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had occasioned his banishment. Great encomiums were given to that of Æschines; but when they heard that of Demosthenes, the plaudits and acclamations were redoubled : and it was then he spoke these words, so greatly laudable in the mouth of an enemy and a rival : " But what applauses "would you not have bestowed, had you heard Demosthenes speak it himself ?

To conclude, the victor made a good use of his conquest : for the instant Æschines left Athens, in order to embark for Rhodes, Demosthenes ran after him, and forced him to accept of a purse of money ; which must have obliged him so much the more, as he had less room to expect such an offer. On this occasion, Æschines cried out, *"How will it be pos“sible for me not to regret a country, in which I leave an

enemy more generous than I can hope to find friends in any other part of the world ?”

SECTION VII. PHILIP DECLARED GENERALISSIMO OT THE GREEKS

AGAINST THE PERSIANS.-HIS DEATH. The battle of Chæronea + may be said to have enslaved Greece. Macedon at that time, with no more than 30,000 soldiers, gained a point which Persia, with millions of men, had attempted unsuccessfully at Platxa, at Salamin, and at Marathon. Philip, in the first years of his reign, had rea pulsed, divided, and disarmed his enemies. In the succeed, ing ones, he had subjected, by artifice or force, the most powerful states of Greece, and had made himself its arbiter; but now he prepares to revenge the injuries which the Greeks had received from the barbarians, and meditates no less a design than the destruction of their empire. The greatest advantage he gained by his last victory (and this was the object he long had in view, and never lost sight of) was to get himself appointed, in the assembly of the Grecks, their generalissimo against the Persians. In this quality he made préparations, in order to invade that mighty empire. He nominated, as leaders of part of his forces, Attalus and Parmenio, two of his captains, on whose valour and wisdom he chiefly relied, and made them set out for Asia Minor.

• Some authors ascribe these words to Demosthenes, when, three years after, he met with the same fase as Æschines, and was also bad. isbed from Athens.

A. M. 3667. Ant. J. C. 337. Diod. I, avi, P. 479.

* But whilst every thing abroad was glorious and happy for Philip, he found the utmost uneasiness at home ; division and trouble reigning in every part of his family. The in temper of Olympias, who was naturally jealous, choleric, and vindictive, raising dissentions perpetually in it, which made Philip almost out of love with lite. Not to mention, that as he himself had defiled the marriage bed ; it is said that his consort had repaid his infidelity in kind. But whether he had a just subject of complaint, or was grown weary of Olympias, it is certain he proceeded so far as to divorce her. Alexander, who had been disgusted upon several other accounts, was highly offended at this treatment of his mother.

Philip, after divorcing Olympias, married Cleopatra, niece to Attalus, a very young lady, whose beauty was so exquisite that he could not resist its charms. In the midst of their rejoicings upon occasion of the nuptials, and in the heat of wine, Attalus, who was uncle to the new queen by the mother's side, took it into his head to say, that the Macedonians ought to beseech the gods to give them a lawful successor to their king. Upon this, Alexander, who was naturally chol. eric, exasperated at these injurious words, cried out, "wretch that thou art, dost thou then take me for a bastard ?" And at the same time flung the cup at his head. Attalus returi. ed the compliment, upon which the quarrel grew warmer. Philip, who sat at another table, was very much offended to see the feast interrupted in this manner; and not recollecting that he was lame, drew his sword, and ran directly at his son. Happily the father fell, so that the guests had an opportunity of stepping in between them. The greatest diff. culty was, to keep Alexander from rushing upon his ruin. Exasperated at a succession of such heinous affronts, in spite of all the guests could say concerning the duty he owed to Philip as his father and his sovereign, he vented his resentments in the bitter words following: “The Macedonians « indeed have a captain there, vastly able to cross from « Europe into Asia ; he, who cannot step from one table to « another without running the hazard of breaking his neck!" After these words he left the hall, and taking Olympias his mother, along with him, who had been so highly af. fronted, he conducted her to Epirus, and himself went over to the Illyrians.

In the mean time, Demaratus of Corinth, who was engaged to Philip by the ties of friendship and hospitality, and was very free and familiar with him, arrived at his court.

Plutarch in Alex, p. 669.

After the first civilities and caresses were over, Philip ask: ed him whether the Greeks were in amity ? " It indeed be* comes you, Sir," replied Demaratus, “ to be concerned “ about Greece, who have filled your own house with feuds and dissentions. The prince, sensibly affected at this reproach, came to himself, acknowledged his error, and sent Demaratus to Alexander, to persuade him to retarn home.

Philip did not lose sight of the conquest of Asia. Full of the mighty project he revolved, he consults the gods to know what would be the event of it. The priestess replied, "the victim is already crowned, his end draws nigh, and . he will soon be sacrificed.” Philip hearing this, did not hesitate a moment, but interpreted the oracle in his own fa. vour, the ambiguity of which ought at least to have kept him in suspense. In order therefore that he might be in a condition to apply entirely to his expedition against the Persians, and devote himself solely to the conquest of Asia, he dispatches, with all possible diligence, his domestic affairs. After this he offers up a solemn sacrifice to the gods; and prepares to celebrate with incredible magnificence, in Egæ, a city of Macedonia, the nuptials of Cleopatra his daughter; whom he gave to Alexander, king of Epirus, and brother to Olynrpias his queen. He had invited to it the most consid-erable persons of Greece, and heaped upon them friendships and honours of every kind, by way of gratitude for electing him generalissimo of the Greeks. The cities made their court to him in emulation of each other, by sending him gold crowns; and Athens distinguished its zeal above all the rest. Neoptolemus the poet had written purposely for that festis val, a tragedyt, entitled Cinyras, in which under borrowed names, he represented, this prince as already victor over Darius, and master of Asia. Philip listened to the happy presages with joy ; and comparing theni with the answers of the oracle, assured himself of conquest. The day after the nuptials, games and shows were solemnized. As these formed part of the religious worship, there were carried in it, with great pomp and ceremony, 12 statues of the gods, carved with inimitable art. A 13th, that surpassed them all in magnificence, was that of Philip, which represented him as a god. The hour for his leaving the palace arrived, and he went forth in a white robe, and advanced with an air of majesty,

AM 3666-Apt. C 338.“ + Suetonius, among the presages of Caligula's death, who died in wuch the same manner a8 Philip, observes, chat mnefter, the pagtomine, exhibited the fame piece which Neoptolemus had repres sented the very day Philip was murdered. I

7

in the midst of acclamations towards the theatre, where an infinite multitude of Macedonians, aswell as foreigners, waited his eoming with impatience. His guards marched before and behind him, leaving by his order, a considerable space between themselves and him, to give the spectators a better opportunity of surveying liim ; and also to show that he considered the affections which the Grecians bore him as his safest guard.

But all the festivity and pomp of these nuptials ended in the murder of Philip ; and it was his refusal to do an act of - justice that occasioned his death. Some tinie before, Attatalus, inflamed with wine at an entertainment, had insulted in the most shocking manner, Pausanias, a young Macedonian nobleman. The latter had long endeavoured to revenge the cruel affront, and was perpetually imploring the king's justice.' Bút Philip, unwilling to disgust Attalus, uncle to Cleopatra, whom, as was before observed, he had married after his divorcing Olympias, his first queen, would never listen to Pausanias' complaints. However, to console him in some measure, and to express the high esteem he had.for, and the great confidence he reposed in him, he made him one of the chief officers of his life-guard. But this was not what the young Macedonian required, whose anger now swelling to fury against his judge, he forms the design of wiping out his shame, by embruing his hands in the most horrid murder.

When once a man is determined to die, he is vastly strong and formidable. Pausanias, the better to put his bloody design in execution, chose the instant of that pompous cere• mony, when the eyes of the whole multitude were fixed on the prince ; doubtless to make his vengeance more conspic

uous, and proportion it to the injury for which he conceived she had a right to make the king responsible, as he had long

solicited that prince in vain, for the satisfaction due to him. Seeing him therefore alone, in the great space which his guards left round him, he advances forward, stabs him with a dagger, and lays him dead at his feet. Diodorus observes, that he was assassinated the very instant his statue entered the theatre, The assassin had prepared horses ready for his escape, and would have got off, had not an accident happened which stopped him, and gave the pursuers time to overtake him. Pausanias was immediately torn to piecą es upon the spot. Thus died Philip, at 47 years of age, after having reigned 24.* Artaxerxes Ochus, king of Persia, dia ed also the same year.

AM 3668, Ant ; C 336 Æschia contra ctcliph p 440

· Demosthenes, had private notice sent him of Philip's death -and in order to prepare the Athenians to resume their courage, he went to the council with an air of joy, and said, that the night before he had a dream, which promised some great felicity to the Athenians. A little after, couriers arrived with the news of Philip's death, on which occasion the people abandoned themselves to the transports of immoderate joy, which far exceeded all bounds of decency. Demosthe. nes, had particularly inspired them with these sentiments; for he himself appeared in public crowned with a wreath of flowers, and dressed with the utmost magnificence, though his daughter had been dead but seven days. He also en: gaged the Athenians to offer sacrifices, to thank the gods for the good news; and by a decree, ordained a crown to Pausanias, who had committed the murder.

On this occasion Demosthenes and the Athenians acted quite out of character ; and we can scarce conceive how it came to pass, that in so detestable a crime as the murder of a king, policy at least did not induce them to dissemble such sentiments as reflects dishonour on them, without being at all to their advantage ; and which showed that honour and probity were utterly extinct in their minds.

SECTION VIII. MEMORABLE ACTIONS AND SAYINGS OF PHILIP.GOOD

AND BAD QUALITIES OF THAT PRINCE. There

are, in the lives of great men, certain facts and expressions which often give us a better idea of their character than their most shining actions; because, in the latter, they generally study their conduct, act a borrowed part, and propose themselves to the view of the world ; whereas in the former, as they speak and act from nature, they exhibit themselves such as they really are, without art and disguise. M. de Tourreil has collected with sufficient industry most of the memorable actions and sayings of Phllip; and he has been particularly careful to draw the character of this prince. "The reader is not to expect much order and connection in the recital of these detached actions and sayings.

Though Philip loved flattery, so far as to reward the ad. ulation of Thrasideus with the title of king in Thessaly, he however at some intervals loved truth. He permitted * Aristotle to give him precepts on the art of reigning. He de. clared, that he was obliged to the Athenian orators for hav

*Arik, Epit, Plut, in Apoph p. 179-Ælian, lib, viii, c 26

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