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much resembling those of women, and more remarkable for the vain pomp of their dress than the glitter of their arms.

Those called the * doryphori came after ; they carried the king's cloak, and walked before his chariot, in which he seemed to sit as on a high throne. This chariot was enriched on both sides with images of the gods in gold and silver; and from the middle of the yoke, which was covered with jewels, rose two statues a cubit in height, the one representing war, the other peace, having a golden eagle between them, with wings extended, as ready to take its flight, · But nothing could equal the magnificence of the king. He was clothed in a vest of purple, striped with silver, and over it a long robe glittering all over with gold and precious stones, that represented two falcons rushing from the clouds, and pecking at one another. Around his waist he wore á † golden girdle, after the manner of women, wlience his scimitar hung, the scabbard of which flamed all with gems. On his head he wore a tiara or mitre, round which was a fillet of blue mixed with white.

On each side of him walked 200 of his nearest relations, followed by 10,000 pikemen, whose pikes were adorned with silver, and tipped with gold; and lastly, 30,000 infantry, who composed the rear-guard. These were followed by the king's horses, 400 in number, all which were led.

About 100, or 120 paces from thence, came Sysigambis, Darius's mother, seated on a chariot, and his corisort on another, with the several females attendants of both queens riding on horseback. Afterwards came 15 large chariots, in which were the king's children, and those who had the care of their education, with a band of eunuchs, who are to this day in great esteem with those nations. Then marched the concubines, to the number of 360, in the equipage of queens, followed by 600 mules and 300 camels, which carried the king's treasure, and were guarded by a great body of archers.

After these came the wives of the crown-officers, and of the greatest lords of the court; then the sutlers, and servants of the army, seated also in chariots.

In the rear were a body of light armed troops, with their commanders, who closed the whole march,

Would not the reader believe that he had been reading the description of a tournament, not the march of an army? Could he imagine that princes of the least reason would have been so stupid, as to incorporate with their forces so cumbersome a train of women, princesses, concubines, eu

These were guàrdi who carried a half pike. +Cdaria,

nuchs, and domestics of both sexes ? But the custom of the country was reason sufficient. Darius, at the head of 600,000 men, and surrounded with this mighty pomp, prepared for Hiinself only, fancied he was great, and rose in the idea he had formed of himself. Yet should we reduce him to his just proportion and his personal worth, how little would he appear ! But he is not the only one in this way of thinking, and of whom we may form the same judgment. But it is time for us to bring the two monarchs to blows,


AT ISSUS. CONSEQUENCES OF THAT VICTORY. For the clearer understanding of Alexander's march*, and that of Darius, and the better fixing the situation of the spot where the second battle was fought, we must distinguish three straits or passes. The first of these is immer diately at the descent from mount Taurus, in the way to the city of Tarsus, through which, as has been already seen, Alexander marched, from Cappadocia into Cilicia. The second is the pass of Cilicia or Syria; leading from Cilicia into Syria; and the third is the pass of Amanus, so called from that mountain. This pass, which leads into Cins licia from Assyria, is much higher than the pass of Syria, northward.

Alexander had detached Parmenio with part of the army to seize the pass of Syria, in order to secure, it for his march. As for himself, after marching from Farsus, he' arrived the next day at Anchiala, a city which Sardanas palus is said to have built. His-tomb was still to be seen in that city with this inscription : "Sardanapalus built Ave "chiala and Tarsus in one day; go passenger, eat, drink, * and rejoice, for the rest is nothing. From thence he came to Solæ, where he offered sacrifices to Æsculapiusy m gratitude for the recovery of his health. Alexander himé self headed the ceremony with lighted tapers, followed by the whole army, and he there solemnised games ; after which he returned to Tarsus, Having commanded Philotas, to march the cavalry through the plains of Aleius, towards the river Pyramus, he himself went with the infantry and

*A. M. 3672.-Ant. J. C. 332. + Diod. , xvii, P, 5 578- Arrian, ds. in 8,667782-Plezig Aler, 675,676-Q. Cute, bailig Sy hipno Juppia. lykke, %

his life guard to Magarsus, whence he arrived at Maitos, and afterwards at Castabala. Advice had been brought him, that Darius, with his whole army, was encamped at Sochus in Assyria, two days journey from Cilicia. There Alexander held a council of war upon that news; when all his generals and officers entreating him to march too wards Darius, he set out the next day to give him battle. Parménio had taken the little city of Issus, and after possessing himself of the pass of Syria, had left a body of forces to secère it. The king left the sick in Issus, marched his whole army through the pass, and encamped near the city of Myriandrus, where the badness of the weather obliged him to halt.

In the mean time Darius was in the plains of Assyria, of għcat extent. The Grecian commanders who were in his service, and formed the chief strength of his army, advised him to wait there the coming up of the enemy; for, besides that this spot was open on all sides, and very advantageous for his horse, it was spacious enough to contain his vastly numerous host, with all the baggage and other things belonging to the army. However, if he should not approve of this counsel, they then advised him to separate this multitude, and select such only as were the flower of his troops ; and consequently not' venture his whole army upon a single battle, which perhaps might be decisive. However, the courtiers, with whom the courts of monarchs, as Arrian observes, for ever abound, called these Greeks' an unfaithful nation, and venal wretches ; and hinted to Darius, that the only motive of their counselling the king to divide bis troops was, that, after they should once be separated from the rest, they might have an easier opportunity of delivering up into the enemy's hands whatever might be in their power ; that the safest waỹ would be, to surround them with the whole army, and cut them to pieces, as an illustri. ous example of the punishment due to traitors. This proposal was vastly shocking to Darius, who was naturally of a very mild and humane disposition. He therefore answered, Is that he was far from ever designing to commit so horrible

a crimé , that should he be guilty of it, no nation would " afterwards give the least credit to his promises : that it

was never known that a person had been put to death for giving imprudent counsèt* ; that no man would ever ven"ture to give his opinion, if it were attended with such dans ger, a circumstance that would be of the most fatal con

Neminem folidum consiliom capitic Juere debere ; desuturos eQim qui suaderedl, si suasiese periculum esset.' Curt.

sequences to princes.” He then thanked the Greeks for their zeal and good-will, and condescended to lay before them the reasons which prompted him not to follow their advice.

The courtiers had persuaded Darius, that Alexander's long delay in coming up with them was a proof and an effect of the terror with which the approach of the Persian army had filled him (for they had not heard a word of his indis, position); that fortune, merely for their sake, had led Alex, ander into straits and narrow passes, whence it would be impossible for him to get out, in case they should fall upon him immediately; that they ought to seize this favourable opportunity, for fear the enemy should ily, by which means Alexander would escape them. Upon this, it was resolved in council, that the army should march in search of him ; the gods, says an historian, * blinding the eyes of that prince, that he might rush down the precipice they had prepared for him, and thereby make way for the destruction of the Persian monarchy,

Darius having sent his treasure, with his most precious moveables, to Damascus, a city of Syria, underasmall convoy, marched the main body of his army towards Cilicia, and en, tered it by the pass of Amanus, which lies far above the pase ses of Syria. His queen and mother, with the princesses his daughters, and the little prince his son, followed the army, according to the custom of the Persians, but were in the camp during the battle. When he had adyanced a little way into Cilicia, from east westward, he turned short towards Issus, not knowing that Alexander was behind; for he had been assured that this prince fled before him, and was retired in great disorder into Syria ; and therefore Darius was now considering how he might best pursue him. He barbarously put to death all the sick who were then in the city of Issus, a few soldiers excepted, whom he dismissed, after making them view eyery part of his camp, in order that they might be spectators of the prodigious multitude of his forces. These soldiers accordingly brought Alexander word of Darjus' approach, which he could scarce believe, from its great im, probability, though there was nothing he desired more ear, nestly. But he himself was soon an eye-witness to the truth of it, upon which he began to think seriously of preparing for battle.

Alexander fearing, as the barbarians were so numerous, that they would attack him in his camp, fortified it" withi ditutes and palisadoes, discovering an incredible joy to see

* Arriag.

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his desire fulfilled, which was, to engage in those passes, whither the gods seemed to have led Darius expressly, to deliver him into his hands.

And, indeed, this spot of ground, which was but wide enough for a small army to act and move at liberty in, 'reduced, in some measure, the two armies to an equality. By this means the Macedonians had space sufficient to employ their whole army; whereas the Persians had not room for the twentieth part of theirs.

Nevertheless Alexander, as frequently happens to the grcatest captains, felt some emotion when he saw that he was going to hazard all at one blow. The more fortune had favoured him hitherto, the more he now dreaded her frowns; the moment approaching which was to determine his fate. But, on the other side, lis courage revived from the reflection, that the rewards of his toils exceeded the dangers of them; and though he was uncertain with regard to the vic: tory, he at least hoped to die gloriously, and like Alexander. However, he did not divulge these thoughts to any one, well knowing, that, upon the approach of a battle, a general ought not to discover the least marks of sadness or perplexity : and that the troops should read nothing but resolution and intrepidity in the countenance of their commander.

Having made his soldiers refresh themselves, and ordered them to be ready for the third watch of the night, which began at twelve, lie went * to the top of a mountain, and there, by torch-light, sacrificed, after the manner of his country, to the gods of the place. As soon as the signal was given, his army, whicli was ready to march and fight, being commanded to make greater speed, arrived by day break at the seve. ral posts assigned them: but now the couriers bringing word that Darius was not above 30 furlongs from them, the king caused his ariny to halt, and then drew it up in battle-array. The peasants in the greatest terror came also and acquaintec Dárius with the arrival of the enemy, which he would not at first believe, imagining, as we have observed, that Alexander fled before him, and endeavoured to escape. This riews threw his troops into the utmost confusion, who in that surprise ran to their arms with great precipitation and dise order.

The spot where the battle was fought, lay near the city of Issus, which the mountains bounded on one side, and the sea on -tlie other. The plain, that was situated between them hóth, must have been considerably broad, as the two armies encamped in it ; -and I before observed, that Darius' was

* The ancicots weed le offer up their sacrifices upon eminenccs.

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