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In "Fifine at the Fair,” stanza xcii., speaking of Schumann's “ Carnival,” the poet says :

The stuff that's made
To furnish man with thought and feeling is purveyed
Substantially the same from age to age with change
Of the outside only for successive feasters.

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The forms, the themes-no one without its counterpart

Ages ago. Nor do these passages touch the limit of his appreciation of music's permanence.

Witness Don Juan apostrophizing Schumann in stanza xc. of “ Fifine,” and declaring that his thought instead

Of words, sought sounds, and saved for ever, in the same,

Truth that escapes prose, -nay, puts poetry to shame (Italics mine.)

Of music that conserves the assurance, thou as well
Wast certain of the same ! thou, master of the spell,
Mad'st moonbeams marble, didst record what other men

Feel only to forget! (Italics Browning's: they occur in a previous use of the word.)

On account of its title and the magical effect of the hero's playing, “The Pied Piper of Hamelin " is sometimes included among Browning's musical poems. The references to music in it are, however, few and unimportant, and not such as to call for comment here.

It would, of course, show a strange misconception of the function of poetry to estimate the service it renders to an art by the number of implements mentioned. Yet a musician cannot but be interested to observe that in a comparatively short poem like “Charles Avison Browning alludes to no fewer than five musical “forms”—such as Sonata, Fugue, Suite-nine instruments, and fifteen composers !





F all the peoples composing the British Empire to-

day the domiciled Anglo-Indian community is alone, like the helots of Ancient Greece, ineligible to bear arms on behalf of king and country. Individual Anglo-Indians with the requisite colour may and do enter the British Army as Europeans, but as a man of mixed descent* his services will not be entertained by any recruiting officer ; whilst the question of the formation of an Anglo-Indian regiment has been deliberately shelved over and over again. And at the present time, when even the Maori and the Red Indian have been granted the privilege of going to the front, the community's request to take a hand in the struggle has, to its great disappointment be it emphasized, been passed over in mysterious silence. But be this as it may, it is a curious commentary on the supposed unfitness of the country-born for military service that some of the great military leaders who helped to lay the foundation-stones of British Sovereignty in India were men of mixed blood. The writings of the late Mr. E. W. Madge of the Imperial Library have already familiarized the public with the names of Skinner of Skinner's Horse, of Forster, the founder of the 13th Rajputs, and of the Hearseys of Mutiny fame: the aim of this brief sketch is to bring into greater prominence the career of an equally, if not more, distinguished Anglo-Indian soldierthe late Colonel Sir Robert Warburton, K.C.I.E., C.S.I., Warden of the Khyber.

*This disability has just been removed.- Ed.

Sir Robert's father, Richard Warburton, who was one of fifteen children, came, like most great soldiers, from Ireland. He, along with two other brothers, was educated in France, and, passing through Addiscombe in 1830, was posted to the Bengal Artillery stationed at Dum-Dum. In 1839, on the outbreak of the First Afghan War, he was attached to the forces sent to depose the Amir Dost Muhammad. He took part in all the campaigns of this war, for which he received a medal and clasp ; and when Shah Shujah was successfully placed on the throne, he remained behind with a few other British officers to maintain order. At this time he fell in love with a niece of the deposed Amir and married her, the witnesses to the marriage being Sir A. Barnes and Colonels Sturt and Jenkins. In the following year, 1841, occurred the murder of Sir William Macnaghten and the subsequent massacre of his forces in the narrow defiles of the Koord, Cabul and Khyber Passes, of which Dr. Brydon was the sole survivor. The avenging force nearly suffered the same fate, and among those who were retained as hostages at the conclusion of peace, was Richard Warburton. It seems that his Afghan wife was as much an object of hatred as any of the British, and it was only through the kind offices of her friends and relatives that she managed to escape her enemies. Whilst hiding in a Gilzai

a fort between Jagdallah and Gandamak she gave birth, on the 11th July 1842, to Robert, the subject of our sketch.

Robert's father soon returned from Afghanistan and was posted to Sipri and thence to Morar in Gwalior, where he was joined by his wife and young child. At the

At the age of eight Robert was sent to a private school at Mussoorie kept by a Rev. R. N. Madden and continued there till 1856. On the eve of the Mutiny Warburton (senior) went home on furlough, and taking his son with him, left him in the Grammar School at Kensington. In 1860 Robert secured a Willock Cadetship, and, anxious to follow in his father's footsteps, decided to prepare for the Indian Army. He failed in his first attempt for the R.A. and R.E., but was successful in the subsequent one. After a probationary term at Addiscombe and at the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich, he received a commission in the Royal Regiment of Artillery ; and after an eventful voy. age of ninety-three days, he landed in Calcutta towards the end of the year 1861.

On his arrival in India he was posted immediately to Amritsar, where, to his great delight, his father was also stationed. Two years later his father died and soon after he joined another battery at Mian Mir. Shortly after, the bank in which he had deposited the money left by his father for the support of his mother failed; and, finding it a difficult matter to maintain himself and his mother on the meagre salary of a subaltern, he applied for a post on the Bengal Staff Corps. Having qualified himself in Hindustani and Urdu, he was attached to the 21st Punjab Infantry then on its way to Abyssinia. It was during this Abyssinian Campaign of 1867 that he laid the foundations of his distinguished career. He was first put in charge of the water-supply at Zoula, and having successfully conducted a convoy with 50,000 dollars to Senafe, he was appointed to look after a transport train. Later he quelled a rising at Dildee and gained the respect and affection of the natives to such an extent that he was appointed Provost-Marshal of the place by the officer in command, Colonel J. Grant. On the arrival of Sir Robert Napier, Lieutenant Warburton received the personal thanks of this distinguished officer for the services rendered by him ; and it was through the instrumentality of Sir Robert himself that Warburton succeeded later in getting an appointment on the Punjab Commission. At the conclusion of the campaign he was invalided to England for dysentery, and whilst there he married Mary, the only daughter of William Cecil of Monmouthshire. She, however, did not join him in India till 1870.

On his return to India in 1869 he joined the 15th Ludiana Sikhs at Amballa and was shortly after transferred to Ferozepore. He passed the examination of the Bengal Staff Corps the next year, and simultaneously he was the recipient of the good news that he had succeeded in obtaining an appointment on the Punjab Commission. His first post was as Assistant Commissioner under Colonel Pollock of the Peshawar Division, and in this and similar capacities he served the Punjab Government till 1879. During these nine years he obtained a thorough knowledge of the language, the customs, and the peculiarities of the border tribes ; and conscientiously discharged his duties both to the satisfaction of his superiors and to that of the people he was over. In 1872 he successfully put down a rising among the Utman Khels. For all his services he received the compliments of the Punjab Government five times and on three occasions he was congratulated by the Secretary of State himself. In the Afghan troubles of 1878, Sir Louis Cavagnari made repeated attempts to secure the services of Captain Warburton on his staff, but he was each time told that the latter was too valuable an officer to be spared. One by one all his colleagues were given to Sir Louis, but no amount of persuasion could induce the authorities to part with Warburton himself. A few months later Cavagnari and his entire suite were murdered by a Cabul mob. In 1880 or, rather in the end of 1879, he was offered and accepted the post of Political Officer of the Khyber, and immediately after he was invalided home again for dysentery.

And now begins the last and most important part of his career-his work as the guardian of the Khyber. The knowledge he had acquired during his work at Peshawar now stood him in good stead. Besides Hindustani and Urdu he had also qualified himself in Pushtu and Persian, and all these were of the utmost use to him. And, in addition, he was fortunate in securing the unbroken friendship and respect of many of the leading border chiefs. I

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