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this horse'; but upon trial he appeared so very fierce, and pranced about in so furious a manner, that no one dared to mount him, Philip, being angry that so furious and unmapageable a creature had been sent him, gave orders for their carrying him back again. Alexander, who was present at that time, cried out, “what a noble horse they are going to lose, for want of address and bokiness to back him!” Philip at first considered these words as the effect of folly and rash. ness, so common to young men : but as Alexander insisted still more upou what he had said, and was very much vexed to see so noble a creature, just going to be sent home again, his father gave him leave to try what he could do. The young prince, overjoyed at this permission, goes up to Buce. phalus, takes hold of the bridle, and turns his head to the sun; having observed that the thing which frighted him was his own shadow, he seeing it dance about, or sink down, in proportion as he moved. He therefore first stroked him gently with his hand, and soothed him with his voice ; then seeing his mettle abate, and artfully taking his opportunity; he let fall his cloak, and springing swiftly upon his back, first slackens the rein, without once striking or vexing him; and when he perceived that his fire was cooled, that he was no longer so furious and violent, and wanted only to move forward, he gave him the rein, and spurring him with great vigour, animated him with his voice to his full speed. While this was doing, Philip and lis whole court trembled for fear, and did not once open their lips ; but when the prince, after having run his first heat, returned with joy and pride, at his having broké a horse which was judged absolutely ungovernable, all the courtiers in general endeavoured to outrie one another in their applauses and congratulations, and we are told Philip shed tears of joy on this occasion, and embra. cing Alexander after he was alighted, and kissing his head; he said to him, "my son, seek a kingdom more worthy of thee, for Macedon is below thy merit."?

We are told a great many suprising particulars of this Bu« cephalus ; for whatever had any relation to Alexander was to be of the marvellous kind. *When this creature was sada dled and equipped for battle, he would suffer no one to back him but his master; and it would not have been safe for any other person to go near him. Whenever Alexander wanted to mount him, he would kneel down upon his two-fore feet. According to some historians; in the battle against Porus, where Alexander had plunged too imprudently amidst a body of the enemy, his horse, though wounded in every part of

Aul. Gel, 1, v. C 2.

his body,' did however exert himself in so vigorous a man. ner, that he saved his master's life ; and notwithstanding the deep wounds he had received, and though almost spent thro' the great effüsion of blood, he brought off Alexander from among the combatants, and carried him with inexpressible vigour to a place of security ; where perceiving fthe king was no longer'in danger, and overjoyed in some measure at the service he had done him, he expired. This indeer is a very noble end for a horse.' Others say, that Bucephalus, quite worn out, died at 30 years of age. Alexander bewailed his death bitterly, believing that he had lost in him a most faithfuil and affectionate friend, and afterwards built a city on the very spot where he was buried, near the river Hydas. pes, and called it Bucephalia in honour of him.

I have related elsewhere, that Alexander, at 16 years of age, was appointed regent of Macedonia, and invested with absolute authority during his father's absenice ; that he be. haved with great prudence and bravery ; and that he after.. wards distinguished himself in a most signal manner at the battle of Chæronea.

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SECTION II. ÅLEXANDER ASCENDS THE THRONE.DECLARED GEN: ERALISSIMO OF THE GREEKS AGAINST

THE PERSIANS. DARIUS and Alexandert began to reign the same year : the latter was but 20 when he succeeded to the crown. His first care was to solemnize the funeral obsequies of his father with the utmost pomp, and to revenge his death.

Upon his accession to the throne, he saw himself surrounded with extreme dangers. The barbarous nations against whom Philip had fought during his whole reign, and from whom he had made several conquests; which he had united to his crown, after having dethroned their natural kings, thought proper to take the advantage of this juncture in which a new prince, who was but young, had ascended the throne, for recovering their liberty, and uniting against, the common usurper. Nor was he under less apprehensions from Greece. Philip, though he liad permitted the several

+Et domini jam superstitis securus, quaß cum fensus humani folatio, animam expiravit--Aul. Gel.

AM 3668-AD, J, C, 386-Plut, in Ales, p, 670,672-Diod 1, xvii,.p, 486, 489--- Ariao, 1, i, de expedit, Ales, P, 2–23..

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cities and commonwealths to continue their ancient form of gorernment, had however entirely changed it in reality, and made himself absolute master of it. Though he were absent, he nevertheless ruled-in all assemblies; and not a single resolution was taken, but in subordination to his will. Though he had subdued all Greece, either by the terror of his arms, or the secret machinations of policy, he had uot had time sufficient to subject and accustom it to his power, but had left all things in it in great ferment and disorder, the minds of the vanquished not being yet calmed or moulded to subjection.

The Macedonians reflecting on this precarious situation of things, advised Alexander to relinquish Greece, and not persist in his resolution of subduing it by force ;* to recover by gentle methods the barbarians who had taken arms, and to sooth, as it were, those glimmerings of revolt and innovation by prudent reserve, complacency; and insinuation, in or der to conciliate affection. However, Alexander would not listen to these timorous councils, but resolved to secure and support his affairs" by boldness and magnanimity; famly persuaded that should he relax in any point at first, all his neighbours would fall upon him ; and that, were he to endeavour to compromise matters, he should be obliged to give up all Philip's conquests, and by that means confine his dominions to the narrow limits of Macedon.. He therefore made all possible haste to check the arms of the barbarians, by marching his troops to the banks of the Danube, which he crossed in one night. He defeated the king of the 'Tri-balli' in a great battle ; made the Getæ fly at his approach ; subdued several barbarous nations, some by the terror of his name, and others by force of arms ; and notwithstanding the arrogantt answer of their ambassadors, he taught them to dread a danger still more near them, than the falling of the sky and planets.

Whilst Alexander was thus employed at a distance, emong the barbarians, all the cities of Greece, who were an-imated more particularly by Demosthenes, formred a powe crful alliance against that prince. Ą false report which prevailed of his death, inspired the Thebans with a boldness that proved their ruin. They cut to pieces part of tlie Ma* Therapewein tas archas toon neoterismoon.

Alexander imagining that his name only had struck these people wirb terror, asked their ambassadors what things they dreaded most? They replied, with a haughey tone of voice, that they were afraid of roshirg buo tbe falling of thc sky and stars.

cedonian garrison in their citadel. *Demosthenes, on the other side, was every day haranguing the people; and fired with contempt for Alexander, whom he called a child and a hair-brained boyt, he assured the Athenians, with a deci. sive tone of voice, that they had nothing to fear from the new king of Macedon, who did not dare to stir out of his kingdom, but would think himself vastly happy could he sit peaceeably on his throne. At the same time he writ letters upon letters to Attalus, one of Philip's lieutenants in Asia Minor, to excite him to rebel. This Attalus was uncle to Cleopatra, Philip's second wife, and was very much disposed to listen to Demosthenes' proposals. Nevertheless, as Alexander was grown very diffident of him, for which he knew there was but too much reason, he therefore, to eradicate from his mind all the suspicions he might entertain, and the better to screen his designs, sent ali Demosthenes' letters to that prince. . But Alexander saw through all his artifices, and thereupon ordered Hecatæus, one of his commanders, whom he had sent into Asia for that purpose, to have him assassinated, which was executed accordingly. Attalus' đeath restored tranquillity to the army, and entirely destroyed the seeds of discord and rebellion.

When Alexander had secured his kingdom from the barbarians, he marched with the utmost expedition towards Greece, and passed the Thermopylæ. He then spoke'as follows to those who accompanied him: “Demosthenes cal" led me in his orations, a child when I was in Illyria, and es

among the Triballi ; he called me a young man when I was in Thessaly ; and I must now show him before the -66 walls of Athens, that I am a man grown.” He appeared

50 suddenly in Bæotia, that the Thebans could scarce believe their eyes ; and being come before their walls he was wiling to give them time to repent, and only demanded to have Phønix and Prothutes, the two chief ring leaders of the revolt, delivered up to him; and published, by sound of trumpet, a general pardon to all who shall come over to him. But the Thebans, by way of insult, demanded to have Philotas and Antipater delivered to them; and invited by a de. claration, all who were solicitous for the liberty of Greece, to join with them in its defence.

Alexander finding it impossible for him to get the better of their obstinacy by offers of peace, 'saw with grief that he

Archio. contra Ctesiph P, 454. i + It is margites in Greek, a word which sigailies many thing in that language. AM 3670-AntJ t 334.

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should be forced to einploy his power, and decide the affair by force of arnis. A great battle was thereupon fought, in which the Thebans exerted themselves with a bravery and ardour much beyond their strength, for the enemy exceeded them vastly in numbers : but after a long and vigorous resistance, such as survived of the Macedonian garrison in the citadel coming down from it, and charging the Thebans in the rear, surrounded on all sides, the greatest part of thens were cut to pieces, and the city was taken and plundered.

It would be impossible for words to express the dreadful calamities, which the Thebans suffered on this occasion. Some Thracians having pulled down the house of a virtuous lady of quality, Timoclea by name, carried off all her goods and treasures; and their captain having seized the lady, and satiated his brutal lust with her, afterwards enquired whether she had not coacealed gold and silver. Timoclea, animated by an ardent desire of revenge, replying that she had hid some, took him with herself only into her garden, and showing him a well, told him, that the instant she saw the enemy enter the city, she herself had thrown into it the most valuable things in her possession. . The officer, over. joyed at what lie heard, drew near the well, and stooping down to sve its depth, Timoclea, who was behind, pushing him with all her strength, threw him into the well, and afterwards killed him with great stones which she threw upon him. She was instantly seized by the Thracians, and, being bound in chains, was carried before Alexander. The prince perceived immediately by her mien, that she was a woman of quality and great spirit, for she followed those brutal wretches with a very haughty air, and without discovering the least fear. Alexander asking her who she was, Timoclea replied, I am sister to Theagenes who kought against Philip for the liberty of Greece, and was killed in the battle of Chæronea, where he commanded. The prince, admiring the generous answer of that lady, and still more the action that she had done, gave orders that she should have leave to retire wherever she pleased with her children.

Alexander then debated in council how to act with regard to Thebes. The Phocæans and the people of Platæa, Thespiæ, and Orchomends, who were all in alliance with Alex. ander, and had shared in his victory, represented to him the cruel treatment they had met with from the 'Thebans, who also had destroyed their several cities, and reproached them with the zeal, which they had always discovered in favour of the Persians against the Greeks, who held them in the utmost detestation ; the proof of which, was the dath

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