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the fright of those who were Aying to their main body, spread so great a terror, that they filed without striking a blow. At this noise, Craterus advanced, as Alexander had commanded at his going away, and seized the pass, which till then had resisted his attacks; and at the same time, Pliilotas advanced forwards by another way, with Amyntas, Cenus, and Polyspercon, and broke quite through the barbarians, who now were' attacked on every side. The greatest part of them were cut to pieces, and those who fled fell into preci. pices. Ariobarzanes, with part of the cavalry, escaped by Hying over the mountains,
Alexander, from an effect of the good fortune which constantly attended him in all his undertakings, having extri. cated himself happily out of the danger to which he was so lately exposed, marched immediately towards Persia. Be. ing on the road, he received letters from Tiridates, governor of Persepolis, which informed him, that the inhabitants of that city, upon the report of his advancing towards it, were determined to plunder Darius' treasures, with which he was intrusted, and therefore that it was 'necessary for him to make all the haste imaginable to seize them himself; that he had only the * Araxes to cross, after which the road was smooth and easy. Alexander, upon this news, leaving his infantry behind, marched the whole night at the head of his cavalry, who were very much 'harrassed by the length and swiftness of this march, and passed the Araxes on a bridge, which by his order had been built some days before.
But, as he drew near the city, he perceived a large body of men, who exhibited a memorable example of the greates misery. These were about 4000 Greeks, very far advanced 'in years, who, haviðg been made prisoniéis of war, had suffered all the torments which the Persian tyranny could in'Aict. The hands of some had been cut off
, the feet of others; and others again had lost their noses and ears: after which, having impressed, by fire, barbarous characters on their faces
, they had the inhumanity to keep them as so many laughing
stocks, with which they sported perpetually. They appeared like so many shadows, rather than like men ; speech being almost the only thing by which they were known to be such. Alexander could not refrain from tears at this sight; and, as they unanimously besought him to commise rate their condition, he bid them, with the utmost tenderness not to despónd, and assured them, that they should again see their wives and
country. This proposal, which one miglit šuppose should naturally have filled them with joy, perplex.
& This is not the samie river with that in Armenis,
ed them very much, various opinions arising on this occasion. * How will it be possible,” said some of them, “for us to
appear publicly before all-Greece, in the dreadful condi* tion to which we are reduced ; a condition still more "shameful and-dissatisfactory? The best way to bear mis* ery is to conceal it ; and no country is so sweet to the « wretched as solitude, and an oblivion of their past calam. * ities. Besides, how will it be possible for us to undertake ** so long a journey? Driven to a great distance from Europe
banished to the most remote parts of the east, vorn H out with age, and most of our limbs maimed, can we pre" tend to undergo fatigues which have even wearied a tri
umphant army? The only thing that now remains for us, " is to hide our misery, and to end our days among those *who are already so accustomed to our misfortunes," Others, in whom the love of their country extinguished all other sentiments, represented, wtliat the gods offered them what * they should not even have dared to wish, viz. their coun
try, their wives, their children, and all those things for « whose sake men are fond of life, and despise death. That ke they had long enough borne the sad yoke of slavery ; **-and that nothing happier could present itself, than their
being indulged the bliss of going at last to breathe their "native air, to resume their ancient manners, laws, and sa$ crifices, and to die in presence of their wives and chil
However, the former opinion prevailed; and, accordingly they besought the king to permit them to continue in a country where they had spent so many years. He granted their request, and presented each of thein-**3000 drachms; five men's saits of clothes, and the same number for women ; two couple of oxen to plough their lands, and corn to sow them. He commanded the governor of the province not to suffer them to be molested in any manner, and ordered that they shouldbe free from taxes and tributes of every kind. Such behaviour as this was truly royal. "It was, indeed, impossible for Alexander to restore them the limbs of which the Persians had so eruelly deprived them ; but then he restored them to liberty; tranquiļlity, and abundance. Thrice happy those princes who are affected with the pleaşure which tarises from thc doing good actions, and who melt with pity for the unfortunate !
Alexander having called together, the next day, the generals of his army, represented to them, " that no city in the -66 world had ever been more fatal to the Greeks than Per
“ sepolis, the ancient residence of the Persian monarchs, * and the capital of their empire ; for that it was from thence “ all those mighty armies poured which had overflowed “ Greece, and whence Darius, and afterwards Xerxes, had. “ carried the fire-brand of the most accursed war, which “had laid waste all Europe ; and therefore that it was in. “ cumbent on them to revenge the manes of their ancestors." It was already abandoned by the Persians, who all fled separately as fear drove them. Alexander entered it with his phalanx, when the victorious soldiers soon met with riches sufficient to satiate their avariçe, and immediately cut to pieces all those who still remained in the city. However the king soon put an end to the massacre, and published an 'order, by which his soldiers were forbid to violate the chastity of the women. Alexander had before possessed him. self, either by force or capitulation, of a great number of incredibly rich cities ; but all this was a trifle compared to the treasures he found here. The barbarians had laid up at Persepolis, as in a storehouse, all the wealth of Persia. Gold and silver were never seen here but in heaps ; not to mention the clothes and furniture of inestimable value ; for this was the seat of luxury. There were found in the treasury 120,000 talents, * which were designed to defray the expence of the war. To this prodigious sum he added † 6000 talents, taken from Pasagarda. This was a city which Cyrus had built, wherein the kings of Persia used to be crowne ed.
During Alexander's stay in Persepolis, a little before he . set out upon his march against Darius, he entertained his friends at a banquet, at which the guests drank to excess. Among the women, who were admitted to it masked, was Thais the courtezan, a native of Attica, and at that time mistress to Ptolemy, who afterwards was king of Egypt. About the end of the feast, during which she had studiously endea. voured to praise the king in the most artful and delicate manner, a stratagem too often practised by women of that character, she said in a gay tone of voice, that it would be “ matter of inexpressible joy to her, were she permitted
, “ masked as she then was, and in order to end this festival
nobly, to burn the magnificent palace of Xerxes, who had « burned Athens : and to set it on fire with her own hand, in order that it might be said in all parts of the world
, " that the women, who had followed Alexander in his ex. “pedition to Asia, had taken much better vengeance of the “ Persians, for the many calamities they had brought upan
About 18,000,woo sterl} + About gon,000.
" the Grecians, than all the generals who had fought for " them both by sea and land All the guests applauded the discourse ; when inmediately the king rose from table, his head being crowned with flowers, and taking a torch in his hand, he advanced forward to execute this mighty exploit. The whole company followed him, breaking into loud acclamations ; and afterwards, singing and dancing, they surrounded the palace. All the rest of the Macedonians, at this noise, ran in crowds, with lighted tapers, and set fire to every part of it. However, Alexander was sorry, nót long after, for what he had done ; and thereupon gave orders for extinguishing the fire ; but it was too late.
As he was naturally very bountiful, his great successes increased this beneficent disposition ; and he accompanied the presents he made with such testimonies of humanity and kindness, and so obligiug a carriage, as very much enhanced their merit. He exerted this temper in a particular manter towards the fifty Macedonian young lords who served under him as guards. Olympias his mother, thinking him too proruse, wrote to him as follows : “I do not blame you'' said she“for being beneficent towards your friends, for that is act« ing like a king: but then a medium'ought to be observed in " your munificence. You equal them all with kings, and by "heaping riches upon them, give them an opportunity of
making a great number of friends, of all whom you de prive yourself. As she often wrote the same advice to him, he always kept her letters very secret, and did not show them to any person ; but happening to open one of them, and beginning to read it, Hephæstion drew near to him, and read it over his shoulder, which the king observa ing, did not offer to hinder him ; but taking only his ring from his finger, he put the seal of it upon the lips of his favourite, as an admonition to him not to divulge what he had read.
He used to send magnificent presents to his motłier ; buť then he would never let her have any concern in the affairs of the government. She used frequently to make very see vere complaints upon that account, but he always submitted to her ill humour with great mildness and patience. Antipater having one day wrote a letter against her, the king, after reading it, replied, “Antipater does not know that one
single tear shed by a mother, will obliterate ten thousand “ such letters as this." A behaviour like this, and such an answer, show, at one and the same time that Alexander was boih a kind son and an able politician, and that he was perfectly sensible how dangerous it would have been had he invested a woman of Olympias' character with the supreme authority
SECTION X. DARIUS LEAVES ECBATANA,HIS DEATH.-ÅLEYAN
DER SENDS HIS CORPSE DO SYSIG AMBIS. ALEXANDER,* after he had taken Persepolis and Pasagarda, was resolved to pursue Darius, who was arrived by this time at Ecbatana, the capital of Media. There remain. ed still with this fugitive prince 30,000 foot, among whom were 4000 Greeks, who were faiti, ful to him to the last; be: sides, these, he had 4000 slingers, and upwards of 3000 car. alry, most of them Bactrians, commanded by Bessus, governor of Bactri... Darius marched his forces a little out of the common road, having ordered his baggage to go before them; then assembling his principal officers, he spoke to them as follows : “Dear companions, among so many thou
sand men, who composed my army, you only have not
abandoned me during the whole course of my ill fortune ; it
and in a little time, nothing but your fidelity and constan*cy will be able to make me fancy, myself a king. Desert.
ers and traitors now govern in my cities ; not that they art
thought worthy of the honour bestowed on them, but- re 4 wards are given them only in the view of tempting your 4 and to stagger your perseverance.
You still choose to fol«.low my fortune rather than that of the conqueror, for
which you certainly have merited a recompence from the “ gods; and I do not doubt but they will prove beneficent to
wards you, in case that power is denied me. With such
soldiers and officers I would brave, without the least dread, “ the enemy, how formidable soever he may be. What!
would any one have me surrender myself up to the mercy % of the conqueror, and expect from him as a reward of my “ baseness and meanness of spirit, the government of some
province which he may condescend to leave me? Norit never shall be in the power of any many either to take away, or fix upon my head the diadem I wear ; the same
hou shall put a period to my reign and life. If you have * all the same courage and resolution, which I can no ways "doubt, I assure myself that you shall retain your liberty " and not be exposed to the pride and insults of the Macer * Diod. I. xvii. p. 540-546.
Arrian, I. iii. p. 133-137. Plut in Ales. p. 689. ¿ Curt. I. v. c. 8-14. Juscia. I. si, c. 15.