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"ters resembled them. They were, says Plutarc!), in Alex. ander's camp, not as in that of an enemy, but as in a sacred temple, and a sanctuary assigned for the assy him of chasti. ty, in which all the princesses lived so retired that they were not seen by any person, nor did any one dare to approach their apartments.

We even find, that after the first visit above mentioned, which was a respectful and ceremonious one, Alexander, to avoid exposing himself to the dangers of human frailty, took a solemn resolution never to visit Darius' queen any more. He himself informs us of this memorable circumstance in a letter, wrote by him to Parmenio, in which he commanded him to put to death certain Macedonians, who had forced the wives of some foreign soldiers. In this letter the following words were read : “ For, as to myself, it will be found " that I neither saw, nor would see, the wife of Darius ; and "did not suffer any person to speak of her beauty before me." We are to remember that Alexander was young, victori. ous, and free, that is, not engaged in marriage, as has been observed of the first Scipio on a like occasiont. “ Et juvenis, et celebs et victor,

To conclude, he treated these princesses with such hu. manity, that nothing but the reniembrance that they were captives could have made them sensible of their calamity ; and of all the advantages they possessed before, nothing was wanting with regard to Alexander, but that trust and confidence, which no one can repose in an enemy, how kindly som ever he behaves.


SIEGE TO TYRE, WHICH HE TAKES BY STORM... ALEXANDER | set out towards Syria, after having conse. crated three altars on the river Pinarius, the first to Jupiter, the second to Hercules, and the third to Minerva, as so many monuments of his victory. He had sent Parmenio to Da. mascus, in which Darius' treasure was deposited. The gove ernor of the city, betraying his sovereign, from whom he had no further expectations, wrote to Alexander to acquaint him that he was ready to deliver up, into his hands, all the treas. * Plut, in Aler,

| Val. Mar. 1, iv. s, 3. Diod. I. xvii

. p. 317, 318. Arrian. I. ii. p. 83-86. Plut. ia Alcr.

Quiut. Curt, L is a 1. Jascia. I si. 6. sa

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ure and other rich stores of Darius. But being desirous of covering his treason with a specious pretext, he pretended that he was not secure in the city; so caused by day break, all the money and the richest things in it to be put on men's backs, and filed away with the whole, seemingly with intention to secure them, but in reality to deliver them up to the enemy, as lie had eed with Parmenio, who had opened the letter addressed to the king. At the first sight of the forces which this general headed; those wlio carried the burdens, being frighted, threw them down and fled away, as did the soldiers who convoyed them, and the governor himself, who was most terrified. On this occasion immense riches were seen scattered up and down the fields; all the gold and silver designed to pay so great an army ; the splendid equipages of so many great lords and ladies : the golden vases and bridles, magnificent tents, and carriages a: abandoned by their drivers ; in a word, whatever the long prosperity and frugality of so many kings had amassed duro ing many ages, was abandoned to the conqueror.

But the most moring part of this sad scene was to see the wives of the satraps and grandees of Persia, most of whom dragged their little chủldren after them; so much the great. er objects of compassion, as they were less sensible of their misfortune. Among these, were three young princesses, daughters of Ochus, who had reigned before Darius; the widow of this (Schus ; the daughter of Oxathres, brother of Darius ; the wife of Artabazus, the greatest lord of the court, and his son Ilioneus. There also were taken prison ers, the wife and son of Pharnabazus, whom the king had appointed admiral of all the coasts ; three daughters of Mentor ; the wife and son of Memnon, the illustrious general ; insomuch that scirće one noble family in all Persia but shared in this calamity.

There also were found in Damascus the ambassadors of the Grecian cities, particularly those of Lacedemon and Athens, whom Darius thought he had lodged in a safe asylum, when he put them under the protection of that traitor.

Besides money, and plate which was afterwards coined; and amounted to immense sums, 30,000 men, and 7000 beasts laden with baggage, were taken. We find by Parmenio's letter * to Alexander, that he found in Damascus 329 of Da. rius' concubines, all admirably well skilled in music ; and also a multitude of officers, whose business was to regulate and prepare every thing relating to entertainments; such as to make wreaths, to prepare perfumes and essences, to dress

Athen. I, xiii. p. 60%,


„viands, to make pies, and all thirgs in the pastry way, to preside over the wine-cellars, to give out the wine, and such like. There was 492 of these officers-a train worthy of a prince who runs to his destruction !

Darius, who a few hours before was at the head of so mighty and splendid an army, and who came into the field mounted on a chariot, with the pride of a conqueror rather than with the equipage of a warrior, was flying over plains, which, from being before covered with the infinite multitude of his forces, now appeared like a desert or vast solitude. This ill-fated pripce rode swiftly the whole night, accompa. nied by a very few attendants ; for all had not taken the same road, and most of those who accompanied him could hot keep up with him, as he often changed his horses, At last he arrived at + Sochus, where he assembled the remains of his army, which amounted only to 4000 men, including Persians as well as foreigners ; and from hence he made all possible haste to Thapsacus, in order to have the Euphrates between him and Alexander.

In the mean time, Parmenio having carried all the booty into Damascus, the king commanded him to take care of it, and likewise of the captives. Most of the cities of Syria sura rendered at the first approaches of the conqueror. Being arrived at Marathes, he received a letter from Darius, in which he styled himself king, without bestowing that title on Alexander.' He commanded, rather than intreated him, "to ask any sum of money he should think proper by way of

ransom for his mother, his wife, and children. That with regard to their dispute for empire, he might, if he thought proper,decide it in one general battle, to which both parties should bring an equal number of troops ; but that in case

he were still capable of good council, he would adı ise him to rest contented with the kingdom of lis ancestors, and

not invade that of another; that they should henceforward live as good friends and faithful allies ; that he himself

was ready to swear to the observance of these articles, and "to receive Alexander's oath.

This letter, which breathed so unseasonable a pride and haughtiness, exceedingly offended Alexander. He therefore wrote the following answer : “Alexander the king to Da"rius. The ancient Parjus, whose name you assume, in former times entirely ruined the Greeks who inhabit the

coasts of the Hellespont, and the lonians, our ancient colo. "nies. He next crossed the sea at the head of a powerful

+ This city was two or three days journcy from the place where the battle was foughs.

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“army, and carried the war into the very heart of Macedo.
"nia and Greece. After him, Xerxes made another de:
6 seent with a dreadful number of barbarians, in order to
“fight us ; and having been overcome in a naval engage-
« ment, he left, at his retiring, Mardonius in Greece, who
** plundered our cities, and laid waste our plains. But who
" has not heard, that Philip, my father, was assassinated by
si wretches suborned thereto by your partisans, in hopes of a
great reward ! For it is customary with the Persians to
* undertake impious wars; and, when armed in the field, to
* set a price upon the heads of their enemies. And even
"you yourself, though at the head of a vast army, however
* promised a thousand talents to any person who should kill
"me. I therefore only defend myself, and consequently aná
“not the aggressor. And indeed the gods, who always de
clare for the just cause, have favoured my arms; and,
" aided by their protection, I have subjected a great part of
* Asia, and defeated you, Darius, in a pitched battle. How
"ever, though I ought not to grant any request you make,
“ since you have not acted fairly in this war ; nevertheless;
* in case you will appear before me in a supplicating pos-
“ture, I give you my word that I will restore to you, with-
"out any ransom, your mother, your wife and children,
"I will let you see, that I know how to conquer, and to os
siblige the conquered*. If you are afraid of surrendering
“ yourself to me, I now assure you, upon my honour, that
"you may do it without the least danger : But remember
*when you next write to me, that you write not only to à
*king, but to your king." Thersippus was ordered to carry
this letter.

Alexandet, marching from thence into Phoenicia, the citizens of Byblos opened their gates to him. Every one submitted as he advanced; büt no people did this with greater pleasure than the Sidonians. We have seen in what man her Ochus had destroyed their city 18 years before, and put all the inhabitants of it to the sword. 'After he was re turned into Persia, those of tire citizens who, upon account of their traffic, or for some other cause, had been absent and by that means had escaped the massacre, returned thither, and rebuilt their city. But they had retained so violent a liatred of the Persians, that they were overjoyed at this opportunity to throw off their voke ; and indeed they were the Arst in that country who submitted to the king by their deputies, in opposition to Strato their king, who had declared in favour of Darius. Alexander dethroned him

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* Et vincerc, et cönfelere vi&is fcio. Curt

and permitted Hephaestion to elect in his stead whonisoever of the Sidonians, he should judge worthy of so exalad a sta. tion.

This favourite was quartered at the house of two broth. ers, who were young, and of the most considerable family in the city. To these he offered the crown: lwt they refused it, telling him, that, according to the laws of their country, no person could ascend the throne, unless he were of the blood royal. Hephæstion admiring this greatness of soul, which could contemn what others strive to obtisin boy fire and sword : “Continue,” says he to them, “in this was s of thinking ; you, who before were sensible that it is much “ more glorious to refuse a diadem, than to accept it. Mon. “ever, name me some person of the royal family, who may .“ remember, when he is king, that it was you set the crown “ upon his head.” The brothers, observing that soacral, through excessive ambition, aspired to this high station, and to obtain it paid a servile court to Alexander's favourites, declarcd, that they did not know any person more worthy of the diadem than one Abdolonymus, descended, though at a great distance, from the royal line ; but who, at the same time, was so poor, that he was obliged to get his bread by day labour in a garden without the city. His honesty and integrity had reduced him, as well as many more, to so extreme poverty. Solely intent upon his labour, he did not hear the clashing of the arms which had skuken all Asia.

Immediately the two brothers went in search of Abilolo. nymus with the royal garments, and found him weeding liis garden. They then saluted kim king ; and one of them ad. dressed him thus : "You must now change your tatters for *the dress I have brought you. Put off the mean and Caxia "temptible habit in which you have grown old ; assume the « sentiments of a prince ; but when you are seated on the “throne, continue to preserve the virtue which made you “ worthy of it. And when you shall have ascended it, and

by that means become the supreme dispenser of life and “ death over all your citizens, be sure never to forget the “condition in wlrich, or rather for which, you was elected.” Abdolonymus looked upon the whole as a dream, and, uma. ble to guess the meaning of it, asked if they were not ashamed to ridicule lrim in that manner. But, as be made greater resistance than suited their inclinations, they thiemselves

Cape regis animum, et in eam fortunam, qua dignus ei, if am continentiam profer. Et, cum in regali folio refidebis, vitæ necis. que omnium civium dominus, cave obliviscaris l. ujus ftatus in quo accipis regnum, imo hercule, propter quem, Quint. Curt.


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