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quently more aptly disposed for motions of every kind. The phalanx cannot long preserve its natural property (these are: Polybius's words ;) that is to say, its solidity and thickness, because it requires its peculiar spots of ground, and those, as it were, made purposely for it; and that for want of such tracts, it incumbers or rather breaks itself by its own motion, nct mention, that, if it is once broke, the soldiers who coma. pose it can never rally again. Whereas the Roman army, by its division into small bodies, takes advantage of all placa. es and situations, and cuits itself to them. It is united or separated at pleasure. It files off, or draws together, with. out the least difficulty. It can very easily detach, rally, and form every kind of evolution, either in whole or in part, as eccasion may require. In fine, it has a greater variety of mo. tions, and consequently more activity and strength than the phalanx.

*This enabled Paulus Æmiliust to gain his celebrated víc.. tory over Perseus. He first attacked the phalanx in front. But the Macedonians keeping very close together, holding their pikes with both hands, and presentiog thiş iron ram-part to the enemy, could not be either broke or forced in any manner, and so made a dreadful slaughter of the Roa

But at last, the unevenness of the ground, and the great extent of the front in battle, not allowing the Macedo-nians to continue in all parts that range of shields and pikes, Paulus Æmilius observed, that the phalanx was obliged to leave several openings and intervals. Upon this he ata. tacked them at these openings, not as before, in front, and in a general onset, but by detached bodies, and in different parts, at one and the same time. By this means the phal.. anx was broke in an instant, and its whole force, which con, sisted merely in its union, and the impression it made all at once, was entirely lost, and Paulus Æmilus gained the vic tory.

• Plutarch in Paul, Æmil, p. 265, 266. Liv, 1, xliv. n, 41.

+ Secunda legio-immissa dissipa vit phalangem ;-neque ulla eviden.. rior causa victoriæ fuit, quam quod multa passim prælia crant, quæ, fuctuantem turbarunt primo, deinde disjecerunt phalangem ; cujus. conferiæ, et intentie horrencis hastis, intolerabiles vires sunt Si carptim aggrediendo circumagere immobilem longitudine et gravitate hastam cogas, confusa strute implicantur ; -si vero ab latere, aut ab tergo, aliquid cumultus increpuit, ruiræ modo turbantur-Sicut tum adversus catervacim irruentes Romanos, et interrupta multifarian acie, obviam ire cogebantur : et Romani, quacumque data intervalla, asent, insinuabant ordines suos. Qui si universa acie in frontem adversus instructam phalangem concurressent-induisscnt se, hastiny. OCC conferram aciem sustipuissen:. Tit. Ingy,

*The same Polybius, in the twelfth book above cited, describes in few words the order of battle observed by the cavalry. According to him, a squadron of horse consisted of 800, generally drawn up 100 in front, and eight deep, consequently such a squadron as this took up a furlong; or 100 fathoms, supposing the distance of one fathom, or six feet, for each horseman ; a space he must necess

essarily hare, to make his evolutions and to rally. Ten squadrouls, or 8000 horse, occupied ten times as much ground, that is, ten furlongs, or 1000 fathoms, which makes about half a league.

From what has been said, the reader may judge how much ground an army took up according to the number of infantry and cavalry of which it consisted.


Discordt, which fomented perpetually in the Greeks dispositions not very remote from an open rupture, brole out with great violence upon account of the Phocæans. Those people, who inhabited the territories adjacent to Delphos, ploughed up certain lands that were sacred to Apollo, which were thereby profaned. Immediately the people in the neighbourhood exclaimed against them, as guilty of sacrilege, some from spirit of sincerity, and others in order to cover their private revenge with the veil of religion.

The war that broke out on this occasion was called the sacred war, as undertaken from a religious motive, and lasted ten years. The people guilty of this profanation were summoned to appear before the Amplıyctions, or statesgeneral of Greece: and the whole affair being duly examined, the Phocæans were declared sacrilegious, and sentenced to pay a heavy fine.

Philomelus, one of their chief citizens, a bold man, and of great authority, having proved by some verses int Ho. mer, that the sovereignty of Delphos belonged anciently to the Phocæans, inflames them against this decree, determines them to take up arms, and is appointed their general. He immediately went to Sparta, to engage the Lacedæmonians in his interest. They were very much disgusted at the sentence which the Amphyctions had pronounced against them, at the solicitation of the Thebans, by which

* Lib, xii, p 632
† AM 3649, Art J. C. 355, Diod 1, xvi, p. 425 - 433

lliad , ii, V, 516,

they had been also condemned to pay a fine, for having seized upon the citadel of Thebes by fraud and violence. Archidamus, one of the kings of Sparta, gave Philomelus a handsome reception. This monarch, however, did not dare to declare openly in favour of the Phocæans, but promised to assist him with money, and to furnish him secretly with troops, as he accordingly did.

Philomelus, at luis return home, raises soldiers, and be-gins by attacking the temple of Delphos, of which he pose sessed himself without any great difficulty, the inhabitants of the country making but a weak resistance. The * Lo-crians, a people in the neighbourhood of Delphos, took arms against him, but were defeated in several rencounters, Phi. lomelus, encouraged by these first suceesses, increased his troops daily, and put himself in a condition to carry on his enterprise with vigour. Accordingly he enters the temple, tears from the pillars the decree of the Amphyce tions against the Phocæans, publishes all over the country that he has no design to seize the riches of the temple, and that his soïe view is to restore the Phocæans their ancient. rights and privileges. It was necessary for him to have a sanction from the god who presided at Delphos, and to re-ceive such an answer from the oracle as might be favoura. : ble to him. The priestess at first refused to co-operate on this occasion ;- but, being terrified by his menaces, she answered that the god permitted him to do whatever he should think proper ;

circumstance he took care to publish to all : the neighbouring nations.

The affair was now become a serious one. The Amphyc-tions meeting a second time, a resolution was formed to declare war against the Phocæans. Most of the Grecian na. tions engaged in this quarrel, and sided with the one or the other party. The Beotians, the Locrians, Thessalians, and geveral other neighbouring people, declared in favour of the god ; whilst Sparta, Athens, and some other cities of Pelop-onnesus, joined with the Phocæans. Philomelus had not yet touched the treasures of the temple ; but being afterwards not so scrupulous, he believed that the riches of the god could not be better employed than in his (the deity's) defence, for he gave this specious name to this sacrilegious at : tempt; and being enabled, by this fresh supply, to double the pay of his soldiers, lie raised a very considerable body of troops.

Several battles were fought, and the success for some time seemed doubtful on both sides. Every body knows how much :

Or Locri;


religious wars are to be dreaded ; and the prodigious lengths which a false zeal, when veiled with so venerable a name, is apt to go. The Thebans having in a rencounter taken sev. eral prisoners, condemned them all to die as sacrilegious wretches, who were excommunicated. The Phocæans did the same by way of reprisal. These had at first gained several advantages; but having been defeated in a great battie, Philomelus, their leader, being closely attacked upon an eminence from which there was no retreating, defended himself for a long time with invincible bravery, which however not availing, he threw himself headlong from a ruck, in or-der to avoid the torments he must unavoidably have onder. gone, had he fallen alive into the hands of his enemies. Onomarchus was his successor, and took upon him the command of the forces..

* This new general had soon levied a fresh army, the advantageous pay he offered procuring bim soldiers from all sides. He also by dint of money brought over several chiefs of the other party, and prevailed upon them either to retire, or to do little or nothing, by which he gained great advantages.

Philip thought it most consistent with his interest to remain neuter in this general movement of the Greeks in fa. your either of the Phocæans or of the Thebans. It was consistent with the policy of this ambitious prince, who had little regard for religion or the interest of Apollo, but was always intent upon his own, not to engage in a war by which he could not reap the least benefit ; and to take advantage of a juncture, in which all Greece, employed and divided by a great war, gave him an opportunity to extend his frontiers, and push his conquests without any apprehension of opposia tinn. He was also well pleased to see both parties weaken and consume each other, as he should thereby be enabled to fall upon them afterwards with greater advantage.

t Being desirous of subjecting Thrace, and of securring the conquest he had already made in it, he determined to possess himself of Methone, a small city, incapable of support ing itself by its own strength, but which gave him disquiet, and obstructed his designs whenever it was in the hands of his enemies. Accordingly he besieged that city, made him-self master of, and razed it. .He lost one of his eyes before Methone, by a very singular accident.. Aster of Amphipo. lis had offered his service to Philip, as so excellent a marks. man that he could bring down birds in their most rapid flights.

* A. M. 3651. Ant. J. C. 353: # A. M. 365 # Ant: J. C. 353, Diod. p. 434 Suides in Karma

The monarch made this answer, “ well, I will take you into “my service when I make war upon starlings ;" which ans.wer stung the cross-bowman to the quick. A repartee proves often of fatal consequence to him who makes it, and it is not a small merit to know when to hold one's tongue. After having thrown himself into the city, he let fly an arrow, on which , was written, " To Philip's right eye,” and gave him a most cruel proof that he was a good marksman ; for he hit him in his right eye, Philip sent him back the same arrow, with this inscription, “ If Philip takes the city, he will hang up Aster;" and accordingly he was as good as his word.

* A skilful surgeon drew the arrow out of Philip's eye with so much art and dexterity that not the least scar remained ; and though he could not save his eye, yet he took away the blemish. † But nevertheless this monarch was so weak, as . to be angry whenever any person happened to let slip the

word Cyclops, or even the word eye in his presence. Men, however, seldom blush for an honourable imperfection. A Lacedæmonian woman thought more like a man, when, to . console her son for a glorious wound that had lamed him, she said, “now, son, every step you take will put you in mind of “ your valour.'

After the taking of Methone, Philip, ever studious either to weaken his enemies by new conquests, or gain new friends by doing them some important service, marched into Thes-saly, which had implored his assistance against the tyrants, The liberty of that country seemed now secure, since Alexander of Phere was no more. Nevertheless, his brothers, who, in concert with his wife Thebe, had murdered him, grown weary of having some time acted the part of delivers ers, revived his tyranny, and oppressed the 'Thessalians with: · a new yoke. Lycophron, the eldest of the three brothers who succeeded Alexander, had strengthened himself by the protection of the Phocæaps, Onomarchus, their leader, brought him a numerous body of forces, and at first gained a considerable advantage over Philip; but engaging him a second time, he was entirely defeated, and his army routed. The flying troops were pursued to the sea-shore. Upwards of 6000 men were killed on the spot, among whom was Ongmarchus, whose body was hung upon a gallows; and 3000 who were taken prisoners, were thrown into the sea by Philip's order, as so many sacrilegious wretches, the professed enemies of religion. Lycophron delivered up the city of Pheræ, and restored Thessaly to its liberty by abandoning

• Plin. l. vii. C. 39.
+ Demet. Thaler. de Blocụt. c. iiii

Diod. p. 432-435.

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