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they all had taken to destroy Thebes, after they should have vanquished the Persians.
Cleades, one of the prisoners, being permitted to speak, endeavonred to excuse, in some measure, the revolt of the Thebans, a fault which, in his opinion, shonld be imputed to a rash and credulous imprudence, rativer than to depravity of will and declared perfd. He remonstrated, that his countrymen, upon a false report of Alexander's death, had indeed too vashly btoke into rebellion, not against the king, but against his successors : that what crimes soever they might have committed, they had been punished for them with the utmost severity, by the dreadfal calamity which had befallen their city, that there now remained in it none but women, cirildren, and old meri, front whom they had nothing to fear, and who were so much the greater objects of compassion, as they had been noways concerned in the revolt. He concluded with reminding Alexander, that
Thebes, which had given birth to so many gods and herees, several of whom were that king's ancestor's, had also been the seat of lais father Philip's rising glory, and like a sec. ond native country to him.
These motives, which Cleades urged, were very strong and powerful'; nevertheless, the anger of the conqueror prevailed, and the city was destroyed. However, he set ät liberty the priests ; all such as had right of hospitality with the Macedonians ; the descendants of Pindar, the fa. mous poet, who had done so much honour to Greece ; and · snch as had opposed the revolt : but all tlie rest, in number about 30,000, he sold, and upwards of 6000 had been killed in battle, The Athenians were so sensibly afflicted at the sad disaster which had befallen Thebes, that being about to solemnise the festival of the great mysteries, they suspended them, upon account of their extreme grief, and received with the greatest humanity all those who had hed from the battle, and the plunder of Thebes, and made Athens their asylum.
Alexander's so sudden arrival in Greece, had very much abated the haughtiness of the Athenians, and extinguished Demosthenes' vehemence and fire ; but the ruin of Thebes, which was still more sudden, threw theny into the utmost consternation. They therefore had recourse to entreaties, and sent a deputation to Alexander, to implore his clemency. Demosthenes was among them ; but he was no soonerarri. ved at mount Cytheron, than, dreading the anger of that prince, he quitted the embassy, and returned home.
Immediately Alexander sent to Athens, requiring the cita izens to deliver up to him ten orators, whom he supposed to have been the chief instruments, in forming the league which Philip his father had defeated at Chæronea. It was on this occasion Demosthenes related to the people the fable of the wolves and dogs, in which it is supposed, “that the 6 wolves one day told the sheep, that in case they desired to “be at peace with them, they must deliver up to them the “ dogs who were their guard." The application was easy and natural, especially with respect to the orators, who were justly compared to dogs, whose duty is to watch, tó bark, and to fight, in order to save the lives of the flock. i In this prodigious dilemma of the Athenians, who could not prevail with themselves to deliver up their orators to certain death, though they had no other way to save their city, Demades, whom Alexander had honoured with his .friendship, offered to undertake the embassy alone, and intercede for them. The king, whether he had satiated his revenge, or endeavonred to.blot out if possible, by some act of clemency, the barbarous action he had just before committed ; or rather, to remove the several obstacles which might retard the execution of his grand design, and by that means not leave, during his absence, the least pretence for murmurs; waved his demand with regard to the delivery of the orators, and was pacified by their sending Caridemus into banishment, who being a native of *Oræa, had been presented by the Athenians with his freedom, for the services he had done the republic. He was son-in-law to Cher. sobleptus, king of Thrace ; had learned the art of war under Iphicrates ; and had himself frequently commanded the Athenian armies. To avoid the pursuit of Alexander, he took refuge with the king of Persia.
As for the Athenians he not only forgave them, the several injuries he pretended to have received, but expressed a-patticular regard for thema, exhorting them to apply themselves vigorously to public affairs, and to keep a watchful eye over the several transactions which might happen ; because, in case of his death, their city was to give law to the rest of Greece. Historians' relate, that many years after this'expedition, he was seized with deep remorse for the calamity he had brought upon the Thebans, and that this made him behave with much greater humanity towards many other na. tions.
So dreadful an example of severity towards so powerful a city as Thebes, spread the terror of his arras through all Greece, and made all things give way before him. He sún. moned at Corinth, the *assembly of the several states and
A city of Eubea,
free cities of Greece, to obtain from them the same supreme command against the Persians, as had been granted his father a little before his death. No diet over debated on a more important subject. It was the western world deliberating upon the ruin of the east, and the methods for executing a revenge suspended more than an age. The assembly held at this time will give rise 10 events, the relation of which will appear astonishing and almost incredible ; and to revo lutions which will change the disposition of mast things in the world,
To form such a design required a prince bold, enterprising, and experienced in war; one of great views, who baving acquired a mighty name by his exploits, was not to be intimidated by dangers, noy checked by obstacles ; but above all, a monarch who had a supreme authority over all the states of Greece, pone of which, singly, was powerful enough to make so arduous an attempt ; and whiot requir ed, in order for their acting in concert, to be subject to one chief, who might give motion to the several parts of that great body, by making them all concor to the same end. Such a prince was Alexander. It was not difficult for him to rekindle in the minds of the people their ancient hatred of the Persians, their perpetual and irreconcileable enernies ; whose destruction they had more than once sworn, and whom they had determined to extirpate, in case an opportunity should present itself for that purpose ; a hatred, which the intestine feuds of the Greeks might indeed have suspended, but could never extinguish. The immortal res treat of the ten thousand Greeks, notwithstanding the vigorous opposition of the prodigons army of the Persians ; the terror which Agesilaus, with a handful of men, had struck even as far as Susa, shewed plainly what might be expected from an army, composed of the flower of the for ces of all the cities of Greece, and those of Macedon, com mandled by generals and officers formed under Philip, and, to say all in a word, led by Alexander. The deliberations of the assembly were therefore very short, and that prince pas unanimously appointed generaliesimo against the Per
Immediately a great number of officers and governors of : cities, with many philosophers, waited upon Alexander, to
Congratulate him upon his election. He fatteret himself that Diogenes of Sinope, who was then at Corinth, would also come like the rest, and pay his compliments. This phi
*Plutarch places that diet or assembly here, but others for it eartier ; whence Dr. Pridsaur supposed it was summoned twice
losopher, who entertained a very mean idea of grandeur, thought it improper to congratulate men just upon their exaltation ; but that mankind ought to wait till those persons have performed actions worthy of their high stations. Diogenes therefore did not stir out of his house ; upon which Alexander, attended by all his courtiers, made him a visit. The philosopher was at that time lying down in the sun ; but seeing so great a crowd of people advancing towards him, he sat up, and fixed his eyes on Alexander. This prince, surprised to see so famous a philosopher reduced to such extreme poveriy, after saluting him in the kindest manner, asked whether he wanted any thing? Diogenes replied, "yes, that you would stand a little out of my sun-shine."This answer raised the contempt and indignation of all the courtiers ; but the monarch, struck with the philosopher's greatness of soul, “were I not Alexander," says he, “ I would be Diogenes." A very profound sense lies hid in this expres. sion, that shows perfectly the bent and disposition of the heart of man. Alexander is sensible that he is formed to possess all things ; such is his destiny, in which he makes his happiness to consist : but then in case he should not be able to com.. pass hís ends, he is also sensible, that to be happy, he must endeavour to bring his mind to such a frame as to want nothing. In a word, all or nothing presents us with the true image of Alexander and Diogenes: * How great and powerful scever that prince might think himself, he could not deny himself, on this occasion, inferior to'a man, to whom he could give, and from whom he could take nothing! .. Alexander, before he set out for Asia, was determined to consult the oracle of Apolo. He therefore went to Delphos: he happened to arrive at it on those days which are called unlucky, a season in which people were forbid consulting the oracle ; and accordingly the priestess refused to go to the temple. , But Alexander, who could not bear any contradiction
to his will, took her forcibly by the arm; and as he was leading her to the temple, she cried out, “ tmy son, thou art & irresistible." . This was all he desired ; and catching hold of these words, which he considered as spoké by the oracle, he set out for Macedonia, in order to make preparatioris': for his great expedition.
. Homo supra mcosuram humanæ superbiæ tumens, vidit aliquem, cai nes darç quidquam posset, ncc eripere. Sensc. de benefid. v.c. 66 · Aniketos ei o hai.
NOTE WITH REGARD TO THE SEQUEL OF THIS HISTORY;
I could have wished, and it was even my design, to prefix to the exploits of Alexander a geographical map, as did to those of Cyrus the younger ; this being of great assistance to the reader, and enables him to follow the hero in all his conquests. But it was not in my power to do this here, the map of Alexander's conquests being too large to be conveniently inserted in a duodecimo. 'But to supply, in some measure, tus defect, I shall here give, in one view, a short account of those countries through which Alexander passed, till his return from India.
Alexander sets out from Macedonia, which is part of Tur. key in Europe, and crosses the Hellespont, or the straits of the Dardanelles.
He crosses Asia Minor, (Natolia) where he fa;hts two battles; the first at the pass of the river Granicus, and the second near the city of Issus,
After this second battle, he enters Syria and Palestine ; goes into Egypt, where he buildsAlexandria,on one of the arms of the Nile; advances as far as Lybia, to the temple of Jupiter Ammon; whence he returns back, arrives at Tyre, and from thence marches towards the Euphrates.
He crosses that river, then the Tigris, and gains the cel. ebrated victory of Arbela possesses himself of † Babylon, and Ecbatana, the chief city of Media.
From thence he passes into Hyrcania, to the sea which goes by that name, otherwise called the Caspian Sea ; and enters Parthia, Drangiana, and the country of Paropamisus.
He afteryards goes into Bactriana and Sogdiana ; advançes as far as the river laxarthes, culled by Q. Curtius the Tanais, the farther side of which is inhabited by the Scythi. ans, whose country forms part of Great Tartary.
Alexander, after having gone through various countries, crosses the river Indus, enters India, which lies on this side the Ganges, and forms part of the Grand Mogul's empire, and advances very near the river Ganges, which he also intended to pass, had not his army refused to follow him. He therefore contents himself with marching to view the ocean, and goes down the river Indus to its mouth.
From Macedonia to the Ganges, almost to which river Alexander marched, is computed at least 1100 leagues.
Add to this the various turnings in Alexander's marches ; first from the extremity of Cilicia, where the battle of Issus was fought, to the temple of Jupiter Ammon in Lybia ; and his returning from thence to Tyre, a journey of 300 leagues
• The capital of Babylonia,