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Language, importance of the science Language, glance at the modern
of, 33.

history of language, 173.
realm of, 35.

distinction between the radical
the growth of, in contradistinc- and formal elements of, 215.
tion to the history of, 38.

constituent elements of, 250.
Dr. Whewell on the classifica- morphological classification,
tion of, 38 note.

275, 286.
examination of objections the inflectional stage of, 324.

against the science of, as a consideration of the problem
physical science, 39.

of a common origin of lan-
considered as an invention of guages, 326 et seq;
man, 39.

former theories, 345.
the science of, considered as a proper method of inquiry, 347.
historical science, 42.

man and brutes, faculties of, 350.
historical changes of, 44.

the difference between man and
almost stationary amongst brute, 354.

highly civilized nations, 45. the inward power of which lan-
growth of, 47.

guage is the outward sign and
the idea that man can change manifestation, 355.

or improve language exam- universal ideas, 356.
ined, 18.

general ideas and roots, 356.
causes of the growth of, 50.

the primum cognitum and pri-
processes of the growth of:-

mum appellatum, 370.
1. phonetic decay, 51.

knowing and naming, 378.
2. dialectical regeneration, 58. language and reason, 383.
laws of change in, 73.

sound and thought, 384.
futile attempts of single gram- natural selection of roots, 386.
marians and purists to im- nothing arbitrary in language,
prove, 75.

connection between language origin and confusion of tongues,
and history, 77.

independent of historical events, the radical stage of language,

285, 286.
no possibility of a mixed, 82. the terminational stage, 285,
the Empirical Stage in the his-

torical progress of the science the inflectional stage, 285.
of, 87.

Languages, number of known, 35.
- speculations of the Brahmans teaching of foreign languages
and Greeks, 87.

comparatively a modern in-
the classificatory stage of, 115. vention, 91.
empirical or formal grammar, reason why the ancient Greeks

never learned foreign lan-
genealogical classification of,

The Mountain of Languages,”
Hervas's catalogue of works 93.
published during the 16th genealogical classification of,
century on the science of lan-

guage, 131 note.

tests for reducing the principal
Leibniz, 135 et seq.

dialects in Europe and Asia to
Hervas, 139.

certain families of languages,
Adelung, 142.

Catherine the Great, 143.

genealogical classification not
importance of the discovery of applicable to all languages,
Sanskrit, 146, 170.

value of comparative grammar, radical relationship, 176.

comparative grammar, 214.


guages, 91.

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Languages, formal and radical ele- Locative, formation of the, in all the
ments of, 216.

Aryau languages, 219.
all formal elements of language in Chinese, 119 note, 218.
originally substantial, 228.

in Latin, 220.
degrees of relationship of, 284. Locke, John, on language as the
all languages reducible in the barrier between

end to roots, 286.

brutes, quoted, 24.
Langue d'Oil, ancient song in the, on universal ideas, quoted,

Laps, or Laplanders, 319.

his opinion on the origin of
their habitat, 319.

language, 40.
their language, 319.

Lord, origin of the word, 122.
Latin, what is meant by, 67. Lord's Prayer, number of languages

changes in, according to Poly- in which it was published by va-
bius, 67.

rious authors in the 16th century,
the old Salian poems, 67.

131 note.
provincialisms of Cicero, 67. Lucilius, his book on the reform of
stagnation of Latin when it be- Latin orthography, 109.

came the language of civiliza- Lucina, a name of the moon, 21.
tion, 68.

Luna, origin of the name, 21.
Latin genitives, 117.

Lusatia, language of, 200.
similarity between Gothic and Lycurgus, his travels mythical, 94.

Latin, 127.
genealogical relation of Latin
to Greek, 172.
the future in Latin, 230.

MACEDONIANS, ancient authors on
Leibniz, the first to conquer the pre- the. 125 note.

judice that Hebrew was the Madam, origin of word, 226.
primitive language of man- Mago, the Carthaginian, his book on
kind, 135.

agriculture in Punic, 94 note.
and the first to apply the prin- Man, ancient words for, 381.
ciple of inductive reasoning Man and brutes, faculties of, 349.
to the subject of language, difference between man and

brutes, 354.
his letter to Peter the Great, Mandshu tribes, speaking a Tungu-
quoted, 136.

sic language, 296.
his labors in the science of lan- grammar of, 323.

imitative sounds in, 366 note.
his various studies, 138. Manetho, his study and cultivation
on the formation of thought of the Greek language, 95.

and language, quoted, 373. his work on Egypt, 95.
Lesbos, dialects of the island of, his knowledge of hieroglyphics,

Lettic language, the, 199.

Manka, the Indian, his translations
Lewis, Sir Cornewall, his criticisms from Sanskrit into Persian, 149.

on the theory of Raynouard, 171. Masora, idiom in which it was writ.
Linnæus, his system, although im-

perfect, important to science, 26. Maulána Izzu-d-din Khalid Khani,
Literary languages, origin of, 65. his translations from Sanskrit into
inevitable decay of, 68.

Persian, 150.
Lithuanian language, the, 199. Même, origin of the French word, 57.

the oldest document in, 199. Menander, his study and cultivation
Livius Andronicus, 104.

of the Greek language, 95.
his translation of the Odyssey his work on Phenicia, 95.
into Latin verse, 104.

Mendaites, or Nasoreans, the " Book
Livonians, dialect of the, 318.

of Adam " of the, 279.

guage, 137.

ten, 277.

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Ment, origin of the termination in Nebuchadnezzar, his name stamped
French adverbs, 55.

on all the bricks made during his
Mescheräks, tribe of the, their pres- reign, 283.
ent settlements, 304.

Neo-Latin dialects, 196.
Milton, John, number of words used NeućTCLOI, the, of Constantinus
by, in his works, 267.

Porphyrogeneta, 91 note.
Ming-ti, the Emperor of China, al- Nestorians of Syria, forms and pres-

lows the introduction of Bud- ent condition of their language,
dhism into his empire, 147. 276, note.
sends officials to India to study Nicopolis, battle of, 307.

the doctrines of Buddha, 148. No and nay, as used by Chaucer, 225.
Missionaries, their importance in Nobili, Roberto de, 155.

elucidating the problem of the his study of Sanskrit, 155.

dialectical life of language, 62. Nogái tribes, history of the, 303.
Moallakat, or "suspended poems," Nomad languages, 290.
of the Arabs, 281.

indispensable requirements of
Moffat, Rev. Robert, on the dialects a nomad language, 292.
of Southern Africa, 64.

wealth of, 71.
Monboddo, Lord, on language as the nomadic tribes and their wars,
barrier between man and

brutes, quoted, 24.

their languages, 316.
his “ Ancient Metaphysics" Nominalism and Realism, contro-
quoted, 160 and note.

versy between, in the Middle Ages,
Mongolian dialects, entering a new 22.

phase of grammatical life, 64. Norman words in the English lan-
Mongolian class of languages, 296. guage, proportion of, to Saxon
grammar of, 323.

words, 84.
Mongols, their original seat, 296. Norway, poetry of, 192.
three classes of them, 296.

the hliod or quida, 193.
their conquests, 297.

the two Eddas, 191-194.
dissolution of the empire, 299. Norwegian language, stagnation of
their present state, 300.

the, 70.
their language, 300.

Number of known languages, 35.
Moon, antiquity of the word, 16.
Moravia, devastated by the Mon-

gols, 299.
Mortal, origin of the word, 382. OBSOLETE words and senses since
Much and Very, distinction between, the translation of the Bible in

1611, 45.
Muhammed ben Musa, his translation Onomatopoieia, theory of, 358.

of the Indian treatise on algebra Ophir of the Bible, 203.
into Arabic, 149.

Origen, his opinion that Hebrew was
Mythology, réal nature of, 21, 237. the primitive language of man-

kind, 132
Origin of language, consideration

of the problem of the common,
Nabateans, the, supposed to have

been descendants of the Ormuzd, the god of the Zoroastrians,
Babylonians and Chaldeans, mentioned by ato, 207.

discovery of the name Aura-
the work of Kuthami on “Na- mazda in the cuneiform in-
batean Agriculture," 280.

scriptions, 207.
National languages, origin of, 64. origin of the name Auramazda
Nature, immutability of, in all her or Ormuzd, 207.
works, 42.

Os, the, of Ossethi, calling them-
Dr. Whewell quoted, 42.

selves Iron, 243.

326 et seq.

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Oscan language and literature, the, Persian, subsequent history of Per-

sian, 210.
Osmanli language, the, 301, 306. Peshito, meaning of the word, 276
Ostiakes, dialects of the, 63.

Owl-glass, stories of, 260.

Philolaus, the Pythagorean, his

guess on the motion of the earth

round the sun, 29.


Philology, comparative, science of,
Pâli, once the popular dialect of

Behar, 146.

- a historical science, 32.
Panætius, the Stoic philosopher at aim of the science, 81.
Rome, 107.

Phænician, closely allied to Hebrew,
Pâņini, Sanskrit grammar of, 116. 280.
Pantomime, the, and the King, story Plato, his notion of the origin of the
of, 368.

Greek language, 126.
Paolino de San Bartolomeo, Fra, on Zoroaster, quoted, 206 note.

first Sanskrit grammar published Plautus, Greek words in the plays
by, 142, 158.

of, 104.
Paradise, languages supposed by all his plays mere adaptations

various authors to have been of Greek originals, 104.
spoken in, 135, 136.

Pleiades, the, origin of the word, 17.

, period when it was spoken in Poland invaded by the Mongols,
Persia, 210.

Parsis, or fire-worshippers, the an- Polish, oldest specimens of, 200.
cient, 205.

Polybius, on the changes Latin had
their prosperous colony in Bom- undergone in his time, 67.
bay, 205.

Pons, Father, his report of the liter-
their various emigrations, 205 ary treasures of the Brahmans,

their ancient language, 205, Pott, Professor, his "Etymological

Researches," 167.
Pascatir race, the, 320.

his advocacy of the polygenetic
Pater, origin of the Latin word, 57. theory, 342 note.
Pay, to, origin of the word, 124. Prakrit idioms, the, 146.
Pedro, Padre, the missionary at Prâtiśâkhyas, the, of the Brahmans,
Calicut, 154

Pehlevi, or Huzvaresh language, Priest, origin of the word, 122.

Priscianus, influence of his gram-
Pelasgi, Herodotus on the, 125 note. matical work on later ages, 114.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus on Protagoras, his attempt to change
the, 125 note.

and improve the language of
Percussion, etymology of, 53.

Homer, 48.
Perion, his work on language, 131 Provençal, the daughter of Latin,

Permian tribes and language, 320. not the mother of French, Ita-
Permic branch of the Finnic class of lian, Spanish, and Portuguese,
languages, 319.

the name of Perm, 319.

the earliest Provençal poem,
the Permic tribes, 320.

Persia, origin of the Turkman, or Prussian, the old, language and liter-
Kisilbash of, 302.

ature of, 200.
Persian language, 83.

Ptolemy, his system of astronomy,
influence of the, over the Turk- although wrong, important to sci-

ish language, 83.
- the ancient Persian language. Ptolemy Philadelphus and the Sep-
See Zend, Zend-avesta.

tuagint, 96 note:

ence, 26.

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Ptõsis, meaning of the word in the Rome, influence of Greece on Rome,
language of the Stoics, 111.

Publius Crassus, his knowledge of changes in the intellectual at-
the Greek dialects, 106.

mosphere of, caused by Greek
Pushtú, the language of Afghanistan, civilization. 106.

the religious life of Rome more
Pythagoras, his travels mythical, 94. Greek than Roman, 107.
Pyrrha, original meaning of the expulsion of the Greek gram-
name, 22.

marians and philosophers

from Rome, 108.
compromise between religion

and philosophy, 108.
QUATREMERE on the Ophir of the wide interest excited by gram-
Bible, 204 note.

matical studies in Roman
Quinsy, origin of the word, 380 note. society, 109.
Quintilian, on the changes Latin had Roots or radicals, 252.
undergone in his time, 67.

classes of roots, primary, sec-
on the omission of the final s ondary, and tertiary, 262-264.
in Latin, 68 note.

demonstrative and predicative

roots, 267.
how many forms of speech may

be produced by the free com-
Radical relationship of languages,

bination of these constituent

elements, 275.
Radicals. See Roots.

all languages reducible in the
Rask, Erasmus, his studies of Zend, end to roots, 286.
167, 206.

the radical stage of language,
Raren, the word, 362.

Raynouard, his labors in compara-

general ideas and roots, 356.
tive grammar, 171.

origin of roots, 357.
criticisms of his theory of the the bow-wow theory, 358.
Langue Romane, 171.

the pooh-pooh theory, 366.
Realism and Nominalism, contro- natural selection of roots, 386.

versy between, in the Middle Ages, Russia devastated by the Mongols,

Regeneration, dialectical, one of the

processes which comprise the
growth of language, 58.
Respectable, origin of the word, 256. Sabius, a word not found in classi-
Reval dialect of Esthonian, 318. cal Latin, 103 note.
Rig-Veda, the, quoted, 88 note. Sæmund, Sigfusson, his collection
Romance languages, their Latin or- of songs in Iceland, 193.
igin, 170.

Sagard Gabriel, on the languages of
modifications of, 195.

the Hurons, quoted, 62.
their origin in the ancient Italic Salian poems, the, and later Latin,
languages, 196.

Romane, the Langue, 171.

Sálotar, translation of his work on
Romanese language of the Grisons, veterinary medicine from Sanskrit

into Persian, 150.
translation of the Bible into, Sanskrit, formation of adjectives in,
196 note.

113 note.
lower, or Enghadine, 196 note.

grammar, 116.
Romans, their use of the term Bar- similarity between Greek and,
barian, 127.

Rome, Greek generally spoken at, importance of the discovery of,


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