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up arms to destroy Byzantium and Perinthus, battered our walls, burned our country, cut down our forests; that in a

season of so great calamity, this beneficent people succourked us with a fleet of 120 sail, furnished with provisions,

arms, and forces ; that they saved us from the greatest

danger; in fine, that they restored us to the quiet posses"sion of our government, our laws, and our tombs : the By“ zantines and Perinthians grant by decree, the Athenians " to settle in the countries Lelonging to Perinthus and Byzan*tium ; to marry in them, to purchase lands; and to enjoy "all the prerogatives of citizens; they also grant them a dis“ tinguished place at public shows, and the right of sitting « both in the senate and the assembly of the people, next to “the pontiffs : and further; that every Athenian who shall “think proper to settle in either of the two cities above men, es tioned, shall be exempted from taxes of any kind : that ini “ the harbours, three statues of 16 cubits each shall be set up, " which statues sliall represent the people of Athens crown“ ed' by those of Byzantium and Perinthus : and besides, that

presents shall be sent to the four solemn games of Greece, " and that the crown we have decreed to the Athenians « shall there be proclaimed; so that the same ceremony

may acquaint all the Greeks, both with the magnanimity “ of the Athenians, and the gratitude of the Perinthians and " Byzantines."

The inhabitants of Chersonesưs made a like decree, the tenor of which is as follows : “ Among the nations inhabit“ing the Chersonesus, the people of Sestos, of Ælia, of Ma“ dytis, and of Alopeconiesus, decree the people and senate " of Athens, a crown of gold of 60 talents ;* and erect two « altars, the one to the goddess of gratitude, and the other “ to the Athenians, for their having, by the most glorious of it all benefactions, freed from the yoke of Philip the people of

Chersonesus, and restored them to the possession of their t country, their laws, their liberty, and ther temples: an act < of beneficence which they shall fix eternally in their mem#ories, and never cease to acknowledge to the utmost of their

power. Al which they have resolved in full senate."

† Pliilip, after having been forced to raise the siege of Byzantium, marched against the Atheas, king of Scythia, from whom he had received some personal cause of discontent, and took his son with him in this expedition, Though the Scythians had a very numerous army, he defeated them without any difficulty. He got a very great booty, which consisted not in gold or silver, the use and

6000 French crowns, † Justic. I. ix. 6. 2, 3.

value of which the Scythians were not as yet so unhappy as to know, but in cattle, in horses, and a great number of women and children.

At his return from Scythia, the Triballis a people of Mæsia, disputed the pass with him, laying claim to part of the plumder he was carrying off. Philip was forced to come to a battle, and a very bloody one was fought, in which great numbers on each side were killed on the spot. The king himself was wounded in the thigh, and with the same thrust had his horse killed under him, Alexander flew to his father's aid, and, covering him with his shield, killed or put to flight all who attacked him.

SECTION VI. PHILIP APPOINTED GENERALISSIMO OF THE GREEKS, ATHENIANS AND THEBANS UNITE AGAINST HIM.

HE GAINS A BATTLE AT CH&RONEA. The Athenians had considered the siege of Byzantium as an absolute rupture, and an open declaration of war. * The king of Macedon, who was apprehensive of the consequences of it, and dreaded very much the power of the Athenians, whose hatred he had drawn upon himself, made overtures of peace, in order to soften their resentments, Phocion, a little suspicious, and apprehensive of the uncertainty of military events, was of opinion that the Athenians should accept his offers. But Demosthenes, who had studied more than Phocion the genius and character of Philip, and was persuaded that, according to his usual cus tom, his- only view was to amuse and impose upon the Athenians, prevented their listening to his pacifie proposals.

| It was very much the interest of this prince to terminate immediately a war which gave him great cause of disquiet, and particularly distressed him by the frequent de predations of the Athenian privateers, who infested the sea bordering upon his dominions. They entirely interrupted alb commerce, and prevented his subjects from exporting any of the products of Macedonia into other countries ; or foreigners from importing into his kingdom the merchandise it wanted. Philip was sensible that it would be impossible for him to put an end to this war, and free himself from the inconveniences attending it, but by exciting the Thessalians and Thebans to break with Athens. He could not yet attack that city with any advantage either by sea or land.

* A, M, 3666. Ant. J, C, 338, Flut. in Phoc, P, 748. + Demosth, pro Cies. P, 497.498.

His naval forces were at this time inferior to those of that republic; and the passage by land to Attica would be shut against him, as long as the Thessalians should refuse to join him, and the Thebans should oppose his passage. If, with the view of prompting them to declare war against Athens, he should ascribe no other motive for it man his private enmity, he was very sensible that it would have no effect with either of the states : but that in case he could once prevail with them to appoint him their chief, upon the specious pretence of espousing their common cause, he then hoped it would be easier for him to make them acquiesce with his desires, either by persuasion or deceit.

This was his aim, the smallest traces of which it highly concerned him to conceal, in order not to give the least opportunity for any one to suspect the design he meditated. In every city he retained pensioners, who sent him notice of whatever passed, and by that means were of great use to him; and were accordingly well paid. By their machinations he raised divisions among the Ozolæ of Locris, otherwise called the Locrians of Amplissa, from their capital city : their country was situated between Ætolia and Pho. cis; and they were accused of having profaned a spot of sacred ground, by ploughing up the Cirrhean field, which lay very near the temple of Delphos. The reader has seen that a like cause of complaint occasioned the first sacred war. The affair was to be heard before the Amphictyons. Had Philip employed in his own favour any known or suspicious agent, he plainly saw that the Thebans and the Thessalians would infalliby suspect his design, in which case all parties would not fail to stand upon their guard.

But Philip acted more artfully, by carrying on his designs by persons in the dark, which entirely prevented their taking air. By the assiduity of his pensioners in Athens, he had caused Æschines, who was entirely devoted to him, to be appointed one of the pylagori, by which name those were call. ed who were sent by the several Greek cities to the assembly of Amphictyons. · The instant he came into it he acted the more effectually in favour of Philip, as a citizen of Athens, which had declared openly against this prince, was less suspected. Upon his remonstrances, a deputation was appoint.. ed, in order to visit the spot of ground, of which the Amphissians had hitherto been considered as the lawful possessors, but which they now were accused of usurping, by a most sacrilegious act.

Whilst the Amphictyons were visiting the spot of ground in question, the Locrians fall upon them unawares, pour in a shower of darts, and oblige them to fly. So open an outrage drew resentment and war upon these Locrians. Cottyphus, one of the Amphictyons, took the field with the army intended to pnnish the rebels ; but many not coming to the rendezvous, the army retired without acting. In the following assembly of the Amphictyos, the affair was debated very seriously. It was there Eschines exerted all his eloquence, and, by a studied oration, proved to the deputies, or representatives, either that they must assess themselves to support foreign soldiers and punish the rebels, or else elect Philip for their general. The deputies, to save their commonwealth the expence, and secure them from the dangers and fatigues of a war, resolved the latter. Upon which, by a public decree, “ ambassadors were sent to Philip of Macedon, who, " in the name of Apollo and the Amphictyons, imp'ore his 6 assistance; beseech him not to neglect the cause of that

god, which the impious Amphissians make their sport; “ and notify to him, that for this purpose all the Greeks, of " the council of the Amphictyons, elect him for their genersi al, with full power to act as he shall think proper.

This was the honour to which Philip had long aspired, the aim of all his views, and end of all the engines he had set at work till that time. He therefore did not lose a moment, but immediately assembles his forces, and marches, by an feint, towards the Cirrlıæan field, forgetting now both the Cirrhæens and Locrians, who had only served as a specious pretext for his journey, and for whom he had not the least regard; he possessed himself of Elatæa, the greatest city in Phocis, standing on the river Cephissus, and the most happily situated for the design he meditated, of awing the The. bans, who now began to open their eyes and to perceive the danger they were in.

* This news being brought to Athens in the evening, spread a terror through every part of it. The next morn. ing an assembly was summoned; when the herald, as was the usual custom, cries with a loud voice, “ who among you will * ascend the tribunal ?” + However, no person appears for that purpose ; upon which he repeated the invitation several times, but still no one rose up, though all the generals and orators were present; and although the common voice of the country, with repeated cries, conjured somebody to propose a salutary counsel : for, says Demosthenes, from whom these particulars are taken, whenever the voice of the her. ald speaks in the name of the laws, it ought to be considered as the voice of the country. During this general silence, occasioned by the universal alarm with which the minds of the • Demosth. pro. Ctes. p. 501-504. † Diod. 1. xvi. p. 474-477.

Athenians were seized, Démosthenes, ánimated at the sight of tlie great danger his fellow citizens were jo, ascends the tribunal for harangues, and endeavours to rexire the droop ing Athenians and inspire them withi sentiments suitable to the present conjuncture, and the necessities of the state. Excelling equally in politics and eloquence, by the extent of his superior genius, he immediately forms a council, which in': cludes all that was necessary for the Athenians to act both at home and abroad, by land as well as by 'sea.

The people of Athens were under a double error with regard to the Thebahs, which he therefore endeavors to show, They imagined that people were inviolably attached, both from interest and inclination, ito Philip; but he proves to them, that the majority of the Thebans waited only an opportunity

to declare against that monarch ; and that the conquest of Elatæa has apprised them of what they are to ex: pect from him. On the other side, they looked upon the Thebans as their most ancient and most dangerous enemies, and therefore could not prevail with themselves to afford them the least aid in the extreme danger with which they were threatened. It must be confessed, that there had always been a declared enmity between the Thebans and Athenians, which rose so high, that Pindar was sentenced by the Thebans to pay a considerable fine for having * api plauded the city of Athens in one of his poems. Demosthenes, notwithstanding that prejudice had taken such deep root in the minds of the people, yet declares in their favour ; and proves to the Athenians, that their own interest lies at stake ; and that they could not please Philip more than in leaving Thebes to his mercy, the ruin of which would open him a free passage to Athens.

Demosthenies afterwards discovers to them the views of Philip in taking that city. << What then is his design, and « wherefore did he possess' himself of Elatxa? He is desir

ous, on one side, to encourage those of his faction in The. 66 bes, and to inspire them with greater boldness, by appear. “ing at the head of his army, and advancing his power and « forces around that city. On the other side, he would .66 strike unexpectedly the opposite faction, and stun them in 66 such a manner as may enable him to get the better of it (either by torror or force. Philip,” says he, "prescribes “ the manner in which you ought to act, by the example he

• He had called Athens a flourishing and renowned city, the bulwark of Greece. Liparai kai Aodimoi, Ellados erisma, klinai Athenai But the Athenians, not only indemnified the poet, and sent him money to pay his fine, but even created a Batue in honour of bin.

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