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BY THE GREAT BROJIN BI'DDHA.
upon which General Van Ness had erected a costly marble mausoleum and which was removed to Oak Hill Cemetery in the 70's. David Burnes' lands included both these graveyards, and it is pretty certain that his son John, who died in 1792, was buried in the H street site, and it is reasonable to suppose that the father was buried there. When the mausoleum was removed to Oak Hill cemetery and the bodies removed, Mr. and Mrs. Burnes were given as being among the number, but that these two bodies were not reinterred in Oak Hill is certain, for the next authentic account of the remains or graves of Mr. Burnes, Mrs. Burnes and the son John, is the discovery of graves in the dense forest of the tract
known as Brook's Station on the Metropolitan Branch of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, and which is now the beautiful little suburban city of Brookland. When the syndicate bought that section in the 80's and large forces of men were set to work making streets around, through and over the crumbling ramparts of old Fort' Bunker Hill, three graves were discovered under a cluster of tall pines in the most lonesome part of the forest, and at what is now the corner of Lansing and Twelfth streets. There were no other graves save these three, and these were in a most deplorable condition, the place having been a hang-out for the soldiers when encamped at the fort.
THE PLEASURE OF THE KING, BUT NOT THE PLEASURE OF THE
FREEMEN OF MARYLAND.
WHEN TOBACCO WAS THE “COIN OF THE REALM.”
BY ELIHU S. RILEY, ASSAPOLIS, MARYLAND.
N the year 1688, tobacco, as it had of tobacco was the hire of a boatman for a
been for many years previous and day's assistance at the ferriage of persons. which it remained for many more One of the delegates to the Legislature,
afterward, was the standard of val- Major James Smallwood, for eighteen days ues in the Province of Maryland. As its attendance and his ''itinerant charges worth in pence and pounds sterling raised coming and going four days" was allowed or lowered, in the same ratio prosperity or 80 pounds tobacco per day. William Layadversity prevailed in the province.
ton, for carrying an express over the bay, Great was the effort of the early Mary- was allowed 300 pounds of tobacco. John landers to introduce coins into the country, Oulton, commander of the Rangers, for and over and over again the General Assem- seven months' service, was voted 5,600 bly passed acts to encourage the importation pounds of tobacco. Captain William Holof coins into the province. Lord Baltimore, land, Sheriff of Anne Arundel County, was too, added his aid to the general movement given for the imprisonment of James Welsh by establishing a mint to coin money, and and his execution, 2,010 pounds of tobacco. some of his coinage remains to this day; The current value of tobacco, in the purbut the English government closed the mint chase of goods, is found by the amount alon the ground that it was a prerogative of lowed Col. Henry Ridgely in another bill. the King to regulate the coinage.
He was given 180 pounds of tobacco for a A table printed amongst the laws of 1692 horse; for four falling axes and a grubbing gives the value of tobacco in Maryland as hoe, 130 pounds of tobacco; for 200 pounds measured by the standard money of the of pork, 400 pounds of tobacco. That would realm. Tobacco was worth, on an average, rate pork at 2 pence a pound. Horses a pence a pound, and this table of fees to differed in prices in those days as well as the Chancellor of Maryland shows that he
On the same page where Col. Henry was entitled, for the sealing of an original Ridgely's bill for his horse appears, it is writ, to 6 pounds of tobacco; for a subpæna recorded that the House allowed Samuel ad respondem with three names to it, 15 Howard 1,400 pounds of tobacco for a cart pounds of tobacco; for a seal in a decree in horse. A pair of cart wheels and the body chancery, to 480 pounds of tobacco, or if of a cart cost 1,000 pounds of tobacco. paid in money, to 2 pounds. The judge When paid for in coin, it is recorded that in testamentary causes was allowed for 2,400 pounds of pork cost 208 pence per every letter of administration or letters hundred or 24 pounds 12 shillings sterling, testamentary, 100 pounds of tobacco. The in the whole amount. Secretary of the Province, in attesting a Tobacco was even the criterion by which paper as a notary public, if the paper be a man's worth to the community was deunder seal—“'if the same exceed one side termined. At the September session, 1696, pro rata at 15 lines and 7 words”—50 of the General Assembly of Maryland, the pounds of tobacco. The Crier of the Pro- Upper House made a vigorous effort to have vincial Court for swearing a jury received John Coode, a member-elect from St. 114 pounds of tobacco; for the same duty Mary's, denied the right to sit in the Lowthe Crier of the County Court received 72 er House on the legal reason that he had pounds of tobacco.
been once in holy orders, and, therefore, What tobacco would buy is disclosed by in accordance with the law of England, dethe proceedings of the General Assembly barred from sitting in the legislative body of 1696. Col. Henry Ridgely was allowed of the Province of Maryland. The real 600 pounds of tobacco for 15 bushels of reason, underneath the official one, corn. A bushel of corn was then worth 10 Coode's constant and bitter, if not sedipence—3 shillings + pence. Fifteen pounds tious, attacks upon the government of the
THE PLEASURE OF THE KING.
colony. During the discussion between Council, from whom and by whose Advice the two Houses on the subject, the Lower that Order did proceed; but such is the resisting this encroachment upon their priv- Leaven of Some, as always to treate with ilege of determining the election and quali- dislike the best of things even proceeding fication of members, the Upper House said from Governments, and that for no other in one of its messages, in speaking of reason but because it Came from the King. Coode:
To this pronunciamento of the President "It is lastly left to the Consideration of of the Council of Maryland- -an office in the House, his Factious Spirit in all Man- quality and dignity equal to the Governorner of Business, and whether he had not, ship-on the 28th of the same month in at this present (Session) cost the County which it was delivered, the Lower House more Tobacco, than, Perhaps, he is worth, replied: or will ever do them good.'
"This House, in answer to the same,
with Thus it was that tobacco touched, was, all Loyalty to the King's most Excellent in verity, putting the hand upon the purse Majesty, Duty to his Lordship the Lord of the province. In Maryland, in 1688, Proprietary, respects and due Regard to as obtains now,
you want to find a his Majesty's Subjects here and elsewhere man's opinion you must put your hand in his Majesties Dominions, Do say that upon his pocketbook.” So it was when the Prohibition of the Exportation of Bulk that remarkable President of the Maryland Tobacco would, in the first place, prove Council, William Joseph, in a wonderful very Prejudiciall to his Majesty's Interest opening speech to the General Assembly, and Royall Revenue and Income, if that on November 14, 1688, told to the Dele- (most part if not all) the Bulk Tobacco that gates of the men of Maryland:
Exported out of Virginia and Maryland 'Kings, Gentlemen, are the Lord's An- for the Kingdom of England, is there sold nointed and are by God appointed over us and Consequently pays the full Duty of to Rule, and (next under God) the King we
pound to his Majesty; are bound to fear and honor, for that it is Whereas, otherwise, if in Cask a great part said, 'fear thou the Lord and the King,' of the said Tobacco is usually Exported and again, 'fear God and honor the King,' into Holland and Elsewhere and pays but for that a Divine Sentence is in the Lips of one-half penny per pound Custom. That the King, and 'the King by Judgment Es- the Tobacco of that Quality, which is more tablisheth the Land, and his mouth Trans- fitt for Bulk and altogether unfitt for Cask, gresseth not in Judgment,' and the King's to be therein Exported again out of EngCommands We are by the Laws of God land, would by that Meanes be Lessened bound to keep, for that it is said, 'keep the in that a great if not most part of the same King's Commandment' and that in regard would be left behind in this Countrey and of the Oath of God, 'for whoso keepth the his Majesty by that means prevented of Commandment of the King shall feel no having any Duty att all for the Same. evil thing.' The King in Council, bearing “2d. To Prohibit the Exportation of Date the fourth Day of November, 1687, Bulk Tobacco is highly Disadvantagious hath required of Us that we with Virginia, and Prejudiciall to his Lordship, the Lord
We pass an Act prohibiting Bulk Tobacco to be Proprietary of this Province, for that, since Exported out of this Province, &c. This the said prohibition will Occasion a farr Order (Gentlemen), should have been here lesser Quantity of Tobacco to be Exported Sooner, but by some neglect or other of the as aforesaid, his Lordship, will, by that Clerks in England it came not to my Lord's means, be a great loss, not only in the hands in time, so as to have been sent by Revenue of 2 Shill. per hhd. due by Act of the last year's shipping, But sooner or later Assembly, but also in the Imposition of the King is and ought to be Obeyed. Some, 14d pr Ton due as aforesaid. perhaps, will presume to question the Ad- “3dly. To Prohibit the Exportation of vantage or Disadvantage that may arise by Bulk Tobacco is Injurious and Ruinous to passing of such an Act, which is indeed his Majesty's Subjects in this Province, in unbecoming. Subjects to call in Question Virginia and in his Majesties more Immethe proceedings of the King, as if the Good diate Dominions at home; In this Province and Evill which thereby might or could it would hinder and Deprive the good Peoarise were not fully and duely Considered ple of the Sale of all their Tobacco Except of in England by the King's most honorable such as is Extraordinary Bright & Dry
THE PLEASURE OF THE KING.
Tobacco, fitt for the London Merchants who “And it would be prejudiciall to his buy it with intent to Transport the Same Majesties Subjects of those West and North for Holland, and break off the Trade of parts of England by breaking off their those Small Ships that come from the West Trade to those places whereby their Ships and North Countrys, who bring in great and Men are Employed, their Commoditys Quantitys of Severall Serviceable Goods & Vended and themselves Supplyed plentiSupply this Province therewith, And not fully with Tobaccos- -all of which would only so, but, with those Goods at better certainly follow such a Prohibition. prices, Purchase their Dark Tobacco which “The Premisses being had into due Conis that, that's Generally Bulkt, And is sideration of this house, it is Nemine Consuch that the Londoners will not buy nor tradicente, Resolved in this house that such a carry out, And so all that Tobacco which is Prohibition would tend very much to the not very bright and dry, of which the prejudice of his Majesty and his Lordship greatest part Consist, would lye and rott and Injurious to the good people of this upon the Owner's hands, and they thereby Province, who they Represent for the reaperish for want of such of those Goods sons aforesaid, AND, THEREFORE, these small West and North Country Ships THIS HOUSE CANNOT PROCEED TO bring.
DRAWING THE SAME!"
A Page of Sullivan.
GRAVE AND GAY SELECTIONS.
My Heart Craves You.
That winds around the trees its zig-zag way
Fringed all about with trees in verdure gay,
Those years, all that I see is one array
Dead present from me, all is whisked away.
and do, To bring the past, and you, dear, back to-day.
Too Much for Him.
Then back again she flitted to the wings,
Just like a sprite to whom one's fancy clings.
And as she moved with graceful circlings,
We dined and supped. Ye gods! her appetite
To never more play host for such a sprite.
fortune's favorite. Higher, ever higher, on life's ladder make your
way, While lower, ever lower, fades the bottom
rung; In the hearts of multitudes your image holds full
sway, Pæans of sweet praises glorifying you are sung:
-James T. Sullivan, Boston.