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at least, and as much space at least for the windings of his route in different places; we shall find that Alexander, in less than eight years, marched his army upwards of 1700 leagues without including his return to Babylon.


Alexander being arrived in his kingdom,* held a coudcil with the chief officers of his army, and the grandees of his court, on the expedition he meditated against Persia, and the measures he should take in order to succeed in it. The whole assenibly was unanimous, except on one article. An. tipater and Parmenio were of opinion, that the king, before he engaged in an enterprise which would necessarily be à long one, ought to make choice of a consort, in order to secure himself a successor to his throne. But Alexander, who was of a violent fiery temper, did not approve of this advice; and believed, that after he had been nominated generalissimo of the Greeks, and that his father had left him an invincible army, it would be a shame for him to lose his time in solemnising his nuptials, and waiting for the fruits of it; for which reason he determined to set out immediately.

Accordingly he offered up very splendid sacrifices to the gods, and caused to be celebrated at Dia, a city of Macedon, + scenical games, that had been instituted by one of his an cestors in honour of Jupiter and the Muses. This festival continued nine days, agreeably to the number of those gode desses. He had a tent raised large'enough to hold 100 tables, on which consequently 900 covers might be laid. To this feast, the several princes of his family, all the ambassadors, generals, and officers, were invited. He also treated his. whole army. It was then he had the famous vision, in which he was exhorted to march speedily into Asia, of which mention will be made in the sequel.

Before he set out upon this expedition, he settled the af. fairs of Macedon, over which he appointed Antipater as viceroy, with 12,000 foot, and near the same number of horse.

* A. M. 3670. Ant. J. C. 334,

Diod, l. xvii. p. 499-503. Arriao. I. i. p. 23–36. Plut. in Alex. p. 672, 673. Justin. I. zi, C. 5,6,

+ Theatrical games were so called, Joseph. Antigit. lib. xi.

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He also inquired into the domestic affairs of his friends, giving to one an estate in land, to anothen a village, to a third the revenues of a town, to a fourth the toll of an, harbour. And

the revenues of his demesnes were already em, ployed and exhausted by his donations, Perdiceas said to him,

my lord, what is it you reserve for yourself?”. Alexander. replying hopes, says Perdiccas, “the same hope ought

therefore, to satisfy us ; arkl so refused very generously to accept of what the king had appointed him.

The kyowledge of the human heart, and the art of govern ing it, is of great importance to a prince. Now wllexander was sensible, that this secret.copsists in making it the inters est of every individual to promote his grandeur , and to goka ern his subjects in such a manner, that they may, feel his pows er by no other,marks: than, his bounty : It is then that the is terest of every person unites with that of the prince. They are one's own possessions, one's own happiness, which we love in his person ; and we are so many times attached to him, and by, as close tiesu 46 there are things we love and receive from him. All the sequel of tluis history, will Siow that no person ever made a more happy use of this maxin than Alexander, who thought liimself raised to the throne merely that he might do goods and indeed his liberality, which was truly royal, mas neither satisfietl nor ex. hausted by

after having completely settled bis affairs i Macedon, and used ail the precautions imaginable sto prel vent any troubles, from, arising in it during his absence, set. out for Asia in the beginning of the spring His-army consisted little

more than 30,900,foot, and 4 or 5000 horse ; bat then they were all brave merrs were well disciplinedy,

ingred to fatigues ; hád made several campaigns under. Philip and were each of them,* in case of necessity, capable of commanding. Most of the gfficers were near 60 years. of age, and when they were either assemblecat or drawn up at the head of a camp, they had the air of a venerable senate. Parinenio commanded the infażytyy.7: Philotas, his song had 1800'horset under him; and Callas, the son of Harpalus, the same number of Thessalian cavalry.1: The rest of the horse, who were composed of natives of the several states of Greece, and amounted to 600, had their particular como Justin on tam milites, quam magistros militia

Ut, si principia castrorum cerneres, scnatum le alicujus prisce -Teip. videre dicercs.

These were au Macedonians.

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مر د و ا . ل . له به ندی پر را، رمانی به .xi

mander. The Thracians and Paonians, who were always in front, were headed by Cassander. Alexander began his route along the lake Cercinum towards Amphipolis ; crossed the river Strymon, near its mouth; afterwards the He. brus, and arrived at Sestos after 20 days march. He then commanded Parmenio to cross over from Sestos to Abydos, with all the horse and part of the foot : which he accordingly did by the assistance of 160 galleys, and several flat-bottomed vessels. As for Alexander, he went from Eleontum to the port of the Achaians, himself steering his own galley ; and being got to the middle of the Hellespont, he sacrificed a bull to Neptune and the Nereids ; 'and made effusions in the sea from a golden cup. It is also related, that after hav, ing thrown a javelin at the land, as thereby to take possession of it, he landed the first in Asia and leaping from the ship completely armed, and in the highest transports of joy, he erected altars on the shore to Jupiter, to Minerva, and to Hercules, for having favoured him with so propitious a descent. He had done the same at his leaving Europe.

He depended so entirely on the happy success of his arms, and the rich spoils he should find in Asia, that he had made very little provision for so great an expedition ; persuaded that war, when carried on successfully, would supply all things necessary for war. He had but 70 * talents in money, to pay his army, and only a month's provision. I before observed, that he had divided his patrimony among his generals and officers; and a circumstance of great, that he had inspired his soldiers with so much courage and security, that they fancied they marched, not to precarious war, but certain victory.

+ Being arrived at the city of Lampsacus, which he was determined to in order to punish the rebellion of its

a native of that place, came to him. This man, who was a famous historian, had been very inhabitants, destroyes, intimate with Philip his father; and Alexander himself had a great esteem for him, having been his pupil. The king suspecting the business he was come upon, to be beforehand with him, swore, in express terms, that he would never grant his request. “The favour I have to desire of you," says Anaximenes, "is, that you would destroy Lampsacus. By this witty evasion the historian saved his country.

From thence Alexander arrived at Ilion, where he paid great honours to the manes of Achilles, and caused games to be celebrated round his tomb. He admired and envied the double felicity of that renowned Grecian, in having found Thivoo, crowne

Val Mar, 1 yii, c. 3.


during his life-time a faithful friend in Patroclus ; and after his death, a herald in Homer worthy the greatness of his exploits. And indeed, had it not been for the Iliad, the name of Achilles would have perished in the same grave with his body.

At last Alexander arrived on the banks of the Granicus, a river of Phrygia. The satrapz, or deputy-lieutenants, waited his coming on the other side of it, firmly resolved to dis. pute the passage with him. Their army consisted of +100,000 foot, and upwards of 10,000 horse. Memnon, who was a Rhodian, and commanded under Darius all the coast of Asia, Had advised the generals not to venture a battle ; but to lay waste the plains, and even the cities, thereby to starve Alexander's army, and obligè him to return back into Europe. Memnon was the best of all Darius' génerals, and had been the principal agent in his victories. It is not easy to determine what we ought to admire most in him ; whether his great wisdom in council, his courage and capacity in the field, or his zeal and attachment to his sovereign. The council he

save on this occasion was excellent, when we consider that his enemy was fiery and ímpetuous; had neither town, magazine, nor place of retreat ; that he was entering a country to which he was absolutely a stranger, inhabited by enemies; that delays alone would weaken and ruin him; and that his only hopes lay in giving battle immediately. But Arsites, a Phrygian satrap, opposed the opinion of Memnon, and protested he would never suffer the Grecians to make such havoc in the territories he governed. This ill council prevailed over that of the foreigner, Memnon, whom the Persians, to their great prejudice, suspected of a design to protract the war, and by that means make himself necessary to Darius.

Alexander, in the mean time, marched on at the head of his heavy-armed infantry drawn up in two lines, with the cavalry in the wings: the baggage followed in the rear, Bea. ing arrived upon the banks of the Granicus, Parmenio advised him to encamp there in battle-array, in order that his forcés might have time to rest themselves; and not to pass the river till very early next morning, because the enemy

Com in Sigão ad Achilles camolum constitisser; fortubate, io quit, adolescens, qui tuæ virtutis Homerum præconem invcneris! Et vere. Nam, nisi Hias illa extitisset, idem tumulas, qui corpus cjus tontexerat, ctiam nomen obruisset. Cic, pro Arch. o. 24.

# According to Justin, their army consisted of 600.000 foot, whereas Arrian declares there were no more than 20,000.Both these accounts are improbable, and there is doubelco sopos fauk in the tere, and I follow Diodorus Siculus

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would then be less able to prevent him, He added, that it would be too dangerous to attempt crossing

a river in sight ,, of an enemy, especially as that before them was deep, and

its banks very craggy, so that tlie Persian cavalry, who waited their coming in battle array, on the other side, might easily defeat them before they were drawn up. , That, be sides the loss which would be sustained on this occasion, this enterprise, in case it sliould prove unsiccessful, would be of dangerous conseñuence to their future affairs; the fame and glory of arms depending on the first actions

However, these reasons were not able to make the least inpression on Alexander, who declared that it would be a shame, should he, after crossing the Hellespont, suffer his progress to be retarded by a raculet, for so he called the Granicus out of contempt: that they ought to take advantage of the terror which the suddenness of his arrival, and the boldnese of his attenipt liad spread among tlie Persians; and ans. Wer tre high opinion the world"conceived of his courage, and the valour of the Macedonians. The enemy's horse, which was

very mumerous, lined the whole shore, and form ed a large front, in order to opposé Alexander, wherever he shğuld endeavour to pass; andi the foot, which consisted chiefly of Greeks, in Darius service, was posted behind, upon an easy ascent.

The two armies continued a long time in sight of each oths er, on the banks of the river, as if dreading the event. Thie Persians waited till the Macedonians should enter the river, in order to charge them to advantage tipon their landing; and the latter seemed to be making choice of a plaçe proper for crossing, and to survey the countenance of their enemies. Upon this, Alexander having ordered his horse to be brought, commanded the noblemen of the court'to 15llow him, and be. have gallantly. He

himself commanded the right wing, and Parmenio the left. The king first caused a strong detachment to march into the river, himşelf following it with the rest of the forces. He made Parmenio advance afterwards with the left wing. Tle himself led on the right wing into the river, followed by the rest of the troops the trunipets sounding, and the whole army raising cries of joy.

The Persians, seeing this detachment advance forward, began to let

fly their arrows, and march to a place where the declivity was not so great, in order to keep the Macedo. nians from landing. But now the horse engaged with great furys one part endeavouring to land, and the other striving to prevent them. The Macedonians, whose cavalry was vastly inferior in, number, besides the disadvantage of their ground, were wounded

with the darts

that were shot from the

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