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BY THE GREAT BROWN BUDDHA.
upon which General Van Ness had erected a costly marble mausoleum and which was removed to Oak Hill Cemetery in the 70's. David Burnes' lands included both these graveyards, and it is pretty certain that his son John, who died in 1792, was buried in the H street site, and it is reasonable to suppose that the father was buried there. When the mausoleum was removed to Oak Hill cemetery and the bodies removed, Mr. and Mrs. Burnes were given as being among the number, but that these two bodies were not reinterred in Oak Hill is certain, for the next authentic account of the remains or graves of Mr. Burnes, Mrs. Burnes and the son John, is the discovery of graves in the dense forest of the tract
known as Brook's Station on the Metropolitan Branch of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, and which is now the beautiful little suburban city of Brookland. When the syndicate bought that section in the 80's and large forces of men were set to work making streets around, through and over the crumbling ramparts of old Fort' Bunker Hill, three graves were discovered under a cluster of tall pines in the most lonesome part of the forest, and at what is now the corner of Lansing and Twelfth streets. There were no other graves save these three, and these were in a most deplorable condition, the place having been a hang-out for the soldiers when encamped at the fort.
THE PLEASURE OF THE KING, BUT NOT THE PLEASURE OF THE
FREEMEN OF MARYLAND.
WHEN TOBACCO WAS THE "COIN OF THE REALM."
BY ELIHU S. RILEY, ANNAPOLIS, MARYLAND.
N the year 1688, tobacco, as it had been for many years previous and which it remained for many more afterward, was the standard of values in the Province of Maryland. As its worth in pence and pounds sterling raised or lowered, in the same ratio prosperity or adversity prevailed in the province.
Great was the effort of the early Marylanders to introduce coins into the country, and over and over again the General Assembly passed acts to encourage the importation of coins into the province. Lord Baltimore, too, added his aid to the general movement by establishing a mint to coin money, and some of his coinage remains to this day; but the English government closed the mint on the ground that it was a prerogative of the King to regulate the coinage.
A table printed amongst the laws of 1692 gives the value of tobacco in Maryland as measured by the standard money of the realm. Tobacco was worth, on an average, a pence a pound, and this table of fees to the Chancellor of Maryland shows that he was entitled, for the sealing of an original writ, to 6 pounds of tobacco; for a subpœna ad respondem with three names to it, 15 pounds of tobacco; for a seal in a decree in chancery, to 480 pounds of tobacco, or if paid in money, to 2 pounds. The judge in testamentary causes was allowed for every letter of administration or letters testamentary, 100 pounds of tobacco. The Secretary of the Province, in attesting a paper as a notary public, if the paper be under seal-"if the same exceed one side pro rata at 15 lines and 7 words"-50 pounds of tobacco. The Crier of the Provincial Court for swearing a jury received 114 pounds of tobacco; for the same duty the Crier of the County Court received 72 pounds of tobacco.
What tobacco would buy is disclosed by the proceedings of the General Assembly of 1696. Col. Henry Ridgely was allowed 600 pounds of tobacco for 15 bushels of A bushel of corn was then worth 40 pence-3 shillings 4 pence. Fifteen pounds
of tobacco was the hire of a boatman for a day's assistance at the ferriage of persons. One of the delegates to the Legislature, Major James Smallwood, for eighteen days' attendance and his 'itinerant charges coming and going four days" was allowed 80 pounds tobacco per day. William Layton, for carrying an express over the bay, was allowed 300 pounds of tobacco. John Oulton, commander of the Rangers, for seven months' service, was voted 5,600 pounds of tobacco. Captain William Holland, Sheriff of Anne Arundel County, was given for the imprisonment of James Welsh and his execution, 2,040 pounds of tobacco.
The current value of tobacco, in the purchase of goods, is found by the amount allowed Col. Henry Ridgely in another bill. He was given 180 pounds of tobacco for a horse; for four falling axes and a grubbing hoe, 130 pounds of tobacco; for 200 pounds of pork, 400 pounds of tobacco. That would rate pork at 2 pence a pound. Horses differed in prices in those days as well as now. On the same page where Col. Henry Ridgely's bill for his horse appears, it is recorded that the House allowed Samuel Howard 1,400 pounds of tobacco for a cart horse. A pair of cart wheels and the body of a cart cost 1,000 pounds of tobacco. When paid for in coin, it is recorded that 2,400 pounds of pork cost 208 pence per hundred or 24 pounds 12 shillings sterling, in the whole amount.
Tobacco was even the criterion by which a man's worth to the community was determined. At the September session, 1696, of the General Assembly of Maryland, the Upper House made a vigorous effort to have John Coode, a member-elect from St. Mary's, denied the right to sit in the Lower House on the legal reason that he had been once in holy orders, and, therefore, in accordance with the law of England, debarred from sitting in the legislative body of the Province of Maryland. The real reason, underneath the official one, was Coode's constant and bitter, if not seditious, attacks upon the government of the
THE PLEASURE OF THE KING.
colony. During the discussion between the two Houses on the subject, the Lower resisting this encroachment upon their privilege of determining the election and qualification of members, the Upper House said in one of its messages, in speaking of Coode:
"It is lastly left to the Consideration of the House, his Factious Spirit in all Manner of Business, and whether he had not, at this present (Session) cost the County more Tobacco, than, Perhaps, he is worth, or will ever do them good."
Thus it was that tobacco touched, was, in verity, putting the hand upon the purse of the province. In Maryland, in 1688, as obtains now, "if you want to find a man's opinion you must put your hand upon his pocketbook.” So it was when that remarkable President of the Maryland Council, William Joseph, in a wonderful opening speech to the General Assembly, on November 14, 1688, told to the Delegates of the Freemen of Maryland:
Kings, Gentlemen, are the Lord's Annointed and are by God appointed over us to Rule, and (next under God) the King we are bound to fear and honor, for that it is said, 'fear thou the Lord and the King,' and again, 'fear God and honor the King,' for that a Divine Sentence is in the Lips of the King, and 'the King by Judgment Establisheth the Land, and his mouth Transgresseth not in Judgment,' and the King's Commands We are by the Laws of God bound to keep, for that it is said, 'keep the King's Commandment' and that in regard of the Oath of God, for whoso keepth the Commandment of the King shall feel no evil thing.' The King in Council, bearing Date the fourth Day of November, 1687, hath required of Us that We with Virginia, pass an Act prohibiting Bulk Tobacco to be Exported out of this Province, &c. This Order (Gentlemen), should have been here Sooner, but by some neglect or other of the Clerks in England it came not to my Lord's hands in time, so as to have been sent by the last year's shipping, But sooner or later the King is and ought to be Obeyed. Some, perhaps, will presume to question the Advantage or Disadvantage that may arise by passing of such an Act, which is indeed unbecoming. Subjects to call in Question the proceedings of the King, as if the Good and Evil which thereby might or could arise were not fully and duely Considered of in England by the King's most honorable
Council, from whom and by whose Advice that Order did proceed; but such is the Leaven of Some, as always to treate with dislike the best of things even proceeding from Governments, and that for no other reason but because it Came from the King.'
To this pronunciamento of the President of the Council of Maryland-an office in quality and dignity equal to the Governorship-on the 28th of the same month in which it was delivered, the Lower House replied:
"This House, in answer to the same, with all Loyalty to the King's most Excellent Majesty, Duty to his Lordship the Lord Proprietary, respects and due Regard to his Majesty's Subjects here and elsewhere in his Majesties Dominions, Do say that the Prohibition of the Exportation of Bulk Tobacco would, in the first place, prove very Prejudiciall to his Majesty's Interest and Royall Revenue and Income, if that (most part if not all) the Bulk Tobacco that is Exported out of Virginia and Maryland for the Kingdom of England, is there sold and Consequently pays the full Duty of five pence a pound to his Majesty; Whereas, otherwise, if in Cask a great part of the said Tobacco is usually Exported into Holland and Elsewhere and pays but one-half penny per pound Custom. That the Tobacco of that Quality, which is more fitt for Bulk and altogether unfitt for Cask, to be therein Exported again out of England, would by that Meanes be Lessened in that a great if not most part of the same would be left behind in this Countrey and his Majesty by that means prevented of having any Duty att all for the Same.
"2d. To Prohibit the Exportation of Bulk Tobacco is highly Disadvantagious and Prejudiciall to his Lordship, the Lord Proprietary of this Province, for that, since the said prohibition will Occasion a farr lesser Quantity of Tobacco to be Exported as aforesaid, his Lordship, will, by that means, be a great loss, not only in the Revenue of 2 Shill. per hhd. due by Act of Assembly, but also in the Imposition of 14d pr Ton due as aforesaid.
'3dly. To Prohibit the Exportation of Bulk Tobacco is Injurious and Ruinous to his Majesty's Subjects in this Province, in Virginia and in his Majesties more Immediate Dominions at home; In this Province it would hinder and Deprive the good People of the Sale of all their Tobacco Except such as is Extraordinary Bright & Dry
THE PLEASURE OF THE KING.
Tobacco, fitt for the London Merchants who buy it with intent to Transport the Same for Holland, and break off the Trade of those Small Ships that come from the West and North Countrys, who bring in great Quantitys of Severall Serviceable Goods & Supply this Province therewith, And not only so, but, with those Goods at better prices, Purchase their Dark Tobacco which is that, that's Generally Bulkt, And is such that the Londoners will not buy nor carry out, And so all that Tobacco which is not very bright and dry, of which the greatest part Consist, would lye and rott upon the Owner's hands, and they thereby perish for want of such of those Goods these small West and North Country Ships bring.
'And it would be prejudicial to his Majesties Subjects of those West and North parts of England by breaking off their Trade to those places whereby their Ships and Men are Employed, their Commoditys Vended and themselves Supplyed plentifully with Tobaccos-all of which would certainly follow such a Prohibition.
"The Premisses being had into due Consideration of this house, it is Nemine Contradicente, Resolved in this house that such a Prohibition would tend very much to the prejudice of his Majesty and his Lordship and Injurious to the good people of this Province, who they Represent for the reasons aforesaid, AND, THEREFORE, THIS HOUSE CANNOT PROCEED TO DRAWING THE SAME!”
A Page of Sullivan.
GRAVE AND GAY SELECTIONS.
My Heart Craves You.
How short the time seems, dear, since fate sent
To walk with me that road, one autumn day, That winds around the trees its zig-zag way Down to the water's edge, from where the view Of mountain peaks that cleaved soft clouds of blue,
And dainty islands sheltered in a bay,
Fringed all about with trees in verdure gay,
Of happiness, and ere I cast the new,
To bring the past, and you, dear, back to-day.
Too Much for him.
He danced one night with a Boston girl,
He came, you see, from the sunny South,
She danced her way down to the footlight's glare,
For with her there was not one to compare,
And as she moved with graceful circlings, She danced into my heart. Glad welcomings, Had I for her. That night on viands rare, And wines devoid of fault, the merest speck,
We dined and supped. Ye gods! her appetite Appalled me; when I paid that dinner check She smiled, and quickly added then, "Good night.'
So I walked home financially a wreck,
To never more play host for such a sprite.