ax, that he Beat off his plume, but went no deeper than the hair. Ashe was going to repeat his blow on the head, which
now appeared through his fractured helmet, Clitus cuts off Rosaces hand with one stroke of his scimitar, and by that means saved his sorereign's life. The danger to which Alexander had been exposed greatly animated the courage of his soldiers, who now perfornt wonders. The Persians in the centre of horse, upon whom the Highe-armed troops, who had beeis
. posted in the intervals of the horse, poured a perpetual discharge of darts, being unable to sustain any longer the attack of the Macedonians, who struck them all in the face, the
wings Werte immediately brake and put to flight. Alexander pursue them long, but turned abont immediately to charge the foot,
These, says the historian, at first stood their ground, which was owing to the surprise they were seized with, rather than bravery. But when they saw themselves attacked at the same time by the cavalry, and the Macedonian phalanx, which had crossed the river, and that the battalions were now engaged, those of the Persians did not make either a Iong or a vigorous resistance, and were soon put to flight, the Grecian infantry in Darius's service excepted. This body of foot retiring to a hill, demanded a promise from Alexanderto let them march away unmolested; but following the dictates of his wrath, rather than those of reason, he rushed into the midst of this body of foot, and presently lost his horse (not Bucephalus), who was killed with the thrust of à sword. The battle was so hot round him, that most of the Macedonians who lost their lives on this occasion fell here; for they fought against a body of men who were well discieplined, had been inured to war, and fought in despair. They were all cut to pieces, 2000 excepted, who were tam. ken prisoners,
A great number of the chief Persian commanders lay dead on the spot. Arsites filed into Phrygia, where it is said he laid violent hands upon himself, for having been the cause that the battle was fought, It would have been more glorious for him had he died in the field. 20,000 foot, and. 2500 horse were killed in this engagement, on the side of the barbarians, and of the Macedonians, 25. of the royal horse were killed at the first attack. Alexander ordered Lysippus to make their statues in brass, all which were set up in', a city of Macedon called Dia, in honour of them, from whence they were many years after carried to Romne by Q. Metellus. About 60 of the other horse were killed ; and near 30 foot, who, the next day, were all laid, with their arms and equip age, in one grave; and the king granted an-exemption to their fathers and children from every kind of tribute and service.
He also took the utmost care.of the wounded, visited them, and saw their wounds dressed. He enquired very particuJarly into their adventures, and.permitted every one of them. to relate his actions in the battle, and boast his bravery. A prince gains many advantages by such a familiarity and conedescension. He also granted the rites of sepulture to the grandees of Persia, and did not even refuse it to such Greeks as died in the Persian service, but all those whom he took prisoners he laid in chains, and sent them to work as slaves in Macedonia, for having fought under the barbarian stand-ards against their country, contrary to the express prohibition made by Greece upon that head,
Alexander made it his duty and pleasure to share the hone our of his victory with the Greeks ; and sent particularly to the Athenians 300 shields, being part of the plunder taken from the enemy; and caused the glorious inscription follow ing to be inscribed on the rest of the spoils : "Alexander 6 son of Philip, with the Greeks, the Lacedæmonians ex. “ cepted, gained these spoils from the barbarians who in« habit Asia. A conduct of this kind argues a very un common and amiable greatness of soul in a conqueror, who' generally cannot, without great reluctance, admit others to share in his glory. The greatest part of the gold and silver plate, the purple carpets, and other furniture of the Persian luxury, he sent to his mother.
SÉCTION IV. ALEXANDER CONQUERS THE GREATEST PART OF ASIA
MINOR. DESCRIPTION OF DARIUS' MARCH. The success of the battle of the Granicus had all the happy consequences that could naturally be expected from it, Sardis, which was ma manner the bulwark of the barbarian empire on the side next the sea, suriendered to Alexander, who thereupon gave the citizens their liberty, and permitted them to live after their own laws. Pour days after he arrived at Ephestis, carrying with him those who had been bane ished from thence for being his adherents, and restored its popular form of government. He assigned to the temple of Diana the tributes which were paid to the kings of Persia. He offered a great number of sacrifices to that goddess, sotemnized her mysteries with the utmost pomp, and conducted the ceremony with his whole army drawn up in battle array. The Ephesians had begun to rebuild the temple of Diana, which had been burned the night of Alexander's birth, as was before observed, and the work was now very forward. Dina ocrates, a famous architect, who superintended this edifice, was employed by this king to baild Alexandria in Egypt. Alexander offered to pay the Ephesians all the expences they had already been at, and to furnish the remainder, provided they would inscribe the temple only with his name ; for he was fond, or rather insatiable, of every kind of glory. The inhabitants of Ephesus not being willing to consent to it, and however afraid to refuse him that honour openly, had recourse to an artful flattery for an evasion. They told him
: *A. M. 3671. Ant. J. C. 333. Diod. l. xvii. P. 503---518 Arrian, I. i. D. 36, 59, c. 1. ii. p. 60-..66. Plut. in Alex. p. 6731 674. & Curt. I. iii. c. 8.-3. Judin, h zi, & 70 & Scrab, bu ziv, p. 640. Solia, c, xha
that it was inconsistent for one god to erece monuments to a. mother. Before he left Ephesus, the deputies of the cities of
Tvallis and Atagnesia waited upon hin with the keys of Xosé plares.
He afterwards marched to-Miletus; whiclr city, flattered with the hopes of a sudden and powerful support, shut their gades against hits and indeeď the Persian Aleet, which was very considerable; made a shown as if it would succour that city ; but after Iraving made several fruitless attempts to engage' that of the enemy, it was foreed to sail away. Mem non hud sliut luimself up in this fortress, with a great number of his soldiers, who had escaped from the battle, and was determined to make a good defencé. Alexander, who would not lose a moment's time,' attacked it, and planted scaling-ladders on all sides. The sealade was carried on with vigour, and opposed with no less intrepidity, though Alexander sent fresh troops to relieve one another without the least intermission, and thuis: lasted several days. At last, finding his soldiers were every where repulsed, and that the city was provided with every: thing for a long siege, he planted all his inachines against it, wade a great number of Treaches, and whenever these were
attacked, a new ycalade was attempted. The besieged, after sustaining an these efforts with prodigious: bravery, capitulated, for fear of be: ing taken by storm Alexander treated all the Milesians with the utmost humanity, and sold all the foreigners who were found in it. The historians do not make any mention of Meminon, but we may reasonably suppose that he marched out with the garrison. . *Alexanderzseeiag that the enemy's fleet had sailed away resolved to layrup his own, the expence of it being too great, dot ta niention that he wanted money for things of greater importance. Some historians are even of opinion, that as he was upon the point of coming to a battle with Darius, which was to deterıniue the fate of the two empires, he was resolvad to deprive his soldiers of all hopes of retreat; and to beare, them no. other resource than that of victory. He there fore retained such vessels only of his flest as were absolutely necessary for transporting the military engines and a smalt number of other galleysa
After possessing himself of Miletus, he marched into a tia, in order to lay siege to Halicarnassus. This sity was of prodigious difficult access from its happy situation, and had been strongly fortified. Besides, Memnon, the ablest as well as the: must valianti of allDarius' commanders, had got into it with a body of choice soldiers, with design to signalize his
A, M, 3671. Ant, J. C. 3331
courage, and fidelity for his sovereign. He accordingly phialtes, another general of great merit. Whatever could be expected fi'om the most intrepid bravery, and the most consummate knowledge in the science of war, was conspi cuous on both sides on this occasion. After the besiegers had, with incredible labour, filled up part of the ditches, and brought their engines near the walls, they had the grief to see their works demolished in an instant, and thein engines set on fire, by the frequent vigorous
sallies of the besieged. After beating down part of a wall with their battering-tams, they were astonished to see a new one behind it; which was so sudden; that it seemed to rise out of the ground. The ato Lack of these walls, which were built in a senticircular form, destroyed a prodigigus number of men; because the besieged, from the top of the towers
that were raised on the several sides, took the energy in fank. It was eviciently seen at this siege, that the strongest fortificating of a city are the Yalour and courage of its defendens. The siege wasbeld out so long, and attended with such surprising difficulties, as would have dişcouraged any warrior but an Alexander; yet his troops were animated by the yiew of dangers, and their patience as at last spccessful. Memnon, dinding it impossible for him to hold out any longer, was forced to abandon the city. As the sea was open to him, after having put a strong garrison avto the sitadel, which was well stored with provisions, he tools, with him the surviving inhabitants, with all their riches, angl.conveyed them into the island of Cos, which was not far from Halicarnassus, Alexander did not think proper to besiege the citadel, it being
of little impartance after the city was destroyed, which he demolished to the very foundatiosis; He left it, after having encompass sed it with strong walls, and left some goed troops in the country.
After the death of Artemisia,queen of Caria, Igieus ber brother reigned in her stead. The sceptre devolved upon Ada, sister and wife of Ierieus, according to the custom of. the country; but she was dethroned by Pexodorus, to whom. succeeded, hy Darius' command, Orontobates his son-ine law. Ada, however, was still possessed of a fortress called. Alindo, the keys of which she had carried to Alexander the instant she heard of his arrival in Caria,
and had adopted him for her son. The king was so far from contemning tliis. honour, that he left her the quiet possession of her own city ; and, after having taken Halicarnassus, as he by that means was master of the whole
country, he restored the gova-ernment of it to Ada.