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have used the word “fortunate,” but it was simply the

, natural outcome of his wonderful personality. What he actually achieved during the eighteen years of his guardianship of the Khyber may be seen by comparing the state of the Pass after he had relinquished its charge to what it was like before he assumed it. Lord Lytton in a minute to the Secretary of State, dated April 1877, wrote: _“I believe that our North-West Frontier presents at this moment a spectacle unique in the world ; at least I know of no other spot where, after 25 years of peaceful occupation, a great Civilized Power has obtained so little influence over its semi-savage neighbours and acquired so little knowledge of them that the country within a few days' ride of its most important garrison (Peshawar) is an absolute terra incognita and that there is absolutely no security for British life a mile or two beyond our border." Contrast this with what another writer said with reference to Warburton's work here :-"During the whole period of his control of the Khyber, that dreaded Pass was kept open for traffic or travel without a single European soldier or sepoy being stationed in it beyond Jamrud, and, when he gave over charge, it was as safe a highway as any in India."

During his tenure of office the Pass was visited by many eminent persons and to him fell the entire responsibility for their comfort and safety. The Duke and Duchess of Connaught, the Amir Abdur Rahaman, Lord Roberts, Lords Dufferin and Lansdowne, Prince Albert Victor were some whom he personally conducted through the historic defile. In 1887 he took the leading Maliks of the seven frontier tribes on a tour through British India, which made these shaggy Afridis realize the greatness of the Power against which they were constantly kicking. We must not forget to add that it was chiefly due to him that the rough undisciplined Jezailchies were transformed into that fine body of soldiers known as the Khyber Guides. And as his work increased, official recognition of his abilities was not slow in coming. A Captain in 1880, he became a Major in 1885 and a Colonel in 1890. In this saule year he was gazetted a Companion of the Star of India and a little before his retirement he was made a Knight Commander of the Indian Empire. He resigned on the 10th May, 1897, only to be recalled a little later. But this merits a separate paragraph.

In 1897, owing to the Cretan revolt, Greece and Turkey were involved in war, one result of which was the appearance of a spirit of fanaticism throughout Islam. The Mullahs taking advantage of this tried to stir up the tribes of our North-West Frontier. Sir Robert Warburton sent a friendly warning to Government and offered to resume his former charge. In reply he was told that the British “ had broken the back of fanaticism for ever.” Things, however, began to assume a serious complexion, and Sir Robert was asked if he would care to go back to Khyber. His reply was characteristic: he was willing to go anywhere at any time. Before he was actually re-called, the storm had broken, with what consequences we need not here narrate. What the Warden himself felt about it may be gathered from a letter which he wrote to a friend in England : “My mind is very heavy over this hideous disaster, which I feel could have been staved off even up to the day of mischief. It makes me quite sad to think how easily the labour of years-of a lifetime-can be ruined and destroyed in a few days. He died in England on the 22nd April, 1899, it is not too much to say, of a broken heart. His name and fame, however, are as imperishable as the iron crags of the Khyber Pass.

WILLIAM A, HOBSON,

REVIEWS OF BOOKS.

LOAN EXHIBITION OF ANTIQUITIES, CORO.

NATION DURBAR, 1911. - Illustrated Selection of the Principal Exhibits. Published by the Archæ- .

ological Survey of India. This handsome volume, containing a maximum of illustration and a minimum of descriptive text, serves to show to a wider public the collection of loaned articles gathered in Delhi at the Coronation Durbar, 1911. Nearly 1,000 articles, having more or less connection with Delhi, were brought together and housed in the Mumtaz Mahal in the Delhi Fort. The Museum was closed in March 1912, and as many of the articles might never again be seen by the public, this volume was prepared as a permanent record of an unique collection. A catalogue of the exhibition was prepared by Mr. J. P. Thompson, I.C.S., and from this catalogue the notes accompanying the plates are taken. The plates come under six groups-arms and armour, standards and insignia, miscellaneous exhibits, farmans, letters, etc., specimens of the art of calligraphy, picturesin all seventy-four large pages of exceedingly interesting pictures. They are in all cases interesting, but often that is all that can be said about them owing to the impossibility in many cases of fixing their dates. The reproduction of the pictures has been successfully carried out by the Photographic Department, Thomason College, Roorkee.

J.

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PUBLICATIONS BY THE GOVERNMENT OF

INDIA AND BY THE PROVINCIAL GOVERN

MENTS. It is a misfortune that a prejudice against Blue-books should exist in India. The prejudice may be justified in other lands but for the reader who wishes information on any particular subject-information of an exact and far-reaching character, Government publications are most frequently his only resource. The Government does not freely advertise its publications—the greater is the pity--but on application at least it is possible to get the two catalogues of all their publications. These catalogues unfortunately are not up to date—a deadly error in any firm advertising its

wares—but even thus one finds in its pages most useful memoirs and reports which are of first class importance in furthering the knowledge and development of the country, Is the Superintendent of Government Printing so hard driven that he cannot issue in the first quarter of 1916 a catalogue corrected up to 31st December 1915 instead of 31st December 1914 as appears on the front page ? Might he not be encouraged to prepare for such a catalogue every year by being assured that it would be widely distributed. Part I has an excellent index and probably Part II is made equally accessible to those who are acquainted with the dates when legislation was dealt with.

Supposing that the difficulties of advertisement are overcome, is it impossible to get over the repulsiveness of the appearance of many Government publications ? It is not necessary that all should be produced in the same fashion as “Loan Exhibition of Antiquities, Coronation Durbar, 1911,” noticed in an earlier review this quarter. That is a useful and interesting book no doubt, but in 1908 a report on “Technical and Industrial Instruction in Bengal”- the work we believe of J. Cumming, Esq., I.C.S. -was issued in the usual unattractive form. We think it impossible to exaggerate the importance of this report and the Government would have been well advised if they had put it into the hands of every headmaster in Government schools in Bengal and arranged for its sale on every railway bookstall. Monographs on agricultural and forest subjects of great value are appearing, or rather are being published, for they do not appear but must be dug out of godowns by those interested in them. Some of our newspapers do excellent work in reviewing such important contributions to real knowledge, but the best of reviews can convey only faintly the substance of work that has taken months or years to do. The original papers and reports must be read and even studied before their complete value is understood. Another report of great value for India “The Enquiry to bring Technical Institutions into closer touch and more practical relations with the Employers of Labour in India" might be treated as has been suggested above. Certain reports published for the Home Government such as that on “ The System of State Technical Scholarships established by the Government of India,” 1913, “The Report by the Royal Commission on University Education in London,' 1914, might be published in India, in convenient form and brought to the notice of the public. The Reports on Public Instruction in the Madras Presidency and in the United

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Provinces of Agra and Oudh, 1914-15, provoke the remark that they contain the individual interest which is almost completely crushed out of the Bengal report where only Government institutions receive anything like full treatment. The report on the Administration of the Madras Presidency, 1914-15, stands out with its excellent map and attractive form. It contains a valuable general summary which is what the public needs. The Administration Report of Assam is on such a scale for the size of that province that the individual interest is very marked. It may be that

. only the Statistician, Economist or Historian may need to deal with many of these publications but it should be made easy to find them when they are needed. The thoroughness of German students and soldiers has been proclaimed from the housetops, in India our custom is to say as little as possible of the thoroughness of our administrators, experts and scholars, and whenever they fail, as every man must at times, we overwhelm them with violent criticism. The third Indian Science Congress met at Lucknow in January and Western science papers speak of the list of papers read as disclosing a surprisingly large volume of scientific work in India. If the violent critics of Indian education and progress in the West were not busily engaged repelling onslaught on themselves it would be interesting to know how they would deal with such testimony.

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THE KEY OF KNOWLEDGE.-By Champat Rai Jain.

The Central Jaina Publishing House, Arrah, India. In his preface the author remarks that he would be happy to have his errors pointed out to him, if any,” but to oblige him is far too large a task to be undertaken in a review. The author, who may be described as a free-thinking Jain, attempts in the course of over a thousand pages to state his own view of religion, and divides his study into fourteen chapters. The titles of the chapters are, however, no index to the matter which the reader is likely to find discussed in them, for the book teems with irrelevancies. It contains also many illogical arguments and many misprints.

G.E.

PUBLICATIONS.-By Mrs. Besant. Few of Mrs. Besant's publications are as sensible as the paper on “East and West in India” read by the Hon. Mr. Gokhale in London in 1911 and published now as No, 5 of the “New India Political Pamphlets." His statement that

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