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it. By the happy success of this expedition, Philip acquired for ever the affection of the Thessalians, whose excellent cavalry, joined to the Macedonian phalanx, had afterwards so great a share in his victories and those of his son.

Phayllus, who succeded his brother Onomarchus, finding the same advantages he had done, from the immense riches he found in the temple, raised a numerous army; and, sup. ported by the troops of the Lacedæmonians, Athenians, and the other allies, whom he paid very_largely, he went into Beotia and invaded the Thebans. For a long time victory shifted sides; but at last, Phayllus being attacked with a sudden and violent distemper, after suffering the most cruel tor. ments, ended his life in a manner worthy of his impieties, and sacrilegious actions. Phalecus, then very young, the son: of Onomarchus, was placed in his room ; and Mnaseas, a man of great experience, and strongly attached to his family, was appointed his counsellor.

The new leader treading in the steps of his predecessors, plundered the temple as they had done, and enriched all his friends. At last the Phocæans opened their eyes, and ap. pointed commissioners to call all those to account who had any concern in the public monies. Upon this Phalocus was deposed ;, and, after an exact inquiry, it was found, that from the beginning of the war there had been taken out of the temple upwards of 10,000 talents, that is, about 1,500,0001.

Philip, after having freed the Thessalians, resolved to carry his arms into Plocis. * This is his first attempt to get footing in Greece, and to have a share in the general affairs of the Greeks, from which the kings of Macedon had always beeen excluded as foreigners. In this view, upon pretence of going over into Phocis in order to punish the sacrilegious Phocæans, he inarches towards Thermopyla, to possess himself of a pass whicli.gave him a free passage into Greece, and especially into Attica. The Athenians, upon hearing of a march which might prove of the most fatal consequence to them, hastened to Thermopyläe, and possessed themselves very seasonably of this important pass, which Philip did not dare attempt to force ;, so that he was obliged to turn back: into Macedonia..


PHILIP.THAT PRINCE TAKES OL YNTHUS. As we shall soon see Philip engaged against the Athenior ans, and as they, by the strong exhortations and prudent.

A. M, 3652. Ant. J.C. 35%

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counsels of Demosthenes, will become his greatest enemies and the most powerful opposers of his ambitious designs, it may not be improper, before we enter into that part of the history, to give a short account of the state of Athens, and of the disposition of the citizens at that time,

We must not form a judgment of the character of the Athenians, in the age we are now speaking of, from that of their ancestors, in the time of the battles of Marathon and of Salamin, from whose virtue they had extremely degenerated. They were no longer the same men, and had no longer the same maxims, and the same manners. They no longer discovered the same zeal for the public good, the same application to the affairs of the state, the same courage to support the fatigues of war by sea and land ; the same care of the revenues, the same willingness to hear salutary advice; the same discernment in the choice of generals of the armies, and of magistrates to whom they intrusted the administra. tion of the state. To these happy, these glorious dispositions, succeeded a fondness for repose, and an indolence with regard to public affairs; an aversion for military fatigues, which they now left entirely to mercenary troops ; and a profusion of the public treasures in games and shows ; a love for the flattery which their orators lavished upon them ; and an un. happy facility in conferring public offices by intrigue and cabal; all which usually precede the approaching ruin of states, Such was the situation of Athens at the time the king of Macedon began to turn his arms against Greece.

We have seen that Philip, after various conquests, had attempted to advance as far as Phocis, but in vain ; because the Athenians, justly alarmed at the impending danger, had stopped him at the pass of Thermopylæ. * Demosthenes taking advantage of so favourable à disposition of things, mounted the tribunal, in order to set before them a lively image of the impending danger to which they were exposed by the boundless ambition of Philip ; and to convince them of the absolute necessity they were under, from hence, to apply the most speedy remedies. Now as the success of his arms, and the rapidity of his progress, spread through Athens a' kind of terror bordering very near upon despair, the orator, by a wonderful artifice, first endeavours to revive their courage, and ascribes their calamities to their slo:h and indolence; for if they hitherto had acquitted themselves of their duty; and that in spite of their activity and their utmost efforts, Philip had prevailed over them, they then, indeed, would not have the least resource or hope left. But in this oration

Demost. I. Philip

and all those which follow, Demosthenes insists strongly, that the grandeur of Philip is wholly owing to the supineness of the Athenians; and that it is this supineness which makes him bold, daring, and swells him with such a spirit of haughtiness as even insults the Athenians.

See,” says Demosthenes to them, speaking of Philip, “ to what a height the arrogance of that man rises, who will s6 not suffer you to choose either action or repose ; but emSploys menaces, and, as fame says, speaks in the most inso“ lent terms; and not contented with the first conquests, but “ incapable of satiating his lust of dominion, engages every

day in some new enterprise. Possibly, you wait till ncces. “sity reduces you to act; can any one be greater to free" born men than shame and infamy? Will you then for ever " walk the public place with this question in your mouths, “What news is there?” Can there be greater news than " that a Macedonian has vanquished the Athenians, and “ made himself the supreme arbiter of Greece ? “ Philip is

dead,” says one ; "he is only sick,” replies another.” “ His being wounded at Methone had occasioned all these

reports. “ But whether he be sick or dead is nothing to " the purpose, o Athens ! For the moment after heaven had “ delivered you from him, should you still behave as you now

do, you would raise up another Philip against yourselves; “ since the man in question owes his grandeur infinitely more

to your indolence than to his own strength.”

But Demosthenes, not satisfied with bare remonstrances, or with giving his opinion in general terms, proposed a plan, the execution of which he believed would check the attempts of Philip. In the first place, he advises the Athenians to fit out a fleet of fifty galleys, and to resolve firmiy to man them themselves. He requires them to reinforce these with ten galleys lightly armed, which may serve as a convoy to the fleet and transports. With regard to the land forces, as in his time the general, elected by the most powerful faction, formed the army only of a confused assemblage of foreigners, and mercenary troops, who did little service, Demosthenes requires them to levy no niore than 2000 chosen troops, 500 of which shall be Athenians, and the rest raised from among the allies; with 200 horse, 50 of which shall alsobe Athenians.

The expence of this little army, with regard only to provisions and other matters independent from their

pay, was to amount to little more per month than 90* talents (90,000 crowns,) viz. 40 talents for ten convoy galleys, at the rate of 20 minæ (1000 livres,) per month for each gallex;

Each talent was worth 1000 erowne.

40 talents for the 2000 infantry, and 10 drachms (5 livres,) per month for each foot soldier; which 5 livres per month make a little more than three prnce farthing French money per diem. Finally, 12 talents for the 200 horse, at 30 drachms (15 livres,) per month for each horseman ; which 15 livres per month make 10 sols per diem. The reason of my relating this so particularly is to give the

reader an idea of the expences of an army in those times. Demosthenes adds, if any one imagines, that the preparation of provisions is not a considerable step, he is very much mistaken ; for he is persuaded, that provided the forces do not want provisions, the war will furnish them with every thing besides ; and that with. out doing the least wrong to the Greeks or allies, they will not fail of sufficient acquisitions to make up all deficiencies and arrears of pay:

But as the Athenians might be surprised at Demosthenes requiring so small a body of forces, he gives this reason for it, viz. that at present the commonwealth did not permit the Athenians to oppose Philip with a sufficient force in the field; and that it would be their business to make excursions only. Thus his design was, that this little army should be hovering perpetually about the frontiers of Macedonia, to awe, observe, harrass, and keep close to the enemy, in order to prevent them from concerting and executing such enterprises with ease as they might think fit to attempt.

What the success of this harangue was is not known. It is very probable, that as the Athenians were not attacked personally, they, according to the supineness natural to them, were very indolent with regard to the progress of Philip's

The divisions at this time in Greece were very favourable to that monarch. Athens and Lacedæmonia on one side employed themselves wholly in reducing the strength of Thebes their rival ; whilst, on the other side, the Thessalians, in order to free themselves from their tyrants, and the Thebans, to maintain the superiority which they had acquired by the battles of Leuctra and Mantinea, devoted themselves in the most absolute manner to Philip; and assisted him, undesignedly, in making chains for themselves.

Philip, as an able politician, knew well how to take advantage of all these dissensions. This king, in order to secure his frontiers, had nothing more at heart than to enlarge them towards Thrace ; and this he could scarce attempt but at the expence of the Athenians, who since the defeat of Xerxes had many colonies, besides several states which were either their allies or tributaries in that country.

Olynthus, a city of Thrace, in the Peninsula of Pallene, was one of these colonies. The Olynthians had been at great


variance with Amyntas, father of Philip, and had even very much opposed the latter upon his accession to the crown. However, being not firmly established on his throne, he at first employed dissimulation, and requested the alliance of the Olynthians, to whom some time after he gave up Potidea, an important fortress, which he had conquered in concert with and for them, from the Athenians. When he found himself able to execute his project, he took proper measures in order to besiege Olynthus. The inhabitants of this city, who saw the storm gathering at a distance, had recourse to the Atlienians, of whom they requested immediate aid. The affair was debated in an assembly of the people, and as it was of the utmost importance, a great number of orators met in the assembly. Each of them mounted it in his turn, which was regulated by their age. Demosthenes, who was then but 34, did not speak till after his seniors had discussed the matter a long time,

* In this † discourse, the orator, the better to succeed in his aim, alternately terrifies and encourages the Athenians. For this purpose, he represents Philip in two very different lights. On one side, he is a mari, whose unbounded ambition the em. pire of the world could not satiate ; an haughty tyrant, who looks upon and even his allies, as so many subjects or slaves; and who, for that reason, is no less incensed by too slow a submission, then an open revolt; ta vigilant politician, who, always intent to take advantage of the oversights and errors of others, seizes every favourable opportunity an indefatigable warrior, whom his activity multiplics, and who supports perpetually the most severe toils, without allows ing himself a moment's repose, or having the least regard to the difference of seasons, an intrepid hero, who rushes through obstacles, and plunges into the midst of dangers ; a corruptor, who with his purse traffics, buys, and employs gold no less than iron; a happy prince, on whom fortune lavishes her favours, and for whom she seems to have forgot her inconstancy: but on the other side, this same Philip is an imprudent man, who measures his vast projects, not by his strength, but merely by his ambition ; a rash mạn, who

all men,

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* Olynth. ii.

+ The oration which Demosthenes pronounced at that time is gen. erally looked upon as the sceond of the three Olynthiars which relate to this subject. But M. de Tourreil, chicfly on the authority of Dionysius Halicarnessensis, which ought to be of great weight on this occasion, changes the order generally observed io Demosthenes orations, and places this at the head of the Olyachiace, Though I am of this opinion, I shall cite the crations in the order they are printed,


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