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HE monster locomotive shown on the opposite page is the largest in the world and the only one of its kind in the United States. It was built for the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, and after being exhibited at the World's Fair, St. Louis, was placed on the Connellsville Division for heavy freight service on the mountain grades.

It has six pairs of drivers, or twelve driving wheels, each 57 inches in diameter, in two groups. The entire weight of the engine, 334,500 pounds, rests on the drivers, thus giving the latter immense traction strength.

An unusual feature of the locomotive is the arrangement of its cylinders, which are of both low and high pressure. The latter drive the rear group of drivers. They measure 20 x 32 inches, and have piston valves. The low-pressure cylinders, which drive the forward group of drivers, are 32 x 32 inches, and have slide valves. The steam distribution in both high and low pressure cylinders is controlled by one reach rod operated from the cab. The reverse lever is moved by compressed air, also controlled in the cab. The high-pressure steam pipes are 5 inches, inside diameter, and pass down from the steam dome on the outside of the engine to the high-pressure valve chests. The exhaust from the high

pressure cylinder, on each side, passes forward through an outside pipe to the lowpressure cylinder. This pipe is made up of a series of short sections fitted together by ground joints. At each end of the pipe is a ball joint, in order to give flexibility to the pipe when the engine is on a curve. For this reason, as well as from the manner in which the frame of the front group of drivers is hinged to the rear frame, just in front of the high pressure cylinders, the engine is said to be 'articulated" like a backbone, thus doing away with the rigidity. that ordinarily characterizes a locomotive, especially one of the English type, calculated to run on straight tracks.


The boiler of the big engine is unusually large. The total heating surface is about 5,586 square feet, of which 5,336 square feet are in the 436 tubes in the boiler; each tube is 21 feet long and 24 inches in diameter. The heating surface in the firebox is more than 219 square feet. The grate area is 72.2 feet. The working steam pressure of the boiler is 235 pounds. The piston stroke is 32 inches. The height of the smokestack from the track is 15 feet. The engine's tender has a coal capacity of 15 tons and a water capacity of 7,000 gallons. When loaded the tender weighs 145,000 pounds, making a total weight, engine and tender, of 479,500 pounds.

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HE far West will celebrate a most important anniversary with the opening of the Lewis and Clark Centennial in June. This celebration is the one hundredth anniversary of the exploration of the Oregon country by an expedition commanded by Captains Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, and planned by President Jefferson. The Oregon country, which comprised what are now the states of Oregon, Washington, Idaho and parts of Montana and Wyoming, was the only acquisition of territory made by the United States through discovery.

The exploration of Lewis and Clark gave the United States a coast line on the Pacific Ocean and added a vast and rich territory to the national domain. It was one of the direct causes of the acquisition of California, and the subsequent acquisitions of Alaska, Hawaii, Guam and the Philippines are related to it. The sentiment which inspired the people of the Pacific Northwest in the preparation of the exposition is, therefore, one in which every American must share. It celebrates the centennial of the peaceful acquisition of a wilderness that has yielded up its riches generously as a reward for the unceasing toil of the pioneer and home-builder. Where the savage dwelt a few decades ago are now the cultivated farms and the flourishing cities of a progressive people.

The Lewis and Clark Centennial is the first international exposition under the patronage of the United States Government ever held west of the Rocky Mountains.

Although not so large as some former expositions, it is still a world's fair in every sense, and, unlike its predecessors, it combines with its broad scope the idea of compactness without crowding in the laying out of its buildings.

Promptly on June 1st, and in a finished condition, the big fair will open its doors, complete in every detail, and will be continued for the short period of four and onehalf months.

The exposition occupies 406 acres of the most beautiful site ever utilized for such a purpose. A natural lake, 220 acres in extent, takes the place of the grand basins of former fairs, and there is no need here to build papier-mache mountains as scenic accessories.

Situated as it is at the base of the low range of hills surrounding Portland, with an unobstructed view of sixty-five miles, which embraces four snow-capped mountain peaks, the fair site presents a picture entirely original in exposition building.


The total outlay for the exposition is $5,000,000. That is equal to $10 for every man, woman and child living within the boundaries of the state of Oregon. legislature, in the fall of 1903, appropriated $450,000 for the enterprise, a sum which meant at that time $1 for every resident of the state. The city of Portland, which now has a population of about 140,000, raised by the sale of stock $430,000, when the city's population did not exceed 100,000.

Almost every nation is represented in the exposition by a comprehensive display,

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and the best of the exhibits which foreign countries sent to St. Louis have been transferred to Portland and have been supplemented by new features. The United States exhibit represents an outlay of $800,000, and is confined to five buildings.

The Navy Department shows a live exhibit of a fleet of cruisers and battleships anchored in the Willamette River. Visitors may inspect the fighting ships, and daily drills will be given on board. Fifteen states are officially represented, and twelve of them have erected handsome buildings.

In Chicago one took the Midway. In St. Louis one went down the Pike. Visitors to Portland will hit the Trail when they travel along the street of concessions to take in the side-shows.

A hundred yards or so back of the entrance gates a beautiful peristyle of Ionic columns, surmounted by an attractive balustrade, composes the first attractive features of the exposition. Emblazoned on the curve of the colonnade are the words: "Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way." The colonnade is artistic and substantial.

Just back of the colonnade, in Pacific Court, Frederic Remington's famous cowboys, in the group called "Shooting up the Town," challenge the visitor. Beyond them is Columbia Court, the central feature of the fair. Columbia Court comprises the space between two of the principal exhibit palaces, the Agricultural Building and the European Exhibits Building, and in the center of it are beautiful sunken gardens, the central feature of which is the statue of Sacajawea, the Indian heroine, which will be unveiled on June 17th, Sacajawea day. A railing, surmounted by urns bearing tropical plants, surrounds the sunken gar

dens. In the gardens a profusion of tropical vegetation already flourishes between the winding walks, while at either end play fountains of fantastic design.

A glance into either of the flanking exhibit palaces reveals long rows of booths, many of them completed, with exhibits attractively arranged, and the others well under way. In the Agricultural Building, the central feature, a creation in grasses and grains, arranged to form a lofty pedestal, is surmounted by an heroic figure representing Ceres, goddess of agriculture.

Columbus Court ends in Lakeview Terrace, which crowns an elevation at the top of a slope leading from the shore of Guild's Lake, the surpassing water feature of the Western World's Fair, which is in striking contrast with the miniature lagoons of other expositions. Guild's Lake is a natural 'grand basin," of which 220 acres are inclosed within the exposition fence.


From Lakeview Terrace the spectator may drink in the grandeur of a scene in which the works of man and the works of God contend for supremacy in a contest in which each has enhanced the charms of the other. Before the visitor the placid waters of the lake reflect the water grasses, and a peninsula, green and smiling, projects from the opposite shore.

Beyond the lake a narrow strip of land separates it from the Willamette River and in the distance rise four mountain peaksMount Hood, Mount Adams, Mount Rainier and Mount St. Helens, lofty sentinels, with hoary heads. To the left of the spectator the foothills of the Cascade Range, their sides still covered with the virgin forest through which Lewis and Clark hewed their way to the Pacific, reach down to the very edge of the lake.

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This view, which was a compelling factor when the people of Portland were trying to decide where to put their fair, remains as it was, except that the landscape gardeners have cleared the slope of underbrush and fallen timber and covered it with grass, greener than the grass to which Eastern folk are accustomed, and have dotted it with thousands of rosebushes, which, already budded, will blossom in a riot of color on the opening day. A broad flight of steps, known as the Grand Stairway, now takes the place of the cowpath that led to the lake shore from the crest of the hill, and at the foot of the stairway is a music shell, where concerts will be given daily and where, on the opening day, orators will tell of the exposition and the Northwest to the thousands who will occupy the natural amphitheater.

On the slope to the right in the eastern part of the grounds, stand the state buildings of New York, Idaho, Illinois and Utah; a charming Hungarian Inn, which houses Hungary's exhibits at the fair; and a log building erected by the Portland Young Woman's Christian Association as a resting place for women. The buildings are all finished, but in some of them the installation of exhibits is not yet completed. the right-hand slope there are only green lawns, but at the foot of it, on the water's edge, a cluster of show buildings forms the outcrop from the Trail, the exposition's amusement street.


A broad board walk, with iron banisters, surmounted by statuary and groups of electric lights, known as the Lake Shore Esplanade, composes another unique feature of the exposition. The walk runs roughly parallel with the shore from fence to fence,

a distance of nearly a mile, ending in the group of state buildings to the east and the American Inn, the exposition's inside hostelry, to the west. The Lake Shore Esplanade intersects the Trail and the Bridge of Nations, which, half a mile long, connects the mainland with the peninsula.

The journey to and from Portland is one of endless interest and the excursion tickets placed on sale provide opportunity to see the wonders of the far West.

Portland offers many side-trips, which embrace some of the finest scenery in the world. In a few hours one may sleep at Cloud Cap Inn, a hostelry on one side of Mount Hood, which is 11,225 feet above the sea level and forty-six miles from Portland, and in the morning climb the snow peak in true Switzerland style. Three hours by rail finds us at the Pacific Coast, which abounds in unrivaled beaches and places of historic interest. Up the Columbia River, through Columbia Gorge and the Dalles, is a trip worth the journey across the continent, and the scenery once seen will never be forgotten. Other points of interest which may be visited at small cost are: Crater Lake, in Southern Oregon; Vancouver, for many years the chief post of the Hudson's Bay Company; site of old Fort Clatsop, the quarters of Lewis and Clark during their winter's stay in Oregon a hundred years ago; Yaquina Bay, the greatest shellfish beach short of the coast of Spain; Willamette Falls, Multnomah Falls, Oneonta Gorge, Cascade Locks, and Astoria, the first town settled in the Oregon country. These side-trips may be taken by rail, trolley or steamer, and every facility for the comfort of travelers this summer has been provided.

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